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| Periodicals |
The following bibliography includes cited publications, selected general references (a few of which are annotated), and a list of periodicals that intermittently contain information about gemrocks. Those listed as "(not seen)" are cited on the basis of secondary sources.
Abduriyim, Ahmadjan, Hideaki Kimura, Yukihiron Yokoyama, Hiroyuki Nakazono, Masao Wakatsuki, Tadashi Shimizu, Masataka Tansho, and Shinobu Ohki. 2009. Characterization of "Green Amber" with infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Gems & Gemology. 45:158-177.
Abrecht, J. 1981. Pink zoisite
from Aar Massif, Switzerland. Mineralogical Magazine. 44:45-49.
Agricola, G. 1546 (translated 1955). De Natura Fossilium. Translated from the first Latin edition by Mark C. Bandy and Jean A. Bandy. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 63.
Albus, Anita. 2000. The Art of Arts:
Rediscovering Painting (translated byMichael Robertson). New York,
Allmon, W. D. 2009. The natural (and
not-so-natural) history of "Turritella agate." Rocks & Minerals. 84:160-165.
Amos, J. 2005. Ancient phallus unearthed in
(accessed 1 August 2005).
Amstutz, G.C. and J.W. Hälbich Stellenbosch. 1992. Neue Beobachtung zur Bildung von Falkenauge und Tigerauge. Deutsche Gemmologische Gesellschaft. 41:143-144.
Anderson, B.W. 1980. Gem Testing (9th edition). London:Butterworth.
Anonymous, 1949. Old turquoise oiling method still used. Gems & Gemology. VI:221-222.
. . . . . . . . . . . 1965. Thunderegg: Oregon's State rock. Ore Bin. 27:192-194.
. . . . . . . . . . . 1974. Flint: Ohio's official gemstone.
State of Ohio, Department of Natural Resources, Division of
Geological Survey, Educational
. . . . . . . . . . . nd. Fossil pearls. <http://fossil.pearl.4t.com/ingles.html>
(accessed 3 September 2006)
Appel, P.W.U. and A. Jensen. 1987. A new gem material from Greenland: Iridescent orthoamphibole. Gems & Gemology. 23:36-42.
Arem, J.E. 1987. Color encyclopedia of gemstones. New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.
This compilation of data emphasizes minerals used as gemstones, for the most part those that are faceted. Essentially all minerals so used when this compilation was made are included, even those from which only few such gemstones were then known to have been fashioned.
Arem, Joel. 1992. Gems and Jewelry. Phoenix:Geoscience Press.
Arkell, W.J. and S.I. Tomkeieff. 1953. English rock terms, chiefly as used by miners and quarrymen. London:Oxford University Press.
Frank. 2012. An Arizona clam dig: Carnelian-replaced
clams. Rocks &
Baird, B. 1993. Tektites. The Edinburgh Geologist. 27:20-23.
Baker, G. 1963. Form and sculpture of tektites in O'Keefe, J.A. (Editor) Tektites. Chicago:University of Chicago Press. Chapter 1:1-24.
The 11 plates accompanying this article include photographs showing examples of tektites of virtually all their characteristic shapes.
Balitsky, V.S., T.M. Bublikova, S.L. Sorokina,
L.V. Balitskaya and A.S. Shteynbert. 1988. Synthetic jewelry-grade and
ornamental malachite. Transactions (Dokaldy) of the U.S.S.R.
Academy of Sciences; Earth Science Sections. 297:128-130.
Baragar, W.R. 1960. Petrology of basaltic rocks in part of the Labrador Trough. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 71:1589-1643.
Barbeau, M. 1953. Haida Myths Illustrated in Argillite Carvings. Ottawa:National Parks Branch, Department of Resources and Development. National Museum of Canada (Bulletin. 127, Anthropological Series No. 34)
Includes 328 black and white illustrations, many of argillite carvings that were fashioned to depict certain aspects in the myths described under overall titles that include "Volcano Woman," "Bear Mother," "Thunderbird," and "Susan, Strong Man."
Barnes, V.E. 1961. Tektites. Scientific American. 205(5):58-65.
Barnes, V.E. and M.A. Barnes (editors). 1973. Tektites. Stroudsburg (Pennsylvania):Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross.
This volume, including 46 contributions, although somewhat dated, is noteworthy because of its broad coverage.
Barry, T.H. 1932. Natural Varnish Resins. London: Ernest Benn.
This is a classic, albeit dated, so far as the treatment of resins, including copal from several world wide localities, Kauri from New Zealand, Damar from Asia and nearby islands, sandarac, mastic, "dragon's blood" and "gum kino," turpentine and shellac.
Barth, T.F.W. 1944. Studies on the igneous rock complex of the Oslo region, II: Systematic petrography of the plutonic rocks. Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo. I Mat.- Naturv. Klasse. Ny Serie. 9:76-83.
Bass, G.F. 2002. Golden age treasures. National Geographic. 201 (#3):102-117.
Bates, R.L. and J.A. Jackson (Editors). 1987. Glossary of Geology (3rd edition). Alexandria (Virginia):American Geological Institute.
Bauer, Max and Karl Schlossmacher. 1932. Edelsteinkunde (3 aufl.). Leipzig:B.Tauchnitz.
Bayliss, P. 2000. Glossary of obsolete mineral names. Tucson:Mineralogical Record.
Becker, G.F. 1988. Geology of the quicksilver
deposits of the Pacific Slope with an Atlas. United States
Geological Survey Monograph, Volume XIII.
Befi, Riccardo. 2009. Australian chrysoprase with dendritic inclusions. Gems & Gemology. 45:71.
Bell, B.W. 1934. The gem for mother on her day. Gems & Gemology. I:73-74.
Bennett, D. and J.L. Keeling. 1992. Imitation
lapis lazuli, charoite and azurite-malachite (part I by Bennett; part
II by Keeling). Australian Gemmologist. 18:83-85.
C.A., Ingrid Azoury and Helga Seeden. 2012. Kxas Aqil: At the
crossroads out of Africa. Saud Aramco
Berry, L.G., B. Mason and R.V. Dietrich. 1983. Mineralogy: Concepts, Descriptions, Determinations (2nd edition). San Francisco:W.H. Freeman and Company.
Bishop Collection. 1906. The Bishop Collection. Investigations and Studies in Jade. New York:DeVinne.
Fortunately, this famous publication is held and can be viewed, with permission, in some of the larger libraries.
Black, R.M. 1988. The Elements of Palaeontology (2nd edition). New York:Cambridge University Press.
Basic information about invertebrate, vertebrate, micro-, and trace fossils constitute most of this book. In addition, one chapter covers occurrences and preservation of fossils and interrelationships between organisms and their environments.
Blair, G. 1982. Gem Jasper: This excellent cutting material has been sadly overlooked. Rock & Gem. 10:56-60.
Board, W.J. 2002. In Guatemala, a Rhode Island-size Jade Lode. New York Times. May 22: A1, A12.
Boesworth, C. and H. Boesworth. 1981. Western
Australian chrysoprase: its history, occurrences, and value. Australian
Lapidary Magazine. 17(38):17-19.
Bogdasarov, M.A. 2006. Mineralogy of fossil
resins of northern Eurasia. Proceedings
of the Russian Mineralogical Society. 135
Bouska, V. 1980. Moldavites as the precious
stones. Gem minerals: Proceedings of the XI General Meeting of IMA
(Novosibirsk, 4-10 September, 1978). p.122-127.
Børresen, A.K. and Tom Heldal. 2009. Larvikitt: Unik, vakker og eksklusiv (Norges nasjonalstein). Trondheim:GeoPublishing AS. [not seen -- cited on basis of releases and reviews]
Bouska, V., M. Frydrych and I. Turnovec. 1985. Moldavites as precious stones. Zeitschrift Deutschen Gemmologischene Gesellschaft. 34:83-91.
Bouska, V. and J. Konta. 1986. Moldavites Vltavi'ny. Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Geologica, Second International Conference on Natural Glasses, Prague 1987. 1:1-128.
This is one of the better, relatively short treatments about moldavites. Among other things it has a good bibliography of books and papers published before 1986. Its availability is, however, rather limited.
Bracewell, H. 1991. Gems around Australia. Part 5 [Zebra stone]. Australian Gemmonlogist. 17:454-456.
Bracewell, H. and G. Brown. 1984.
Turquoise or chrysocolla from the Jervois area, Northern Territory. Australian
Bradley, F.H. 1874. On Unakyte, an epidotic rock
from the Unaka Range, on the borders of Tennessee and North
Carolina. American Journal of
Branson, O.T. 1975. Turquoise, The Gem of the Centuries. Santa Fe(New Mexico):Treasure Chest Publications.
This book, perhaps best characterized as a coffee table book, is a collection of colored illustrations of turquoise jewelry. It also contains some interesting, if true, tidbits about turquoise.
Brongniart, Alexandre. 1813. Essai d'une classification minéralogique des roches mélangées. Journale des mines (France). 34(#199):5-48.
Broughton, P.L. 1968. Peanut obsidian from Sonora, Mexico. Journal of Gemmology. 11:7-9.
Brown, G. 1983. Identifying turquoise. Australian Gemmologist. 15(#3):289-299.
Brown, G. and H. Bracewell. 1996. Goodletite--a beautiful ornamental material from New Zealand. Journal of Gemmology. 25:211-217.
Brown, G. and J. Snow. 1988. An interesting hematite imitation. Australian Gemmologist. 16:371-373.
Brown, P.L. 1974. Comets, Meteorites and Men. New York:Taplinger.
A well-written account providing several kinds of information, albeit not all up-to-date, that could serve to interest even young readers, especially in the historical foundations of the title subjects.
Bruce, G.A. 1958. Pseudo-tektites and other silica glasses. Lapidary Journal. 12:510-525.
Interesting, but outdated report about occurrences of several diverse natural glasses.
Brummer, J.J. 1980. Agate collecting around Lake Superior. Lapidary Journal. 33:2368-2379.
Budge, E.S.W. 1920. Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary (Two volumes). London:John Murray. [Volumes used: New York:Dover, 1978.]
Buddhue, J. D. 1938. Some new carbon minerals - kansasite described. The Mineralogist. 6(#1):7-8, 20-21.
Caillois R. 1985. The Writing of Stones (Translated by B. Bray). Charlottesville:University Press of Virginia.
Contains some exquisite illustrations of rocks and minerals that exhibit images -- e.g., landscape marbles -- that range from the obvious to contrived.
Campbell, T.J., D.R. Campbell and W.L. Roberts. 1987. Famous mineral localities: Elk Creek, South Dakota. Mineralogical Record. 18:125-130.
Campbell, T.J. and W.L. Roberts. 1986. Whewellite from South Dakota and a review of other North American localities. Mineralogical Record. 17:131-133.
Carnahan, V. 1960. A slab of variscite. Gem & Minerals. 270:38, 40, 80, 81.
Chang, M. S-H. 2003. Heat treatment experiments on faceted amber. Gems & Gemology. 38:362-363.
Chen, Jing. 1993. Yu pin cang zhen Changhua ji xue shi [Chinese emperors' treasury Changhua chicken blood stone]. Taibei Shi: Yu pin cang zhen fang. [Chinese]
This book, in Chinese, includes 219 pages of fine photographs of seals, carvings, etc. Although there is some duplication of photographs between this and the book listed under Huang, Kuang-Nan (1996), both are well worth viewing.
Chen, Quanli, Zuowel Yin, Lijian Qi, and Yan Xiong. 2012. Turquoise from Zhushan County, Hubei Province, China. Gems & Gemology. 48:198-204.
Cheng, C., X. Haijiang and M. Qian. 1995. Charoite of Russia: Mineralogical and gemological character. Journal of Hebei College of Geology. 18:529-534. [in Chinese with brief, nonsubstantive English summary]
Cheng, Dunmo., Dinghua Zhau, Zhikai Tang, and Zhaoping Zheng. 1986. Research on mineralogy and genesis of bloodstone gem in Changhua, Zhejiang Province. Kexue Tongbau (Science Bulletin), 31:918-923.
Chernenko, T.V. and E.P. Melnikov.
2003. Properties and diagnostics of natural and synthetic
& 9:31-35. [in Russian
with short, noninformative English abstracts]. (not read; information cited
is from abstract by Shmakin,
B.M. 2004. Gemological
Abstracts. Gems & Gemology, 40:368).
Chesterman, C.W. 1951. Nephrite in Marin County, California. (California Division of Mines. Special Report 10B.) San Francisco: California Division of Mines.
Chladni, E.F.F. 1974. Ueber den Ursprung der
von Pallas gefundenen und anderer ihr ahnlicher Eisenmassen und ueber
in Verbindung stehende Naturescheinungen. Riga: Bey Johan
R. 2006. Looking after organic gems. Organic gems magazine. 1 (2006).
Gagan. 2009. Serpentine cat's-eye. Gems
& Gemology. 45:151-152.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2010. A new type of composite turquoise. Gems & Gemology. 46:116-113.
Choudhary, Gagan and M.B. Vyas. 2011. An exceptional rhodochrosite carving. Gem News International. Gems & Gemology. 47:246-247.
Clark, G. 1986. Symbols of Excellence -- Precious Materials as Expressions of Status. London:Cambridge University Press.
Clark, R.W. 1998. South Dakota's Fairburn Agate. Appleton (Wisconsin): Silverwind.
Clifford, Derek. 1992. Chinese carved lacquer. London:Bamboo Publishing.
Coenraads, R.R. and C.C. deBon. 2000. Lapis lazuli from the Coquimbo Region, Chile. Gems & Gemology. 36:28-41.
This article includes a brief history of the use of lapis lazuli as well as several other bits of information that are well worth reviewing.
Colombo, F., C. Rinaudo and C. Trossarelli. 2000. The mineralogical composition of maw-sit-sit from Myanmar. Journal of Gemmology. 27 (#2):87-92.
Comarow, Avery. 2002. Cosmic turquoise. U.S.News
& World Report. 132 (#2):66.
Richard. 2011. Defending the rhino. Smithsonian. 42(No.7): 64-72.
Cooke, C. 1982. About rocks. Lapidary Journal. 35:2332-2333, 2336-2338, 2342, 2344, 2370.
Costa, Emanuele. 2011. A deep green fuchsite-rich rock. Gem News International. Gems & Gemology. 47:239-240.
This article, although containing errors, alludes to a number of general localities for several gemrocks.
Covington, Richard. 1998. New light on old Yemen. Aramco World. 49(#2):2-11.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003. Mesopotamian masterpieces. Smithsonian. August:68-71.
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 2004. What was
Jiroft? Saudi Aramco World. 55(#5):2-11.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2013, The celestial stone. Saudi Aramco World. 64(#2):24-35.
Creager, Ellen. 2003. Irreplaceable: Fighting imperils priceless relics of the world's first civilizations. Detroit Free Press. April 8:1D & 3D.
Cross, B.L. 1998. Agates of northern Mexico. Rock & Gem. 28 (#11):48-51.
1957. New or unusual gem materials encountered in the
institute's gem trade laboratories. Gems & Gemology.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1958-59. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in New York. Gems & Gemology. IX:227-229 & 254.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1960. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in New York. Gems & Gemology. X:67-74.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1962. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in New York. Gems & Gemology. X:304.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1962 -1963. Moss agate effect. Gems & Gemology. X:378.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1963. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in New York. Gems & Gemology. XI:80-87.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1963-64. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in New York. Gems & Gemology. XI:99-106.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1964a. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in New York. Gems & Gemology. XI:180-184.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1964. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in New York. Gems & Gemology. XI:214-218.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1965. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in New York. Gems & Gemology. XI:331-338.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1965-66. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in New York. Gems & Gemology. XI:359-367.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1966. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in New York. Gems & Gemology. XI:43-48.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1967. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in New York. Gems & Gemology. XII:137-145.
Cuba, Johannis de. ca. 1483. "Hortus Sanitatis." Strassburg:Jean Pryss.
Cunha da, C(laire). 1989. Le Lapis Lazuli, son Histoire, Ses Gisements, Ses Imitations. Monaco:Le Rocher.
This book, in FRENCH, includes historical information, descriptive information about the rock and occurrences, data about both natural and manufactured substitutes, and some previously unpublished observations. Fine color photographs of lapis lazuli -- both in the rough and as fashioned articles -- compliment the text.
Dake, H.C., F.L. Fleener and B.H. Wilson. 1938. Quartz family minerals: A handbook for the mineral collector. New York, London:Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill.
Damon, Robert. 1860. Geology of Weymouth and the Island of Portland, with notes on the natural history of the coast and neighborhood. London:E. Stanford.
Dana, E.S. 1892. The system of
James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana (Sixth Edition). New
York:John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Dana, E.S. and W.E. Foord. 1932. A Textbook of Mineralogy with an extended
treatise on Crystallography and Physical Mineralogy. New
York:John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Daniels, F.J. 1998?. Petrified Wood: The world of fossilized wood, cones, ferns, and cycads. Grand Junction:Western Colorado Publishing Company. (not seen).
Reviews indicate that this is a coffee-table type book that contains much information, including that relating to localties, as well as fine illustrations.
Danner, W.R. 1976. Gem materials of British Columbia. Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Special Publication. 74:157-169.
Haidite, referred to in the ARGILLITE entry, is treated in this paper.
Darwin, Charles. 1844. Geological observations on the volcanic islands, visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle,... during the years 1832 to1836. London:Smith, Elder and Co.
The information recorded about septaria is in Chapter III.
??Darwin, C. 1891. Geological Observations on the
volcanic Islands of and Parts of South America during the Voyage of
H.M.S. Beagle (Republication). New York:Appleton & Co.
Suggested origin for tektites -- australites -- is cited as in this republished book. (not seen) According to Walcott (1898), Darwin's described an australite (Walcott's obsidianite) from "a great sandy plain between the rivers Darling and Murray" and referred to it as a volcanic bomb. Walcott gives the reference as Darwin, Charles. -- "Geological Observations on Coral Reefs, Volcanic Islands, and in South America." 1851 ed., pp.38-39. (not seen)
Deer, W.A., R.A. Howie and J. Zussman. 1992. An introduction to the rock-forming minerals (2nd edition). Essex(U.K.):Longman Scientific Technical.
Dietrich, R.V. 1960. Banded gneisses. Journal
of Petrology. 1:99-120.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1961. Petrology of the Mount Airy “granite.” Bulletin of Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Engineering Experiment Station Series No. 144, 63p.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1967. Gem-rocks. Rocks & Minerals. 42:340-343.
Lectures summarized in this note were instrumental to the writer's compiling the information presented on this web page.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1969. Mineral Tables: Hand-specimen Properties of 1500 Minerals. New York:McGraw-Hill.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1971. Quartz: Two new blues. The Mineralogical Record. 2:79-82.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1974. Migmatites -- a résumé. Journal of Geological Education. 22:144-156.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1977. Official state gems. Gems & Gemology. 15:352.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1983. Michigan's state stone and state gemstone. Rocks & Minerals. 58:97-98.
This note consists of short descriptions of the Petoskey stone and chlorastrolite from Michigan.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1986. Rhode Island's State rock and mineral: Cumberlandite and "bowenite." Rocks & Minerals. 61:251-257.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1989. Imagine: Another mimetolith. Rocks & Minerals. 64:149-152.
This "Rock Chips" column series briefly describes and illustrates several mimetoliths (rocks and minerals that resemble other things), some of which have gained favor as decorative items and thus may be considered gemrocks. See also MIMETOLITHS file on this web site.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1989A. Stones: Their collection, identification, and uses (Second edition, reprinted, 1995). Tucson:GeoScience Press. ("out of print" but a few copies are available through author - contact for information.)
A pocket-size guide for collectors that provides, among other things, information about how stones are formed, how they may be identified, the kinds of environments where they may be found (e.g., on beaches), and identification tables for common rocks and minerals.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1990. Minerals of Virginia. Charlottesville (Virginia):Division of Mineral Resources, 474p.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1999 Carbonate concretions (Parts 1 & 2). Rocks & Minerals. 74:266-270 & 335-340.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 2001. Gemrocks from Caribbean archaeological sites. September; revised November 2002. - see Appendix D on this website.
This article presents a discussion and conclusions about recorded identities of mineral and rock materials reported in archeological literature -- especially that dealing with the Caribbean region –– and includes a tabulation of gemrocks recorded for the region in relatively recent publications.
Dietrich, R.V. and K-L. Chyi. 1995. Some noteworthy minerals, rocks, and crystals. Rocks & Minerals. 70:188-193.
Dietrich, R.V. and K.R. Mehnert. 1961. Proposal for the nomenclature of migmatites and associated rocks. International Geological Congress, XXI Session, Norden, 1960. Pt XXVI(1-21, Supplementary Volume Section 1-21):56-67.
Dietrich, R.V. and B.J. Skinner. 1979. Rocks and Rock Minerals. New York:John Wiley & Sons.
This, the standard textbook dealing with rocks, includes descriptions and tabulations that provide the information necessary to identify and name rocks in hand specimenin the same way most geologists do.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1990. Gems, Gravels, and Granites: Knowing and using rocks and minerals. New York:Cambridge University Press.
Dietrich, R.V., J.S. White, J.E. Nelen and Kwo-ling Chyi. 1988. A gem-quality iridescent orthoamphibole from Wyoming. Gems & Gemology. 24:161-164.
Dioscuridis Pedanii, Anazarbei. 1st century A.D.? (No date given). De materia medica libri quinque: edidit Max Wellmann (1958). Berlin-Charlottenburg:Weidmannsche Verlagsbuchhandlung.
Material cited is next to last
sentence in section 81, Book II, which is in Volume I. This
differs from its position in, for example,
the translation of this work by Robert T. Gunther -- i.e., "The Greek Herbal of Dioscorides," (1959) New York: Hafner -- where
the cited part is in section 100, Book II.
Douglas, J.D. (Editor). 1980. The illustrated bible dictionary (3 volumes). Leicester(England):Inter-Varsity Press.
The entry "Jewels and Precious Stones" (vol.2, p.781-788) is a veritable concordance so far as providing citations of where names of gem-minerals and gemrocks are mentioned in the Bible. Names of materials now considered gemrocks, which are noted, are agate, alabaster, chalcedony (including carnelian, chrysoprase, sard and sardonyx), hematite, and jasper. Accompanying discussions, however, indicate that none of the materials referred to by gemrock names were identified correctly. One especially interesting note indicates that where the gem-mineral name sapphire appears it probably refers to the gemrock lapis lazuli. All these things indicate that translators of the bible were not knowledgeable of, and did not seek the aid of those who were, of such things as geology of the Mideast. In addition, diverse arrangements (with references) of the gems -- including some gemrocks -- believed to have been used as the twelve stone in the High Priest's breastplate are tabulated.
Drew, Leslie and Douglas Wilson. 1980. Argillite[:] Art of the Haida. North
Vancouver(B.C., Canada):Hancock House Publishers Ltd.
Dubin, L.S. 1987. The History of Beads, from 30,000 B.C. to the present. New York:Harry N. Abrams.
Dunn, P.J. 1976. On gem rhodonite from Massachusetts, U.S.A. Journal of Gemmology and Proceedings of the Gemmological Association of Great Britain. 15:76-80.
Dutro, J.T., Jr., R.V. Dietrich and R.M. Foose (compilers). 1989. AGI Data Sheets for geology in the field, laboratory, and office. Alexandria (Virginia):American Geological Institute.
Many of the data sheets provide information that greatly facilitate efforts and otherwise aid collectors of rocks.
Dyni, J.R. 2003. Geology and resources of some world oil-shale deposits. Oil shale. 20:193-252.
Egleston, T. 1892. A Catalogue of Minerals and Synonyms (Third Edition). New York:John Wiley & Sons. [Unabridged reprint published as Special Publication #4 of the Rochester (New York) Mineralogical Symposium used.]
Elliott, J. 1986. Contemporary intarsia: The Medvedev approach to gem inlay. Gems & Gemology. 22:229-234.
Fine photographs of intarsia are included.
Emmett, J.L. 1985. Lapis lazuli, the gem of Afghanistan. Lapidary Journal. 38:1416.
Evseev, A.A. 1994. Siberia and Far East: A brief mineralogical guide. Mir Kamne"li`a. World of Stones. 1-2 (#4):42-54.
A list of minerals, including such things as jasper, along with their localities and a map showing locations.
Falk, H.S. and Alf Torp. 1910. Norwegisch-Dänisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (two volumes). Oslo & Bergen: Universitetsforlaget. [2nd printing, 1960, used]
Faust, G.T. and J.J. Fahey. 1962. The serpentine-group minerals. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper. 384-A.
Federov, A.V. 2002. Oh, these
imitations again! Gemological Bulletin. 4:37-38.
Feng, Xiaoyan, Yong Zhang, Maituohuti Abuduwayiti, and Taijin Lu. 2011. A new rough nephrite imitation. in Gem News International. Gems & Gemology. 47:69-70.
Fischer, G.W. 1991. Gemstone and chemicals: How to create color and inclusions. n.p.:South Bay Reprographics Inc. (not seen).
Ford, T.D. 1955. Blue John fluorspar. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society. 30(pt.1,#4):35-60.
Foshag, W.F. 1953. A visit to Idar-Oberstein. Gems & Gemology. VII:339-342.
. . . . . . . . . . .. 1957. Mineralogical Studies on Guatemalan Jade. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 135(#5):1-60 & 4 plates.
Fourestier, Jeffrey de. 1999. Glossary of mineral synonyms. The Canadian Mineralogist, Special Publication 2.
This extensive compilation of mineral synonyms includes, in the compiler's words "old, discarded, discredited or uncommonly used names (not to mention names created for purposes of trade or simply to befuddle the collector)." As such, some of the synonyms are misleading so far as current use of some of the terms. Also, as the title implies, this compilation is a glossary -- i.e., it is not a dictionary, rather it is a one-way list that does not, for example, list accepted mineral names and their synonyms. Consequently, it will be of limited use so far as aiding anyone making the data searches that are often used when one is investigating a given mineral.
Fraquet, H. 1987. Amber. London:Butterworths.
Fritsch, Emmanuel. 2004, Colored cubic zirconia Buddha carvings in Gem News International 2004. Gems & Gemology. 40:177.
Fritsch, Emmanuel, S.T. Wu, T.Moses, S.F. McClure and M. Moon. 1992. Identification of bleached and polymer-impregnated jadeite. Gems & Gemology. 28:176-187.
Frondel, C. 1962. The system of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892(Seventh Edition), Volume III, Silica Minerals. New York:John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Jasper and varieties of chalcedony, including agate, are especially well described in this volume.
Fryer, C. et al. (Editors). 1981. Unclassified oddities. in Gem Trade Lab Notes. Gems & Gemology. 17:106.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1983. Turquoise, imitation in Gem Trade Lab Notes. Gems & Gemology. 19:117.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1983. Pinite, a massive form of muscovite in Gem Trade Lab Notes. Gems & Gemology. 19:175-176.
Fuquan, Wang. 1979. Precious stones found in China. Lapidary Journal. 33(#3):694 & 696
Futrell, D.S. 1999. The lunar origin of tektites: Space science sheds new light on an old controversy (Parts I and II). Rock & Gem. 29 (nos.2; 3): 40-45; 40-42 & 47.
This two-part article outlines the more-or-less "new" hypothesis, which is summarized briefly in the TEKTITE entry. A follow-up "article" with no listed author (Rock & Gem. 29(#7):60-63) and no text per se presents additional well-captioned illustrations.
Gambino, Megan. 2011. Seeking the origins of amber in Around the mall: Behind the scenes column. Smithsonian. 42(No.4):30.
GIA (Gemological Institute of America). 1974. Dictionary of Gems and Gemology of R.M. Shipley et al.. (6th edition, revised and updated by the staff of the Gemological Institute of America). Los Angeles:Gemological Institute of America.
Glushnev, S. 1995. Siberian sapropelic coal: A unique type of workable jet. Journal of Gemmology. 24:349-353.
Descriptions of some of the procedures used to fashion this "jet" are extremely interesting.
Grabowska, J. 1983. Polish Amber (English translation by Emma Harris). Warsaw:Interpress Publishers.
The 34-page text of this ~ 9" x 14" book consists largely of historically-based narrative about amber in general and so-to-speak amber treasures fashioned from Baltic amber. The remaining 112 pages is made up of fine color photographs, unfortunately with no size scales, of the described and other amber treasures that range in age from Neolithic to publication date.
Grant, M.H. 1955. The Marbles and Granites of the World. London (Chelsea):J.B. Shears & Sons.
Although out-of-date, this compilation of localities and brief characterizations of rocks from most of the individual localities is a valuable reference for anyone interested in the marbles and granites and several so-to-speak related decorative stones such as alabaster, basalt, jasper, larvikite, porphyries and travertines (e.g., "onyx marbles"). In addition, interesting thoughts are given about such things as disagreements related to nomenclature for some of these rocks, especially in the marketplace, and the genesis of, for example, granitic rocks.
Grapes, R. and K.Palmer. 1996.
(Ruby-sapphire)-chromian mical-tourmaline rocks from Westland, New
Zealand. Journal of
Gray, F.L. 1983. Engraved gems: A historical perspective. Gems & Gemology. 18:191-201.
A brief account about seals, dating back as far as 6500-6000 B.C., through diverse things such as scarabs to more recently fashioned cameos and intaglios.
Grimaldi, D. 1993. The care and study of fossiliferous amber. Curator. 36:31-49.
Advice re curating from collection through diverse methods of preparation for study, photography, preservation, and storage are described and evaluated.
Gubelin, E. J. 1964-65. Maw-sit-sit, a new decorative gemstone from Burma. Gems & Gemology. XI:227-238 & 255.
. . . . . . . . . . .. 1965. Maw-sit-sit proves to be jade-albite. Gems & Gemology. XI:302-308.
. . . . . . . . . . .. 1966. A visit to the ancient turquois mines in Iran. Gems & Gemology. XII:3-13.
. . . . . . . . . . .. 1969. More about zoisite and anyolite. Australian Gemmologist. 10(#5):28-29.
. . . . . . . . . . .. 1978. Maw-sit-sit - Jadealbit -. Lapis. 3:25-28.
Gump, R. 1962. Jade: Stone of Heaven. New York:Doubleday & Co.
An extremely readable book, this is the source of some of the information and the attributed quotation given in the JADE entry. The book also provides a good broad coverage of jade, including a fine summary about techniques used to carve and polish jade as well as "General rules for judging and buying fine jade."
Haibo, Li, Lu Taijin, Shen Meidong, and Zhou Jun. 2010. Amber with mineral inclusions. in Laurs, B.M. (editor) Gem News International. Gems & Gemology. 46:309-310.
Hänni, H. A. 2004. Dyed horn as
amber imitation in GemNews
International 2004. Gems & Gemology.
. . . . .
. . . . .. 2005. Lizard in amber? in
GemNews International 2005. Gems
. . . . . . . . . .. 2008. Natural impregnation of a rock by copper minerals. in GemNews International 2008. Gems & Gemology. XLIV:266-267.
Hanni, H. A. and J. Meyer. 1997. Maw-sit-sit (Kosmochlore-Jade)- a metamorphic rock with a complex composition from Myanmar (Burma). 26th International Gemmological Conference, Abstract Volume, September 27-October 3, Germany:22-24.
Hargett, D. 1988. Dyed spangled amber in C.W. Fryer (editor) Gem Trade Lab Notes. Gems & Gemology. 24:169.
. . . . . . . . .. 1990. Jadeite of Guatemala: A contemporary view. Gems & Gemology. 26:134-141.
Primarily a brief overview of the deposits that were very likely the source of much of the jade used throughout central America during pre-Columbian days, a location that was "lost" (i.e., became unknown) until the 1970s.
. . . . . . . . .. 1991. Quartzite and dolomite bead in C.W. Fryer (editor) Gem Trade Lab Notes. Gems & Gemology. 27:251.
Harlow, G.E. and Guang-hai Shi. 2011. An La-Icp-Ms Study of lavender jadeite from Myanmar, Guatemala, and Japan. Gems & Gemology. 47:116-117.
Hart, Gilbert. 1927. The nomenclature of silica. American Mineralogist. 12:83-395
Hartmann, P.J. 1677. Succini Prussici physica
& civilis historia, cum demonstratione ex autopsia & intimiori
rerum experientia deducta.... Francofurti(probably now the
Frankfort on the Oder):Impensis Martini Hallervordi, typis Johannis
Haüy, Cen. 1801. Traité de Minéralogie (vol. III). Paris:Che Louis, Libraire, Rue de Savoye.Heaney, P.J. and D.M. Fisher. 2003/2004. New interpretation of the origin of tiger’s-eye. Geology. 30(#4):323-326.
Heinrich, E.W. 2004. Mineralogy of Michigan (2nd edition, updated and revised by G.W. Robinson). Houghton(Michigan):A.E. Seaman Mineral Museum (Michigan Tech University).
Hemrich, G. 1963. Variscite -- An American gemstone. Gems & Minerals. 311:14-17.
Hemrich, G.I. 1964. Idocrase. Gems & Minerals. 323:25.
Hill, Robert. 1978. Tigereye and its kissing cousins. Gems & Minerals. November (#493):16-19, 48, 50-51, 94-96.
Hobbs, J.M. 1982. The jade enigma. Gems & Gemology. 17:3-19.
Hodge, Paul. 1994. Meteorite craters and impact structures of the Earth. New York:Cambridge University Press.
Holden, M. 1991. The encyclopedia of gemstones and minerals. New York:Facts on File.
Howell, D.H. 1940. Pipestone and red shale artifacts. American Antiquity. 6:45-62
Htein, W. and A.M. Naing. 1994. Studies on
kosmochlor, jadeite and associated minerals in jade of Myanmar. Journal
of Gemmology. 24:315-320.
Hu, Kaifan and P.J. Heaney. 2010. Serpentine doublets, sold as pietersite, from Arizona. in Laurs, B.M. (editor) Gem News Internation. Gems & Gemology. 46:157-158.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . ..
microstructural study of pietersite from Namibia and China. in Laurs, B.M. (editor) Gem News
Internation. Gems &
Huang, Kuang-Nan (director). 1996 Chi yu dan xia : Chen Jing xian sheng zhen cang Changhua ji xie shi wen wu [The Chen Ching's collection of chicken-blood stone seals & sculpture]. Taibei Shi:Guo li li shi bo wu guan [Taipei:National Museum of History]
This book -- with two interesting prefaces (both in English and Chinese), one by K-N Huang, the other by Chen Ching (=Jing) -- includes 240 pages of magnificent colored photographs of chicken-blood stone seals and carvings.Although there is some duplication of photographs between this and the book listed under Chen, Jing (1993), both are well worth viewing.
Huber, N.K. 1975. The geologic story of Isle Royale National
Park. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1309.
. . . . .
. . . .. 1983. Pink prehnite from Michigan: A
mineral much confused. Rocks & Minerals. 58:132-134.
Huizing, M.E. 2008. Some of the
Obodda pieces to be displayed (photographs and captions) in Chips from the Quarry (column). Rocks & Minerals. 83:285.
Hull, E. 1872. A Treatise on the Building and Ornamental Stones of Great Britain and foreign countries,.... London: Macmillan.
This is an extremely interesting book, both from the historical standpoint and because of the large amount of data it contains about deposits of "granites," porphyries, basic igneous rocks, serpentinites, marbles, alabaster, malachite, diverse limestones, sandstones, travertine, and slates from localities throughout the world.
Hunter, C. L. 1853. Notices of the rare minerals and new localities in western North Carolina. American Journal of Science. 15(Series 2):373-378.
Hurlbut, C.S., Jr. and G.S. Switzer. 1979. Gemology.
New York:John Wiley & Sons.
Hsu, Tao. 2913. Rock buttons from the United States. Gems & Gemology. 49:53-54.
Jaroslav. 2011. Purplish blue and red-brown chalcedony from
International. Gems & Gemology. 47:237.
. . . . . . . . . . . .. 2011a. Variscite
from Peru. Gem News
International. Gems & Gemology. 47:251.
. . . . . . . . . . . .. 2012. Rosalinda: A new ornamental scapolite rock from Peru. Gem News International. Gems & Gemology. 48:57-58.
Il'in, O.V. 1994. On the morphology of malachite. Mir Kamnya (Worlds of Stones) 4:3-9.
Indian Bureau of Mines, Publication Cell. 1992. Talc, soapstone and steatite. Mineral Facts & Problems, No. 12.
This monograph emphasizes the industrial uses of talc etc. Geological occurrences, geneses, prospecting, and exploration methods are treated. Known deposits in all continents except Antarctica are recorded.
International Trade Centre UNCTAD/GATT. 1971. Markets for onyx marble and hard stones. Geneva: UNCTAD/GATT.
Along with other pertinent information, descriptions given for diverse decorative and functional items fashioned from onyx marble and other gemrocks such as agate, jasper, labradorite, lapis lazuli, malachite, nephritic jade, obsidian, rhodochrosite, sodalite, and turquoise are noteworthy.
Ishihara, Nobuo. 1986. Kikkaseki.
Iverson, Jan. 2012. Azurite in granitic rock from Pakistan. Gem News International. Gems & Gemology. 48:55-56.
Jahns, R.H. 1975. Gem materials in Lefond, S.J. (Editor) Industrial minerals and rocks (nonmetallics other than fuels. New York:American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc.
This article, though published more than 25 years ago, is a fine compilation of information about gem materials, particularly gem-minerals but also some gemrocks.
Jehlicka, J., S.E. Jorge Villar, and H.G.M. Edwards. 2004. Fourier transform Raman spectra of Czech and Moravian fossil resins from freshwater sediments. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. 35: 761-767.
Jensen, D.E. 1954. The Septaria of Bare Hill. Rocks & Minerals. 29: 241-244.
Johannsen, Albert. 1928. The
serpentinites of Harford County, Maryland. Maryland Geological
Survey Bulletin. 12:197-287.
Although this article does not treat anhydrite as a gemrock, it does provide some excellent information. Examples are: a map that shows areas "where thick beds of anhydrite are present at moderate depths" within the conterminous United States; a tabulation of geologic data about anhydrite deposits, also within the conterminous states, that includes such information as depth to and thickness of those deposits; fine photographs illustrating diverse types of macroscopically dicernible anhydrite; and a long list of references.
Johnson, M.L. and J.I. Koivula (Editors). 1996. GemNews (column). Gems & Gemology. 32:52-62, 128-140, 214-222 & 284-292.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1998. Gem News (column with contributing editors). Gems & Gemology. 34:133-146.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1999. Gem News (column with contributing editors). Gems & Gemology. 35:47-61.
Johnson, M.L., J.I.Koivula, S.F. McClure, and D. DeGhionno(Editors). 1999. Gem News (column with contributing editors). Gems & Gemology. 35:208-223.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2000. Gem News (column with contributing editors). Gems & Gemology. 36:66-78, 160-173, 260-274.
Johnson, M.L. S.F. McClure and D.G. DeGhionno. 1996. Some gemological challenges in identifying black opaque gem materials. Gems & Gemology. 32:252-261.
A tabulation giving the specific gravity, luster, refractive index, and references for most black gemstone materials - including some rocks and simulants -- with additional remarks for a few of them is included.
Jones, B. 1982. Botryoidal minerals. Rock & Gem. 12:28-35.
. . . . . . . . ..1986. Minerals in depth: Gypsum. Rock & Gem. 16:40-44, 46-47.
. . . . . . . . ..1989. Minerals in depth: Hematite. Rock & Gem. 19:40-46.
. . . . . . . . ..1998. Mexico's mystery stone. Rock & Gem. 28(#11):64-67.
Brief description of "Nebula Stone."
. . . . . . . . ..1999. Fossils: The dead live again. Rock & Gem.29(#9):12-16.
Kammerling, R.C. and C.W. Fryer (Editors). 1994. Gem Trade Lab Notes (column). Gems & Gemology. 30:39-47, 115-122, 184-191, 264-271.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1995. Gem Trade Lab Notes (column). Gems & Gemology. 31:52-58, 120-127, 196-203 & 266-273.
Kammerling, R., M. Johnson and T.Moses. 1995. Describing aggregate gem materials. ICA (International Colored Gemstone Association) Gazette. February(1995):7.
Kammerling, R.C., J.I. Koivula and E. Fritsch (Editors). 1995. GemNews (column). Gems & Gemology. 31:59-71, 129-139 & 204-216.
Kammerling, R.C., J.I. Koivula and M.L. Johnson (Editors). 1995. GemNews column. Gems & Gemology. 31:274-286.
Kane, R.E. 1985. Plagioclase feldspar and green muscovite mica, major constituents in a carving in C.W. Fryer et al. (editors). Gem trade lab notes. Gems & Gemology. 21:173-174.
Kane, R. 1988. Artistically stained chalcedony in C.W. Fryer (editor) Gem Trade Lab Notes. Gems & Gemology. 24:46.
Karasik, C. 1993. The Turquoise Trail: Native American jewelry and culture of the southwest. New York:Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
Along with some interesting, though not well documented, information the author provides some fine colored photographs of turquoise, both rough specimens and jewelry of the genre usually attributed to American Indians of the southwestern United States, especially New Mexico.
Keeling, J.L. and M.G.Farrand. 1984. Origin and formation of matrix opal from Andamooka, South Australia. Geological Survey of South Australia, Quarterly geological notes. 90:3-10.
Keller, P.C. 1992. Gemstones of East Africa. Phoenix:Geoscience.
Keller, P.C. and Wang, Fuguan. 1986. A survey of the gemstone resources of China. Gems & Gemology. 22:3-13.
Kelly, S.M.B. 1986. Bowesite - a new lapidary material from Australia. Australian Gemmologist. 16 (#1):5-8.
Kemp, Russ. 1963. The Lizzardro Museum of lapidary art. Gems & Gemology. XI:58-61.
Kemper, S. 1999. Salt of the earth. Smithsonian. 29(#10):70-78.
Kennedy, Marie. 1964. Something about septaria. Lapidary Journal. 18:102-105.
Keverne, R.(Editor). 1991. Jade. New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Sixteen authors have contributions in this tome. Subjects treated include descriptions of jade and its substitutes, historical uses of jade by diverse civilizations, and advice for buyers and collectors. Color illustrations of pieces dating from antiquity to those fashioned in the 20th Century are outstanding. Special attention is directed to Jill Walker's description and discussion of the properties of jade and some of its simulants (pages 19-41); the Editor's advice for buyers and collectors (pages 342-350); Robert Frey's list of Public Collections of Jade (pages 350-353); and John Sinkankas' rather comprehensive bibliography (pages 356-368).
Kievlenko, E.Yu. (Editor). 1989. Ornamental Diverse-colored Stones. Moscow:Nedra.
This book includes some of the finest full-color illustrations of decorative pieces fashioned from gemrocks that I have seen. It is well worth perusal, if only to view these illustrations -- i.e., even by those who can not read Russian. For those who can read Russian, the value of the book increases manyfold because it contains much information, which is not readily available elsewhere in a single publication.
Kile, D.E. 2002. Occurrence and genesis of thunder eggs containing plume and moss agate. Rocks & Minerals. 77:252-268.
King, C.W. 1865. The natural history, ancient and modern, of precious stones and gems, and of the precious metals. London:Bell & Daldy [Cambridge:Deighton, Bell, and Co.].
The poem "Orpheus on Gems," the original of which is said to date to the 4th Century, is given as an Appendix.
King, R.U., D.R. Shawe, and E.M. Mackevett, Jr. 1973. Molybdenum, in Brobst, D.A. and W.P. Pratt (editors). United States mineral resources: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 820:425-435.
Klein, C. and C.S. Hurlbut, Jr. 1985. Manual of Mineralogy (After James D. Dana). New York:John Wiley & Sons.
Koivula, J.I. (Editor). 1986. Electrically
in GemNews (column). Gems & Gemology. 22:246.
Koivula, J.I. and R.C. Kammerling (Editors). 1989. Wollastonite for carving in GemNews (column). Gems & Gemology. 25:49.
Koivula, J.I., R.C. Kammerling and E. Fritsch (Editors). 1992. GemNews (columns). Gems & Gemology. 28:58-67,129-139,198-209, & 268-279.
Koivula, J.I., R.C. Kammerling and E. Fritsch (Editors). 1993. GemNews (columns). Gems & Gemology. 29:52-64,130-141,206-216, & 285-296.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1994. GemNews (columns). Gems & Gemology. 30:47-58, 122-133, 199-203, 271-281.
Koivula, J.I. and M. Tannous. 2003.
"Star" obsidian. Gems & Gemology. 39:233-234.
Meerschaum." 2000. <
http://www.koncakmeerschaum.com/Koncak/mine.htm > (accessed
Kosmowska-Ceranowicz, B. , R. Kulicka and G. Gierlowska. 1997. Nowe znalezisko jaszczurki w bursztynie baltyckim [New occurrence of a lizard in Baltic amber]. Przeglad Geologiczny. 45 (#10):1028-1030. (not seen).
Kraus, E.H. and C.B. Slawson. 1939. Gems and Gem Materials. New York:McGraw-Hill.
Although the main thrust of this book, which contains much rather dated information, is gem minerals, some gemrocks are also treated.
Kraus, P.D. 1976. Aquamarine or bloodstone; birthstones for March. Lapidary Journal. 29:2192-2194 & 2196.
. . . . . . . . . .. 1987. Introduction to Lapidary. Radnor(Pennsylvania):Chilton Book Co.
As well as an introduction to the craft, this book contains information well worth the attention of experienced lapidaries.
Kraus, Walter. 1989. Future in accounting diverted by coal[:] His Frackville Museum reflects an industry cover story. The Morning Call (Lehigh Valley's Newspaper) -- Allentown(PA). 9 November (no page noted) http://articles.mcall.com/1989-11-30/news/2714277_1_coal-independent-miners-bootleg (accessed 1 November 2012)
M.S., Franz Herzog and Wei Zhou. 2011. A historic turquoise
jewelry set containing fossilized dentine (odontolite) and glass.
& Gemology. 47:286-295.
Kunz, G.F. 1891. Gems and Precious Stones of the United States. (1968 reprint, New York:Dover Publications used).
. . . . . . . .. 1913. The Curious Lore of Precious Stones. Philadelphia: Lippincott Company (Also Dover Publications: New York, reprint.)
This rather comprehensive collection of lore about gemstones contains information about all sorts of superstitions -- e.g., as omens and dealing with therapeutic and religious uses -- attributed to gemstones, which led to their being sought and fashioned into talismans, amulets etc. Diverse opinions of what stones were included in Aaron's and High Priests' breast plates are rather thoroughly evaluated. Tabulations provide a catalog of associations made between gemstones and such things as planets, stars, and constellations; signs of the zodiac; months of birth -- i.e., "birthstones"; wedding anniversaries; dreams and acrostics; days of the week, hours of the day and the night; the twelve months and the four seasons of the year; and even feminine and masculine names.
Laurs, B.M. (Editor). 2001. Gem News International. Gems & Gemology. 37:138-159.
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .. 2002. Gem News
International. Gems & Gemology. 38:86-106.
Laurs, B.M. 2007. Serpentinite from Argentina, marketed as "Andes jade." Gems & Gemology. 43:62-63.
. . . . . . . . .. 2011. Iridescent ammonite
from Madagascar. Gem News
International. Gems & Gemology. 47:235-236.
. . . . . . . . .. 2012. Burmese amber update. Gem News
International. Gems & Gemology. 48:142-143.
. . . . . . . . .. 2012. Stichtite-dominated intergrowths
with serpentinite from Tasmania. Gem News
Internationa, Gems &
Laurs, B.M., E.A.Fritz and J.I.Koivula. 2007. New variscite production from Western Australia. Gems & Gemology. 43:63-64.
Lazebnik, K. 1985. Charoite -- the mystery stone.
Nauka v SSSR [Science in USSR]. 1985(#5):21-23.
Leiper, Hugh (editor). 1966. The Agates of North America. San Diego: The Lapidary Journal.
This publication is a collection of 38 short articles dealing with such things as localities where agates have been found in Canada, the United States, and Mexico and possible treatments and fashioning procedures that may be used on agates.
Lewis, R.J., Sr. 2000. Sax's dangerous properties of industrial materials (volumes 1-3). New York:J.Wiley
Lieber, W. 2000. Einmalig Tropfsteingbildungen aus Argentinien: Rhodochrosit-Stalaktiten. Lapis. 25(#11):13-20.
The fine colored illustrations are worth a look even for those who cannot read German, the language of the text.
Liddicoat, R.T., Jr. 1963. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in Los Angeles. Gems & Gemology. XI:17-21.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1963-64. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in Los Angeles. Gems & Gemology. XI:114-121.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1964. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in Los Angeles. Gems & Gemology. XI:219-221.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1964-65. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in Los Angeles. Gems & Gemology. XI:247-253.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1965-66. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in Los Angeles. Gems & Gemology. XI:368-376.
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .. 1965.
Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in Los Angeles. Gems
& Gemology. XI:281-286.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1966. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in Los Angeles. Gems & Gemology. XII:58-62.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1967. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in Los Angeles. Gems & Gemology. XII:146-156.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1967-68. Developments and highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in Los Angeles. Gems & Gemology. XII: 247-253.
Lide, D.R. 2000. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and physics (83rd edition). Boca Raton:CRC.
Liping, L. 1996. Gemmology of charoite jade from Russia. Earth Science, Journal of China University of Geoscience. 212:621-624. (Chinese with English abstract).
Liu, R.K. 1995. A Universal Aesthetic: Collectible Beads. Vista (California):Ornament, Inc.
Beads, both ancient and modern, from Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas are described and well illustrated with fine color photographs. Although a large percentage of the beads included are made of glass and other man-made materials, several are made of natural materials, which from a practical standpoint establishes those materials as gemrocks. It is unfortunate that Liu did not have a professional petrographer identify the rocks used as the beads shown in his fine photographs because the names given in captions for some of them are incorrect.
Livingstone, D. 1865. Narrative of an expedition to the Zambesi and its tributaries and the discovery of the lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, 1858-1864. London:J. Murray.
London: Natural History Museum, 2000. The history, geology, age, and fauna (mainly insects) of Burmese amber, Myanmar. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, Geology Series. Volume 56, No. 1.
Lovering, T.G. 1972. Jasperoid in the United States -- Its characteristics, origin, and economic significance. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. #710.
This report of investigations had as one of its chief aims "to establish criteria for distinguishing jasperoids that are closely associated with replacement ore bodies...from siliceous bodies that are unrelated to ore." For those interested in finding jasper to use as rough for fashioning anything of the gemrock genre, the author's photographs, maps, and Table 21 ("Characteristics of jasperoid in major districts of the United States") provide noteworthy information.
Lu, Ren. 2012. Color origin of lavender jadeite: An Alternative Approach. Gems & Gemology. 483: 273-283.
Lynne, K.T. 1988. Fanciful fluorite, its pale colors may hide a blast of cubic power. Rock & Gem. 18:56-63.
MacDonald, R., R.L. Smith and J.E. Thomas. 1992. Chemistry of the subalkalic silicic obsidians. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper. 1523.
MacFall, R.P. 1958. Gem Hunter's Guide (2nd edition). Chicago:Science and Mechanics Publishing Co.
This little book, though somewhat dated, contains general information, several noteworthy locations where gemrocks have been found, and other information well worth reviewing.
. . . . . . . . . . .. 1983. Michigan and the lapidary. Rocks & Minerals. 58:135-136.
MacKenzie, W.S., C.H. Donaldson and C. Guilford. 1982. Atlas of igneous rocks and their textures. New York: John Wiley & Sons (Halstead Press).
This is one of four books with MacKenzie as one of the authors that include fine photographs of how diverse rocks appear in thinsection.
Macpherson, H.G. 1989. Agates. London:British Museum of Natural History.
Maddison, P. 1991. Massive grossularite garnet carving in C.W. Fryer (editor) Gem Trade Lab Notes. Gems & Gemology. 27:249-50.
Madson, M.E. 1983. Wyoming jade. Rocks & Minerals. 58:218-222.
Mandarino, J.A. 1999. Fleischer's glossary of Mineral species 1999. Tucson:The Mineralogical Record.
McCall, G.J.H. 1973. Meteorites and their Origins. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
A well illustrated, good overall view, albeit somewhat dated, about meteorites and tektites.
McClure, S.F. 1993. Treated
amber in Fryer, C.W.(ed.) Gem trade labnotes. Gems &
McClure, S.F., R.E Kane and Nicholas Sturman. 2010. Gemstone enhancement and its detection in the 2000s. Gems & Gemology. XLVI:188-216.
McClure, S.F. , T.M. Moses and
J.I. Koivula. 2001. Gem and Jewelry Trade Alert: U.S. Postal Service
irradiation process may affect some gemstones.
McMahon, P. 1999. Sagenite and plume: Beautiful agate with rare color. Rock & Gem. 29(#2):80-82 & 84.
McManis, K. 1995. A Guide to Zuni Fetishes and Carvings. Tucson:Treasure Chest Books.
This 48-page book consists largely of colored photographs of Zuni creations, most of which have been carved from gemrocks.
Mehnert, K.R. 1968. Migmatites and the Origin of Granitic Rocks. Amsterdam:Elsevier.
Mei, O.Y.C. and L.J. Qi, Li Hansheng, and Bonita Kwok. 2003. Recent studies on inky black omphacite jade, a new variety or pyroxene jade. Journal of Gemmology. 28:337-344.
Mercurio, Denise. 2004. Obsidian DNA (sort of). Rock-A-Teer. 44(#3):1, 8-9.
This interesting article adds a few names applied to obsidian to those originally mentioned on this web site.
Merrill, G.P. 1895. The onyx marbles: Their origin, composition, and uses, both ancient and modern. Report of the U.S. National Museum for 1893. p.539-585.
This article, although published more than 100 years ago, remains the definitive article about travertine used as an ornamental stone. History, relating to both application of the name and its so-to-speak synonyms and to utilization of the rock; descriptions and illustrations; genesis, albeit dated; and remarks about occurrences in North and Central America, southern Europe and northern Africa are included.
. . . . . . . . .. 1922. Handbook and descriptive catalogue of the collections of gems and precious stones in the United States National Museum. Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum Bulletin. #118.
Along with its value as a catalogue, this bulletin includes extremely useful appendices covering such topics as "Gems mentioned in the Bible," "Mystical properties of gems," a rather comprehensive list of "Gem and mineral names" and a "Table for the identification of precious stones."
Messchært, G.W. 1966-1967. The stone carvers of Kofu, Japan. Gems & Gemology. XII:103-109.
Milisenda, C.C. 2003.
Ruby-fuchsite-kyanite rock from India in
[column]. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen
Milisenda, C.C. 2006. Dyed marble as an imitation for pink opal. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft. 55(#3-4):75-76.
Mitchell, J.R. 1987. Field trip: Gem obsidian and banded rhyolite. Rock & Gem. 17(#10):64-67.<>Mitchell, R.S. 1979. Mineral Names, What do they mean. New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold.
This collection of rock terms, which also includes definitions of a few minerals, is the most comprehensive catalog of these terms and their definitions in the English language. Its misstatements detract little from its place as an extremely valuable contribution as a petrographic reference book. Some of the terms given under the OTHER NAMES subheadings in this book are based on "definitions" given in this compendium.
Montgomery, A. 1970-1971. The phosphate minerals of Fairfield, Utah. Rocks & Minerals. 45:667-674 & 739-745; 46:75-80.
Montgomery, G.E. 1981. Obsidian: a versatile gem material. Jewelry Making Gems & Minerals. 523:14-15, 92.
The brief description of how to cut and polish obsidian is noteworthy.
Mori, J. 1980. Utica Jewelstone of Illinois. Rockhound. 9(#3):24-26.
Moses, T.M., I. Reinitz and S.F. McClure (Editors). 1998. Gem Trade Lab Notes (column with contributing editors). Gems & Gemology. 34:127-133.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1999. Gem Trade Lab Notes (column with contributing editors). Gems & Gemology. 35:42-46.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2000. Gem Trade Lab Notes (column with contributing editors). Gems & Gemology. 36:60-65,155-159.
Moses, T.M., I. Reinitz, S.F. McClure and M.L. Johnson (Editors). 2001. Gem Trade Lab Notes (column with contributing editors). Gems & Gemology. 37:130-136
Mueller, Wolfgang. 2012. Arizona gemstones. Rocks & Minerals. 87:64-69.
Muhlmeister, Sam and Karen Chadwick. 2007. Astorite - A rhodonite-rich rock from Colorado in Laurs, B.M. (editor). Gem News International 2007. Gems & Gemology. 43:p.164-165.
Mulkey, J.E. 1994. Searching for jet-black psilomelane. Rock & Gem. 24:58-59, 87-89.
Muller, H. 1987. Jet. London:Butterworths.
Jet is described, and its origin, geological occurrences, history of use, and simulants are covered. This, by the way, is the only book I have seen that deals with all these aspects of jet.
Munro, J.M. 1981, Amber forever. Saudi
Aramco World. 32(#6):2-10 (see also on
Murphy, A.R., D.J. Hozjan, C.N. deMille, and A.A. Levinson. 2000. Pre-Columbian gems and ornamental materials from Antigua, West Indies. Gems & Gemology. 36:234-245.
Murphy, J.A. and P.J. Modreski. 2002. A tour of Colorado gemstone localities. Rocks & Minerals. 77:218-238.
Murphy, M.O. 1962. Kelly
blue-green gem. Lapidary Journal. 16:224-226.
Mychaluk, K.A. 2009. Update on ammolite production from southern Alberta, Canada. Gems & Gemology. 45:192-196.
Mychaluk, K.A., A.A. Levinson and R.L. Hall. 2001. Ammolite: Iridescent fossilized ammonite from southern Alberta, Canada. Gems & Gemology. 39:4-25.
This, the definitive article about ammolite, includes some magnificent photographs of both the raw material and jewelry in which it has been incorporated.
Nassau, K. 1974. Natural, treated, synthetic and imitation gems. Gems & Gemology. 14:322-326.
. . . . . . . . .. 1984. The early history of gemstone treatments. Gems & Gemology. 20:22-33.
Nassau provides a good historical review of many things that have been, and continue to be, done to change or enhance the appearances of gemstones. As he notes: "Evidence for the use of gemstone treatments points back many thousands of years... Even the written accounts of treatments extend back almost 2,000 years."
. . . . . . . . .. 1984A. Gemstone Enhancement: Heat, irradiation, impregnation, dyeing, and other treatements which alter the appearance of gemstones and the detection of such treatments. London:Butterworths.
. . . . .
. . . .. 1986.
Green glass made of Mount Saint
Helens ash? Gems & Gemology. 22:103-104.
Languages of the Americas Website. 1998-2010. Native American turtle
20 December 2011).
Nickel, E. and M. Nichols. 2004. Mineral names,
redefinitions & discreditations passed by the CNMMN [Commission on
New Minerals and Mineral Names] of the IMA [International Mineralogical
Association]. www.geo.vu.nl/users/ima-cnmmn/IMA-list,pdf -
dated: 9 February 2004 - pp. 1-161
Nickel, E.H. and M.C. Nichols. u.d. The Mineral Database.
Livermore(California):Materials Data, Inc.
Norbert, V. 2003. Some amber-like organic minerals -- a critical review of the chemistry and mineralogy in Amber in Gdansk: Mineralogy, Archaeology and Craftsmanship (Seminar of the working group on Organic Minerals, IMA), August 22-24, 2003. Ambermart 2003:10-11
Included is the following
statement: " A few organic minerals are occasionally, even in
publications, erroneously mentioned among 'amber-like resins': duxite, idrialite, ixolithe, jaulingite,
koeflachite, hartite, and others. ..."
Nordgulen, Øystein. 2002. Norges "nasjonalfjell." GEO. September, 2002:40.
Norton, O.R. 1994. Rocks from Space. Missoula (Montana):Mountain Press.
Novak, G.A. 1982. Verde web variscite from Lander County, Nevada. Lapidary Journal. 36:544-552.
O'Donoghue, M. 1997.
Goodletite. Gem & Jewellery News. 7(#1):8.
O.E.D. see Oxford
University Press. 1971. citation below.
Ogden, J. 1982. Jewellery of the Ancient World. New York:Rizzoli.
Ostwald, J. 1963. Some notes on the mineralogy of lapis-lazuli. Journal of Gemmology. 9(#2):84-101.
Ou Yang, C.M. 2003. Jadeite jade, a stone & a culture. Hon Kong:Hong Kong Institute of Gemmology
This book has some beautiful, as well as instructive, illustrations. Although the text has several errors -- most apparently relating to lack of knowledge of English by the editor and/or typographical -- the book contains much information not readily available elswhere: For example, the way Chinese classify diverse jadeite boulders and cobbles that occur in secondary deposits and the terms applied to diverse skins that occur on those masses.
Overlin, S.D. 2012. Dendritic agate in doublets, inlays, and jewelry. in Gem News International. Gems & Gemology. 47:62.
Overton, T.W. 2012. "Coral Sea" agate. in Gem News International. Gems & Gemology. 47:62.
Owens, P.A. and Sally Eaton-Magaña. 2009. Eljen treated turquoise. Gems & Gemology. 45:28-41.
Owens, V.S. 1977. Unakite. Lapidary Journal. 31(#1):182
Owens, P. and S. Eaton-Magaña. 2009. Eljen treated turquoise. in Lab notes. Gems & Gemology. 45:140.
Oxford University Press. 1971. The Oxford English dictionary: The compact edition ... complete text reproduced micrographically (volumes 1 & 2). New York: Oxford University Press.
Pabian, R.K. 1978. Inclusions in agate and their origins and significance. Gems & Gemology. 16:16-28.
This well illustrated paper tabulates and briefly describes several kinds of inclusions that have been found within agates. Some of the features noted give, in my opinion, information that could provide those who own or are marketing agates some intriguing conversation entrees.
. . . . . . . . . .. 2002. Agate resources on the web at csd.unl.edu/csd/programs/agateres.html
This website includes a “Lexicon” that contains “2,943 [updated 3/12/01 to 3,084] named varieties" of agate, a “Bibliography” that “is current through about 1985 ... [with] important post-1985 ... references,” and images “of agates from the United States (30 different states) [and] ... from 26 foreign countries and Antarctica, spanning all seven continents.”
Palache, Charles, Harry
Berman, and Clifford Frondel. 1944. The system of
Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale
University 1837-1892(Seventh Edition),
Volume I, Elements, sulfides, sulfosalts, oxides. New
Wiley and Sons, Inc.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1951. The system of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892(Seventh Edition), Volume II, Halides, nitrates, borates, carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, arsenates, tungstates, molybdates, etc. New York:John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Pearl, R.M. 1964. Gems, minerals, crystals, and ores -- The collector's encyclopedia. New York:Odyssey Press.
. . . . . . . .. 1976. Turquoise. Colorado Springs (CO):Earth Science Publishing Co.
A "Glossary" includes several names "that suggest but are not turquoise" and also several "names for turquoise," a few of which are not included in the TURQUOISE entry.
Pedersen, M.C. 2006. Cherry amber, real or fake? Organic Gems, No. 1, 2006. (only
abstract seen by RVD)
Peleg, Orit. 2003. Roman intaglio
gemstones from Aelia Capitolina. Palestine Exploration
Peñalver, Enrique, D.A. Grimaldi and
Xavier Delclòs. 2006. Early Cretaceous spider
web with its prey. Science. 312:1761.
Perazzo, P.B. and G.P. Perazzo. 2004. Stone
"P". 2011. Catlinite. The conglomerate. 74(no.2):6-7. [copy read is
that cited, which is noted as "From The
Glacial Drifter, Vol.54,
No. 3 March 2011: via Pick &
Shovel Vol. 52 Issue 2
Phalen, W.C.. 1903. A new occurrence of unakite -
a preliminary paper. Smithsonian
miscellaneous colletions. XLV:306-316.
Pienaar, H.S. 1982. Gem-quality friedelite from the Kalahari Manganese field near Kuruman, South Africa. Gems & Gemology. 18:221-224.
Pliny, the Elder. pre-79 A.D./1962 (translation) Natural history. (v. 10, books xxxvi & xxxvii, translated by D.E. Eichholz). Cambridge (Massachusetts):Harvard University Press.
Pogue, J.E. 1915. Turquoise. Memoires of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. XII, Pt. II, 2nd Mem., 3rd Mem. Glorieta (New Mexico):Rio Grande Press (1974 reprint seen).
Mythology, folklore and history of turquoise are well documented in this scholarly presentation. Also covered are its possible names before it became known widely as turquoise, its origin, its occurrences here and there the world over, "technology" (including simulants), and a 17-page bibliography. The reprint includes an 11-page updated bibliography, a 22-page list of mines and prospects and 16 added full-color plates along with the original memoir.
Potter, R.M. and G.R. Rossman. 1979. The tetravalent manganese oxides: identification, hydration, and structural relationships by infrared spectroscopy. American Mineralogist. 64:1199-1218.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1979A. Mineralogy of manganese dendrites and coatings. American Mineralogist. 64:1219-1226.
Pough, F.H. 1966. Rare faceting minerals; Part XXI. Lapidary Journal. 20(#6):734-736.
. . . . . . . . . .. 1986. Ammolite: grandmother-of-pearl. Lapidary Journal. 39(#10):35-41.
. . . . . . . . . .. 1996. A Field Guide to Rocks and Minerals (5th edition). Boston:Houghton Mifflin.
. . . . . . . . . .. post-1997. Phenomenal obsidian. Manuscript in preparation. (10 typewritten pages sent to RVD; cited here with Pough's permission).
Qi, L., X. Lu, W. Liu and Q.Ouyang. 2003. Maw-sit-sit jade from Burma: A particular jade formed by dynamic metamorphism and metasomatism. Journal of Gems and Gemmology. 5(#4):1-7.
Quinn, E.P. 2004. Green
petrified wood from Arizona. Gem News International 2004. Gems
& Gemology. 40:171.
. . . . . . . .. 2004a. Corundum-fuchsite-kyanite rock from India. Gem News International 2004. Gems & Gemology. 40:338-339.
Ragazzi, E. 2000. Untitled email, dated 14
April 2000. www.ambericawest.com.
Read, P.G. 1988. Dictionary
of Gemmology (2nd edition). Oxford:Butterworths-Heinemann
Nathan. 2011. Nuummite from Mauritania. Gem News
International. Gems & Gemology. 47:242-243.
Nathan, J.I. Koivula, Wuyi Wang, and Gary Roskin. 2010.
Synthetic gem materials in the 2000s: A decade in review. Gems
& Gemology. 46:260-273.
Original sources of cited information, some of which I have not seen, are listed in the References given at the end of this article.
Of the books about amber published during the last quarter century, this one contains perhaps the best compilation of colored and black and white illustrations.
Rieman, H.M. 1976. The blue rock called lapis lazuli. Lapidary Journal. 30:2158-2161.
A good rather short summary of lapis lazuli.
Robertson, A.D. 1981. Chrysocolla - "A little known gemstone." Australian Gemmologist. 14:127-129.
Robertson, E.C. 1989. Physical properties of building stones. in Dutro, J.T., Jr., R.V. Dietrich & R.M. Foose: AGI data sheets for Geology in the field, laboratory and office. Alexandria (Virginia):American Geological Institute. Sheet 79.1 & 79.2.
Some of the recorded Specific Gravity values for rocks are taken from this reference.
2000. Copper country Artist, James Billings (b.1958). Rocks
& Minerals. 75:229-230.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2001. Is this an Agate? (An illustrated guide to Lake Superior's Beach Stones, Michigan). Hancock (Michigan): Book Concern Printers.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2003. Mineral identification guide for copper country's poor-rock piles. Hancock(Michigan):Book Concern Printers.
Emmanuel Fritsch, Blanca Mocquet, and Yves Lulzac. 2009. Some unusual
dyed imitations. Gems
& Gemology. 45:74-75.
Rosemeyer, T. 2001. Sixth in a series of articles on the mines and minerals of Michigan's Copper Country. Rocks & Minerals. 76:156-194.
Rosemeyer, Tom. 2003. Eighth in a series of
articles on the mines and minerals of Michigan's Copper Country: The
in Michigan's Lake Superior copper district. Rocks & Minerals.
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 2005.
of porcelaneous datolite
in Michigan's Lake Superior copper district: Partr 2: Southern
Keweenaw, Houghton, and Ontanagon counties. Rocks & Minerals.
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 2008. A
winter dig at the
Mesnard Mine, Pewabic Lode, Houghton County, MI. Rocks &
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2012. Copper-banded agates from the Kearsarge copper-bearing Amygdaloidal Lode, Houghton County, Michigan. Rocks & Minerals. 87:352-365.
Rosenholtz, J.L. and D.T. Smith. 1931. Tables and charts of specific gravity and hardness for use in the determination of minerals. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Engineering & Science Series. No.34.
Ross, A. 1998. Amber. Cambridge:Harvard University Press. (not seen).
Reputed to be one of the finest publications, both because of its text and numerous illustrations, that deals largely with inclusions in amber.
Ross, C.S. 1941. Origin and geometric form of chalcedony filled spherulites from Oregon. American Mineralogist. 26:727-732.
Rouse, O.E. 1963. A new find of colorful New Mexico wonderstone. Lapidary Journal. October:690-699.
Saadi, J.A. and J.C. Grasso. 1992. Rhodochrosite from Argentinia (sic). Australian Gemmologist. 18(#4):125-132. [Translated from Boleti'n del Instituto Gemolo'gico Español (No. 30) by D. McCrary]
Sabina, A.P. 1980. Gemstones create new interest, new markets. Canadian Geographic. 100(#5):42-49.
Salvador, Amos (editor). 1994. International stratigraphic guide: a guide to stratigraphic classification, terminology, and procedure. Tondheim (Norway):International Union of Geological Sciences.
Sanders, J.E. 1960. The
Beringer case. GeoTimes. 5(#2):28-29.
Santiago-Blay, J.A. and J.B.
Lambert. 2007. Amber's botanical origins revealed. American Scientist. 95:150-157.
Sariiz, K. and I. Isik. 1995. Meerschaum from Eskisehir Province, Turkey. Gems & Gemology. 31:41-51.
2006. Horn its history
and its uses. Hong Kong :Everbest Printing Co., Ltd.
Schmetzer, K. and H. Blank. 1981. An investigation of synthetic turquoise and turquoise substitute of Gilson. Journal of Gemmology. 17:386-389.
Schmetzer, K and H. Bank.
properties and origin of a new type of haematite. Journal of
and Proceedings of the Gemmological Association of Great Britain. 19:343-347.
Schultz-Güttler, R.A. 2005. Fuchsite-corundum rock from Bahia, Brazil in GemNews international 2005. Gems & Gemology. 41:266-267.
Schumann, W. 1997?. Gemstones of the World (Revised & expanded edition). New York:Sterling. (Translated by Evelyne Stern?).
This book contains good colored illustrations of some gemrocks. Descriptions range from fairly good to faulty.
Sederholm, J.J. 1907. Om granit och
deras uppkomst, uppträdande och utbredning inom urberget i
Fennoskandia (with English summary). Bulletin de la Commission
géologique de Finlande. 23:1-110.
Shen, A.H., J. I. Koivula and J.E. Shigley. 2011. Identification of extraterrestrial peridot by trace elements. Gems & Gemology. 47:208-213.
Mineralogy (III edition, volume
1). New Haven:B.L. Hamlen. (not seen)
Shepherd, W. 1972. Flint: Its origin, properties and ues. London:Faber and Faber.
Shigley, J.E., D.M. Dirlam, B.M. Laurs, E.W. Boehm, G. Bosshart and W.F. Larson. 2000. Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology. 36:292-335.
Shigley, J.E. and J.I.
Amethystine chalcedony. Gems & Gemology. 21:217-223.
Shigley, J.E., B.M. Laurs, A.K.A. (Bram) Janse, Sheryl Elen and D. M. Dirlam. 2010. Gem localities of the 2000s. Gems & Gemology. XLVI:188-216.
Shipley, R.M. 1951. Dictionary of gems and gemology, including ornamental, decorative and curio stones (Fifth edition). Los Angeles: Gemological Institute of America.
Silliman, Benjamin Jr. 1868. Note on three new localities of tellurium minerals in California and on some mineralogical features of the Mother vein. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. 3:378-382.
Sinclair, W.E. 1941. The production of crocidolite in the Cape Province [Africa]. Engineering & Mining Journal. 50:385-419.
Sinkankas, J. 1955. Some freaks and rarities among gemstones. Gems & Gemology. VIII:237-241 & 254.
. . . . . . . . . .. 2001. Is this an Agate? (An illustrated guide to Lake Superior's Beach Stones, Michigan). Hancock (Michigan): Book Concern Printers.1959. Gemstones of North America. Princeton (New Jersey):VanNostrand Reinhold.
. . . . . . . . . .. 1976. Gemstones of North America, vol. 2. New York:VanNostrand Reinhold.
. . . . . . . . . .. 1993. Gemology: an Annotated Bibliography (two volumes). Metuchen (New Jersey):Scarecrow Press.
Several pertinent references not cited in the REFERENCES given for gemrock entries or in this APPENDIX may be found in Sinkankas' book.
. . . . . . . . . .. 1997. Gemstones of North America, vol. 3. Phoenix(Arizona):GeoScience.
Smith, G.F.H. and F.C. Phillips. 1962. Gemstones (13th edition). New York:Pitman.
This classic in the field of gemstones includes noteworthy information about natural glasses, chalcedony, jade, lapis lazuli, turquoise, and natural resins such as amber, as well as brief statements about several of the less widely known gemrocks. It also is a veritable treasury for anyone interested in the derivation of the names given to many gemrocks. Its bibliography, albeit no longer up-to-date, is, nonetheless, one of the best ones available in print.
Smith, G.I., C.L. Jones, W.C. Culbertson, G.E. Ericksen and J.R. Dyni. 1973. Evaporites and brines in Brobst, D.A. and W.D. Pratt (editors), United States mineral resources. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. 820:197-216.
A map on which the location of gypsum and anhydrite deposits are outlined, and a tabulation of gypsum- and anhydrite-bearing stratigraphic units within the coterminus United States are included.
Smith, J.V. 1974. Feldspar Minerals 2. Chemical and textural properties. Berlin:Springer-Verlag.
This professional level compendium, which includes much information relating to diverse feldspars, contains (inter alia) especially good illustrations of diverse microperthites. Although later volumes dealing with feldspars have been published, this volume seems to provide the largest amount of information -- albeit some of which is outdated -- of possible interest to readers of "Gemrocks,. . ."
Sobczak, N. and T.Sobczak. 1998. The great encyclopedia of precious and decorative stones. Warsaw: National Science Publishers. (not seen).
This book (in Polish), according to a review by S.D. Overlin, of GIA, very likely contains illustrations and information pertinent to gemrocks.
Spencer, L.J. 1897. The "Satin Spar" of Alston in Cumberland; and the determination of massive and fibrous calcites and aragonites. Mineralogical Magazine. 11:184-187.
. . . . . . . . . .. 1971. A Key to Precious Stones. New York:Emerson.
Spendlove, E. 1979. Best, most beautiful rocks. Rock & Gem. 9:48-50,54.
Staples, L.W. 1965. Origin and history of the Thunder egg. The Ore Bin. 27:195-204.
Although I find this paper less than satisfactory, it has information well worth reviewing.
Starfield, M.J. and E. Starfield. 1980. A potpourri of mineral oddities: Part II. Lapidary Journal. 33:2566-2576.
Stone, R.W. et al. 1920. Gypsum deposits of the United States. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin. 697.
This bulletin, which supersedes Bulletin #223 by G.I. Adams et al., includes noteworthy information, albeit dated, about several individual occurrences of gypsum within the United States.
Stucki, Andy. 2005.
Ornamental blueschist from northern Italy in GemNews International. Gems & Gemology. XLI:350-351.
Stutzer, Otto. 1940. Geology
Coal (translated and revised by A.C. Noé).
Sweaney, J.L. 1979. Fire agates of Deer Creek. Gems & Gemology. 16:130-141.
Switzer, G. 1945. Eclogite from the California glaucophane schists. American Journal of Science. 243:1-8.
Theophrastus. ca. 315 B.C. On Stones (1956 translation by Earle R. Caley and John C. Richards). Columbus:Ohio State University Press.
Titamgim, R.D. 1987. How is glass formed in nature? Rocks & Minerals. 62:49.
This one-page article gives common names and widely accepted origins for natural glasses of diverse origin.
. . . . . . . . . . .. 1992. Are there rocks that bend? Rocks & Minerals.
Tomkeieff, W.I. 1954. Coals and bitumens and related fossil carbonaceous substances; nomenclature and classification. London: Pergamon Press. (not seen)
Trout, P.W. 1983. Arkansas' banded chert. Rock & Gem. 13:70-73.
Turnovec, I. 1987. Use of moldavites in jewels production. 2nd International Conference on Natural Glasses (Prague, Czechoslovakia: September 21-25, 1987). 2:323-329.
VanLandingham, S.L. 1962. Notes on rocks as gem materials - Pt.1. Gems and Minerals. 294:22-23.
This is the introductory statement for a series of nine notes that were published in the same periodical in 1962 and 1963. Materials covered in the series are obsidian and other volcanic glasses, unakite, "wonderstone," "ricolite," marble, graphic granite and "leopardite and leopard rocks." It is unfortunate that these notes do not include bibliographies. My discovery of this group of notes was and remains rather embarrassing: When I gave the talk about gemrocks in the mid 1960s and later had the paper "Gem-Rocks" published in Rocks & Minerals in 1967, I was unaware of VanLandingham's papers and consequently did not mention them or cite them as references in the article. I should have.
VanLandingham, S.L. (editor). 1985. Geology of World Gem Deposits. New York:Van Nostrand Reinholhold.
Chiefly a collection of previously published papers, but includes 126 pages of references, several from rather obscure sources.
Venuti, M.C. 2006. Vetri
naturali. Rivista Gemmologica
Verrill, A.H. 1939. Minerals, metals and gems. Boston:L.C. Page & Company.
Several legends (etc.) -- many of which I have heard for years -- constitute Chapter VII. "Precious Stones and Their Stories." Some of these legends (etc.) are repeated in the REMARKS given for some of the gemrocks covered on this web site.
Voynick, S. 1987. Colorado's Blue Wrinkle lapis mine. Rock & Gem. 17(#4):52-56.
Walcott, R.H. 1898. The occurrence of so-called obsidian bombs in Australia. Royal Society of Victoria. Proceedings (new series). 11(pt. 1): 23-53.
Ward, F. 1999. World jade resources. Arts of Asia. 29(#1):68-71.
Watson, T.L., F.B. Laney and G.P. Merrill. 1906. The Building and Ornamental Stones of North Carolina. Raleigh: E.M. Uzzell (for North Carolina Geological Survey, of which this volume is listed as Bulletin No. 2).
Weaver, Lorraine. 2002. Thomsonite. The conglomerate. November 63(#7):8.
Webster, Robert. 1949. Aventurine: Glass, feldspar, quartz. Gems & Gemology. VI:207-211 & 222.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1957-58. A new imitation turquois from Germany. Gems & Gemology. IX:115-117.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1963. Massive grossularite. Gems & Gemology. XI:35-37 & 61.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1986. Pseudocrocidolite. Journal of Gemmology. 11(#3):84-91.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1994. Gems, their sources, descriptions and identification (5th edition, revised by P.G. Read). Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.
Wehlte, Kurt. 1975. The Materials and Techniques of Painting (translated by Urus Dix). New York:Van Nostrand.
Weiner, K.L. 1983. Obsidians and gemmology. Journal of Gemmology. 18(#8):745-760.
Weldon, Robert. 2007. Jade' mysteries
unlocked: Sinkankas symposium explores the many varieties of a
long-treasured gem. The Loupe. 16(#3):10-11.
Weldon, Robert. 2007b. Simmons shares
tips on 'blue gold.' The Loupe. 16(#3):11.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2008. Using cucumbers to unearth dendritic agates in central India. in Gem News International 2008. Gems & Gemology. 44:257.
Wentzell, C.Y. 2004. Spurrite. Gems & Gemology. 40:63-65.
Wentzell, C.Y. 2004. Nephrite that mimics serpentine in T.M. Moses et al. (editors) Lab notes 2004. Gems & Gemology. XL:245-246.
Wicander, R. and J.S. Monroe. 1993. Historical Geology: Evolution of the Earth and Life through Time (2nd edition). St. Paul:West Publishing Company.
The authors of this general historical geology book provide a good overview of the geologic and biologic history of the Earth for the most part by discussing principles of historical geology and how these principles can be applied to unraveling the history of the Earth and its biota,
Wight, D.C. 2013. The importance of
serpentinite to Cape Dorset carvers: Kiugak Ashoona, a master
carver. Elements. 9(no.2):160.
Wight, W. 1981. 'Korite' -- fossil ammonite shell from Alberta, Canada. Journal of Gemmology. 17:406-415.
Wight, W. W. 1993. Check-list for rare gemstones: Sodalite. Canadian Gemmologist. 14:78-81.
Willing, M.J. and S.M. Stocklmayer. 2003. A new chrome chalcedony occurrence from Western Australia. Journal of Gemmology. 28(#5):265-279. (not seen)
Withington, C.F. and M.C. Jaster. 1960. Selected annotated bibliography of gypsum and anhydrite in the United States and Puerto Rico. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin. 1105.
This bulletin consists primarily of a comprehensive (BUT note its date of publication) annotated bibliography re gypsum and anhydrite for the indicated geographic entities.
Withington, C.F. 1962. Gypsum and anhydrite in the United States (Exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Investigations Resource Map. MR-33.
This publication consists of a 1:3,168,000 map of the conterminus United States upon which outlines of the major basins where the deposits occur and are plotted along with numbers that correlate with an included Locality Index that lists mines, open pits and other localities for gypsum and anhydrite and their geographic coordinates. Localities are included for Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming.
Woodruff, R.E. and E. Fritsch. 1989. Blue pectolite from the Dominican Republic. Gems & Gemology. 25:316-225.
Wyart, J., P. Bariand
Filippi. 1981. Lapis-lazuli from Sar-e-Sang, Badakhshan, Afghanistan
(translation by Carol Stockton). Gems & Gemology. 17:184-190.
Zeitner, J.C. 1979. A thunderegg review. Lapidary Journal. 33:1260-1272.
. . . . . . . .
. .. 1985. Gem
chrysocolla. Lapidary Journal. 39:28-33.
Zhang, Beili, Taijin Lu, Hua Chen, and Jie Ke. 2011. Research and identification of natural and treated Nephrite in China. Gems & Gemology. 47:122.
Australian Gemmologist: Gemmological Association of Australia, P.O. Box 477, Albany Creek, Brisbane, Queensland 4035, Australia.
Australian Lapidary Magazine: Jay Kay Publications, Croydon, New South Wales, Australia.
The Canadian Rockhound ("free online earth science magazine"): www.canadianrockhound.com
Gems & Gemology: Gemolmological Institute of America, 5355 Armada Drive, Carlsbad, CA 92008.
Journal of Gemmology: Gemmological Association and Gem Testing Laboratory of Great Britain, 27 Grenville St., London EC1N 8SU, England.
The Lapidary Journal: P.O. Box 1100, Devon, PA, 19333.
Lapis: Christian Weise Verlag, AG, Gmbh, Orleansstrasse 69, D-81667, Munich, Germany.
Ornament (The Bead Journal (1974-1978) was the forerunner of Ornament.): Ornament Inc., Box 2349, San Marcos, CA 92079-2349.
Rock & Gem: Miller Magazines, Inc., 4880 Market St., Ventura, CA 93003.
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