* This appendix gives a general statement
about the derivation of the term amber plus
a list of terms applied to amber in several languages.
Compilation of this list was prompted
questions posed and suggestions made by respondents from several
countries. Adding the list seems warranted because
of amber's diverse roles in the history of several cultures and its
widespread geographical occurrence. Some
readers will consider its inclusion to be a superfluity, and even some
of the readers whose questions and suggestions
prompted its compilation may consider it "over-kill." -- So be it.
- - in preparation ! ! ! ]]]>>>
Amber, the English
designation for the fossil resin used as a
gemrock, is noted in most English-language
to have the following general etymology: Middle English ambre
> Old French ambre > Medieval Latin ambra
(or ambar), from the Arabic 'anbar, which originally
referred to ambergris and only later also to amber. Despite
this indication of consensus, it seems only prudent to mention
the fact that alternative etymologies have been published. Two examples
are: Munro (1981) summarizes information supporting the
Persian designation kahrobâ as the root;
[and] Eugenion Ragazzi (2000) writes: " 'amber' is
believed to derive
from the Arabic word 'Haur Rumi' that means 'Roman poplar tree':
the following corrupted terms were Haurum, Habrum, Hambrum and
finally Ambarum and Amber. This origin is not surprising,
since in the mythology, after the death of Phaeton on the river
Eridano, his sisters, the Eliades, were transformed into poplars, and
they weeped tears of amber!!" In addition, attention
is directed to the historical review about amber, as recorded in
translated ancient documents, that is on the web site
www.ambermines.co.uk/Ancient_writers.php; several of the
included statements -- especially those from Pliny the Elder's work Naturalis
may also pertain to the origin of the term amber as applied to the
Anyone reading this list is forewarned that
a few of terms have not been documented as applying to
amber, the fossil resin, rather than to, for example, amber, the
color. This is so because the sources from which I took some of the
designations do not give parts of speech, full definitions, or examples
of the terms used in context. Although I was able to determine
the correct term from several native speakers, to date some of this
procedure is no complete. Each term for which I have
seen neither documentation nor clarification of its use is preceded
with a boldface question mark (i.e., ?). In
addition, a few of the listed terms may apply only to non-fossilized
resin, despite the fact they have been indicated as designations for
amber; those, which in my opinion, seem
most likely to be so restricted are followed by appropriate
notes enclosed in brackets and are not included on Table
1 or Table 2.
AMBER in SEVERAL LANGUAGES: Names
applied to amber are listed
alphabetically, by language, in the fourth paragraph under this
subheading. Names based on
or referring only to succinite, and some of the additional terms
given in glossaries (e.g., Bayliss, 2000 & Fourestier,1999)
and on internet web sites (e.g., www.ambericawest.com) are not
included in that paragraph or on Tables 1 and 2. Remarks about
several additional terms are, however, treated in the "Post Script- ..."
that follows the tables.
Transliterations and native scripts are given for
the amber equivalent(s) for most of the listed languages for which
non-Roman scripts are currently
the so-to-speak norm; others, the uses of
which are documented, will be added as they are found or sent
to me [along this line, attention is directed to the compilation of
alphabets of virtually all of these, as well as several other,
languages given on www.omniglot.com/writing/atoz]. It also
seems prudent to mention my inability to find any designations for
amber in some languages that probably have it as a part of their
vocabulary. On the other hand, the words
proposed for amber in Esperanto and Interlingua, the most widely
international languages, were found and are included.
Please keep the preceding explanations and
disclaimers in mind while going through the following designations:
Afrikaans - barnsteen;
Albanian - qehribá ; Arabic - kahramaan
& 'anbar ( ) ; Armenian - ?sat'
+ h'ambar?]; Azeri(Azerbaijani)- or
kæhræba; Basque - anbar;
Belarus(i)an - ~ burshtin ( );
Bengali - ??? ( ); Bosnian - see
Serbo-Croat; Breton - goularz;
Bulgarian - kehlibar ( ); Burmese - payin
Cambodian - ??? ( );
Catalan - see French & Spanish; Chinese - hŭpò;
Croatian - see Serbo-Croat;
Czech - jantar; Danish - rav;
Dutch - barnsteen [ + amber] ;
English - amber & ambre;
also, the Oxford English Dictionary (1971) has three entries,
hereafter underlined, that include words that have been used for amber:
Amber - - ambra, aumber, aumbur, ambyr,... awmer
& awmbur; Karabe; [and] Lamber
(noted as "Obs[olete]. Chiefly north[ern]. dia[lect.]") - - lambre,
laumb(e)re, lambur, lawmer, lammer, lamar, lamer & lamour.
[Two additional things seem noteworthy: 1. glær
is said to be the Old English word meaning amber as well as being the
root-word for glass and glaze (www.ceramicstoday.com); see,
however, statements about this under glass in the Oxford
English Dictionary (1971); [and] 2. the Anglo-Saxon word
ómber does not refer to amber (it is the word for a
certain dry measure).]; Esperanto - ambro ;
Estonian - merevaik ; Farsi -
kahrobâ ( ); Filipino - see Tagalog;
Finnish - meripihka ; French - ambre
[ + karabé];; Gaelic - see
Irish, Manx & Scottish(Gaelic);
Georgian(Mkhedruli) - karva/qarva ( );
German - Bernstein, Agtstein & Luchstein (Old
German - cf. Latin, lyncurium) [ + Brennstein?];
Greek - kechrimpari ( ), ilektron / êlektron
& pterygophoron( ) [ i.e., "feather-attractor"
- used in the 1st century A.D. by Dioscuridis, in allusion to amber's
electrostatic character]; Gujarati - kerabo
& triNamaNi / truNamaNi ( );
Hawaiian - ?
amepela, ? amebera ; Hebrew - i'nbar
[The designation hashmal (or chasmal) has been interpreted, apparently
incorrectly, by some scholars to have meant amber in "Old Hebrew."];
Hindi - ambara ( ) [var. -
aMbara ( )],
kaharuvA ( ) & tR^iNamaNi( );
Hungarian - borostyánkő & gyantar;
Icelandic - raf & gleri;
Indian - see Gujarati, Hindi, Tamil & Urdu; Indonesia
- batu ambar [batu ≃
stone]; Interlingua - ambra;
Irish(Gaelic) - ómra ; Italian -
ambra [ + karabé] ;
Japanese - kohaku [Kanji] ( ),
) & [Katakana] ( ); Korean - ho-pak
Kannada - shilaaraaLa, ambaru, hAlumaDDi ( ??? );
Kurdish - kareba ( in Kurdish-Arabic script
- ; Latin - ambra [Medieval
Latin]; electrum [cf .Greek êlektron / ilektron];
glaesum /glesum [Roman
Latin]; lacrima Heliandum [see Heliades tears
under REMARKS subheading]; lyncurium / ?langurium? [see
Demonstratus' solidified lynx urine
under REMARKS subheading]; Latvian - dzintars ;
Lithuanian - gintaras ; Macedonian - kilibar
Malayalam ? kunthirukkam / chenjalyam [may
refer to non-fossilized resin]; Maori kano
pàkà [ possibly refers to color]; Manx
(Gaelic - i.e., Goidelic) - ombyr ;
Mongolian - khüw ( ) -- [Use of cyrillic script is
post-Russian takeover of the region.]; Myanmar(ese)
- see Burmese; Norwegian - rav ;
Persian - karabe (see Farsi);
Philippines language - see Tagalog; Phoenician - yainitar;
Polish - jantar & bursztyn
; Portuguese - âmbar [ +
karabé]; Prussian(i.e., Old
Prussian) - glêsîs [used in historic Baltic - i.e.,
Soudinoi / Sudovian / Jatvingian / Yotvingians / Yatvingians documents
(Ptolemy, 2nd century A.D.); cf. Latin(Roman Latin)];
Romanian - chihlimbar [ + ambra];
Russian(Mokshan) - yantarj ( );
Sanskrit - a.ngArakamaNi (
of pearl, coral, ... or amber ]) & shUkApuTTa( [=a
gem, perhaps amber]); Scottish(Current+) - amber,
ambir & ambre; (Gaelic) òmar [
+ lammer ]; Serbo-Croat - cilibar(ski)
) [ + jantar ( )];
Slavic - ambra ( ); Slovak - jantár
; Somali(Cushitic) - ámbar;
Spanish - ámbar [ + cárabe]
; Swahili(Bantu / Kiswahili) kaharabu;
Swedish - bärnsten ; Syrian -
kahraba; Tagalog (Filipino/Pilipino) - dagtâ
sap]; Tamil(Dravidian) - ampar; Thai
- ching peh ( ) &??? ( ); Tibetan - ka
su ra ( ) &
spös shel ( ); Transylvanian - ambrã
; Turkish - kehribar ( );
Ukrainian - burshtyn ( ) [ +
Russian - yantar ( )] ; Urdu - ambar
Vietnamese - hổ phách (I have been told
early missionaries got many Vietnamese to use Roman letters to
represent their oral language, which is closely related to Chinese and
formerly was expressed with Chinese-like script - cf.
transliteration of Chinese); Welsh - gwefr,
amfer & ambr ; Yiddish - burschtin
[ + ?agdsten - see Post Script ...];
Zanzibar(ese) - see Swahili.
Apparent and possible relationships
of the preceding designations follow.
Table 1. Four
common designations applied to amber, the fossil resin. Languages listed under the four
designations, given as the boldface column headings, currently
use or have used terms that are identical to the heading word, cognates
of that word, or words with apparently the same or similar connotation
of their root-word. Comments about the probable root-word of each
group are given as footnotes in the appropriate columns.
Languages in which two or more designations for amber have found
noteworthy use are listed in more than one group.
1 widely thought to have the Arabic
"anbar" - which originally referred to ambergris - as their root-word;
see, however, the first paragraph under REMARKS subheading.
2 apparently from low German "boernen" (= burn), which
relates to amber's being easily ignited; ancient Germans
burned amber as incense.
3 probably (but not yet documented
by me) from the locality Jantarny (=Palmicken), which is on
the Baltic Sea, west-northwest of Kaliningrad (= Königsberg).
4 apparently from Persian Kahraba, which
translates roughly to electricity and is based on amber's
electrostatic property of attracting straw, feathers, etc.
On the basis of their meanings, the Greek (êlektron /
ilektron & pterygophoron), Latin (electrum) and
Welsh (gwefr) also belong to this group. And, the Gujarati (triNamaNi
/ truNamaNi) and Hindi (tR^iNamaNi), which appear probably to
relate to the Sanskrit trnagrâhin (= "grass-catching"),
seem to belong here.
Table 2. Languages
with designations for amber the bases of which differ from those given
in Table 1. Notes about
probable and possible origins of a few of these designations are given
as footnotes. As more information is found, some of these terms
may be found to belong in one of the groups given on Table 1; if
so, they will be deleted from this table and added to the appropriate
column in Table 1.
Armenian - sat'
Breton - goularz
Burmese - payin
hupò /kohaku/ho-pak/hổ phách
Danish/Icelandic/Norwegian - rav/raf/rav 1
Estonian/Finnish - merevaik/meripihka 2
Georgian (Mkhedruli) - qarva
German/Yiddish - agtstein/agdsten?
Greek - kechrimpari?
Hindi - kaharuvA .
tR^iNamaNi - - see footnote, Table 1, column 4
Icelandic/Old English/Old Prussian/Roman Latin -
Latin - lacrima Heliandum 4
Latin/Old German - lyncurium/Luchstein 5
Malayalam - Kunthirukkam
Mongolian - khüw
Sanskrit ? - see footnote, Table
1, column 4.
Thai - ching peh
Tibetan - ka su ra
Tibetan - spös shel 6
1 Pliny, the Elder (Book xxxvii) reported that Roman troops
nicknamed one of the east Frisian islands Glaesaria (=Amber
island), based on the Old Prussan word glêsîs,
whereas the native's name for the island was Austeravia. Thus,
one idea suggested as the origin of rav (etc.) is "the
word RAV as in AUSTERAVIA [my emphasis] still is the Danish [etc.]
word for 'amber' nowadays." (www.balteringe.de/eng/bernstein). Falk and
Torp (1910), however, indicate that rav is based on the
"nordfries. [north Friesian] reaf ," and,
along this line, the present-day Danish dictionary "Nudansk Ordbog"
indicates that rav comes from the old Icelandic term raf
that, in turn, appears to relate to ræv (= fox), and thus
appears to have arisen as the designation for amber because of its
brownish foxlike color. Yet another alternative (my
strictly tentative suggestion) is that use of the term rav
as a designation for amber may have been based on the myth in which
amber was derived from Freya's tears -- in Old Norse, rav
means drizzle, which might also have referred to tears.
2 stone from the sea
3 relates to sparkle and transparency
5 lynx urine (hardened)
6 apparently from
pö-she -- "Tibetans called this gem [i.e., amber] pö-she,
meant perfumed crystal." (www.ancientroute.com/resource/stone/Amber)
Anyone who sees corrections
or additions they think
should be made to the preceding non-English designations for amber (the
noun for fossil resin), PLEASE send them, along with documentation, to
for and information about some additional designations I have recently
found recorded as applying to amber are given here. (Names noted in
some publications as applying to amber have been found to be natural
ordered structures (etc.) that satisfy the requirements set for
minerals so their names and data about them are reviewed by the
Commission on New Minerals and
Mineral Names of the International Mineralogical Association.
Thes names are NOT included in the following list.)
following terms -- except for those recorded as CHINESE ... , which are
listed last -- are given in alphabetical order.
- Recorded as a Yiddish word for amber on some “bare-bone” wordlists on
the internet (e.g., www.carecure.net): To date, I
have found no example of or documentation for direct application of
this term to any given amber. See next (agstein) listing.
- AGSTEIN - Problematic, as follows: 1. In some
editions of Dana's System
(e.g., Dana,1892*), agstein is given (along with
bernstein) as a synonym of succinite. 2. On some
wordlists, agstein is said to apply to “star and clouded” agate
and to amber. 3. In a number of professional publications and
dictionaries (e.g., Shipley’s “Dictionary of
Gems and Gemology”), agstein is applied to jet. [and]
4. Agtstein is a German word, albeit not the
common one, used for amber - see De Vries widely used “German-English
Science Dictionary.” The preceding data, along with thoughts about the
close spatial relationship of some amber and some jet, led to my
questioning and rather intensive search - thus far in vain - for direct
the recorded Yiddish use of the word agdsten for amber.
- AIDSTEIN - Not applicable: It refers, instead, to
obsidian or pechkohle (i.e., pitch or bituminous coal).
- ALAMBAR - In Spanish, for example, this term refers to liquid
resin - sometimes called liquid amber - exuded by trees: It
does not refer to fossil resins, such as amber, formed from
- ALEXJEJEVITE (alekseevit, alekszejevit, alexjejewit, etc.)
- Not amber: This is a Russian word for tar.
- AMBROSINE - An amber-like material "found in phosphatic beds near
Charleston, S.C. [South Carolina, U.S.A.] ... It has been suggested
that this may be only a modern resin which has been subjected to the
action of salt water" (Dana, 1892*, p.1008). Also noteworthy
here, the term AMBROSIA has been
reported – apparently incorrectly - as a present-day Greek term
for amber ( www.ambericawest.com ).
- BERENIKIS - Recorded as Greek word for amber (
but elsewhere said to be only "a historic reference to a blonde-haired
queen Berenice ..." ( www.ambericawest.com ).
- BUCAMARANGITE (Resine de Bucamaranga) - A retinite?
- CHRYSELECTRUM (krizelektrum) - This term, appears as
Eriselectrus/Criselectrus in the
Latin translation of the Aberdeen [Scotland] Bestiary [MS 24,
Aberdeen University Library], which is thought to have used as its
source “Physiologus," originally written in Greek and thought to date
from 4th century Alexandria,
but also believed to include later - pre-13th century - additions:
In this volume, chryselectrum is not equated
with amber; instead, it is described as having the color of gold
and amber (i.e., of “auri et electri”). It seems
noteworthy, however, that Pliny, the Elder (pre-79 A.D....xxxvii,
51)mentions Callistratus'application of this term to "gold amber" [the
description of which seems not to fit what is now called amber].
Also, Fourestier (op cit.) indicates that this term has
been applied to chrysoberyl and pyrite as well as apparently to amber
by Pliny the Elder, and at least some Chinese consider chryselectrum to
refer to chrysoberyl (www.jewellery.net.tw).
- GRABSTEIN - Not amber: This is the German word for
grave stone or tomb stone.
- HARPAKS - Listing of this word as the ancient Syrian word
for amber appears to be based on a statement in Pliny, the Elder
(pre-79 A.D....xxxvii, 37), which has been translated in different
ways; harpax refers either to amber or
to the spindles(whorls) made from amber -- The pertinent Latin text
follows: "in Syria quoque feminas verticillos inde facere et
vocare harpaga, quia ..."
- HARTITE (hartin, hartital, hartitine) - Not amber:
It occurs "among the layers or tissues of the wood, and also in
clefts in the coal or lignite" in, for example, brown coal beds
near Gloggnitz, Austria (Dana, 1892*, p.1001; Norbert,
- HIRZIN (hirzite, hirzita) - I suspect this is an alternative
spelling for Hircite, which as described (Dana, 1892*, p.1014) seems
more closely related to resin (per se) than any so-called fossil
resin (including copal): If the preceding assumption is correct, not
amber. [The name, by
the way, is said to be based on the odor emitted when it burns -- i.e.,
"a peculiarly strong animal odor (whence the name), from hircus a
- HOFMANNITE (hofmanita) - Not amber: Named after
A.W. Hofmann of Berlin, this material is described as a
Carbon-Hydrogen-Oxygen material forming "a white crystalline
efflorescence on Lignite in
the neighborhood of Siena [Italy, I presume]" (
Dana,1892*, p.1013; Norbert, 2003).
- IXOLITH (ixolyte) - Not amber: Associated
with hartite in a coal bed near Gloggnitz,
Austria (Dana,1892*, p.1001; Norbert, 2003). [Not to be
with the "redefined or renamed" mineral Ixiolite - (Ta,Mn,Nb)O2].
- JAULINGITE - Not amber: Red material that resembles
amber from Jauling, St Veit an der Triesting, Bad Vööslau,
Lower Austria, Austria (Dana, 1892*, p. 1006; Norbert, 2003).
- JELINITE - A rare amber, named for George Jelinek, a collector:
Found in Ellsworth County in central Kansas, it was originally
called kansasite (Buddhue, 1938).
- KAH RUBA - Apparently not an Indian (i.e., Asian
Indian) word for amber. It is close to the Arabic word Kahroba,
which means raw rubber (e.g., www.ambericawest.com).
- KOCHENITE - Described as a variety of amber: Type locality,
Kochen valley, Telfs, Inn valley, North Tyrol, Tyrol, Austria -
reference cited (not seen by me) - A. Pichler: Jahrb. k. k. geol.
Reichsanstalt (1868) - (www.mindat.org).
- KÖFLACHIT - A resin (retinite?): Type locality,
Laukowitz, near Köflach in Styria [i.e., Steiermark,
Austria] (Dana, 1892*, p.1007).
- LEGUMOCOPALITE (legumokopalit) - Not amber:
It is copal.
- LEUCOPETRIN (leukopetrin, leukopetrit, leucopetrite) - Not
amber: Type locality, Gesterwitz, Weissenfels, Germany, which
accounts for the name; specimen located in the Museum Victoria,
Melbourne, Australia "does not look like resin or amber ... It is dark
brown and fine-grained, resembling an earthy brown coal" (William
Birch, personal communication, 11/17/2004); see also Dana,1892*,
- MEER - Not amber: I suspect this term has been
listed for amber because of less than good translation(s) about amber
found in a lakes or loughs in western Europe (e.g., in Belgium
or the Netherlands); Meer is the Dutch word for lake or lough.
- MUNKTENITE - Said to be a variety of Romanian amber, with
no additional information or reference given - (Strunz, 1970):
Possibly a misspelling of the succeeding term.
- MUTENITE (mutinia) - A variety of Romanian amber: Type
locality is Olanesti, Valcea Co., Romania (no reference is cited, see
www.mindat.org) [Not to be confused with the zeolite mineral mutinaite.]
- MYRRHITA - If used for amber, possibly based on its use in
combination with myrrh as an incense.
- NEUDORFITE - Local name for amber that was found to occur in a
coal bed a Neudorf, Moravia [now part of Czech Republic] (Dana, 1892*,
p.1006; Jehlicka, Villar and Edwards, 2003)
- *NIKA PA - Noted as African (Ashanti tribe) - thus,
Ghana?!?: No further information given (www.ambericawest.com) --
- OROCHE - Synonym of electrum (www.mindat.org):
Considering the "oro" portion of
the term and the noted synonymy with electrum, it seems likely that
this term refers to the natural gold-silver combination, widely called
electrum rather than to amber.
- PHYTOCOLLIT(E)(fitocolite - Portuguese) - Not
amber: Equated with dop(p)lerite, which is defined as "gelatinous
[material] made up of carbon, amorphous, dark
chestnut, derivative of the acid húmico" (Google translation of
Portuguese Glossário Geológico on the internet --
www.dct.fct.unl.pt/GGeo/GGabc.html; Dana, 1892*, p.1014-1015).
- PRÍLEPITE - Local name for amber from unidentified
locality, apparently in the Czech Republic (Jehlicka, Villar and
- PSATHYRIN (psathyrit, psatrit) - Not amber:
Considered another name for Xylorentinitea (q.v)
-- see Dana (1892*, p.1009).
- *RAV - This designation, used by the Norwegians and Danes for
amber, is recorded in a few places (e.g., www.ambericawest.com)
also the Indian (i.e., Asian Indian) word for amber -- being
- ROCHLEDERITE - Not amber: It is described as the
part of melanchyme that is soluble in alcohol. Melanchym(e) is "a
bituminous substance found in masses in the brown coal
of Zweifelsruth, Bohemia, former Czechoslovakia" (Dana, 1892*,
- ROSTHORNITE - A retinite: It also is described as "An
ill-defined resin, resembling amber and jaulingite" (www.mindat.org).
Type locality, Sonnberg, Guttaring, Friesach - Hüttenberg
area, Carinthia, Austria (Dana, 1892*, p.1007).
- SACAL - Probably ambergris: According to
Pliny, the Elder (pre-79 A.D. ... xxxvii, 36), Nicias, along with
hypotheses about its origin, noted that amber is called sacal in Egypt
-- "in Aegypto nasei simili modo -- vocari sacal."
Considering the time and some of the associated statements, it
seems likely the alluded-to material was ambergris.
- SCHACHAL - Possibly a German cognate for the preceding
- SCHLANITE (schlanita) - Not amber: It
is described as "The soluble part [of anthracoxene] ... a dark or light
brown powder" (Dana, 1892*, p.1012).
- SCHWARZHARZ - Apparently a black amber-like material,
sometimes called stantienite.
- SIEGBERGITE (siebergite) - Apparently not amber:
from the brown-coal formation ... [near] Siegburg in the region of the
Lower Rhine. Occurs in concretionary masses in which the resin is
mixed with some 50 p.c. [i.e., per cent] or more of quartz sand,
which ... it cements together." (Dana, 1892*, p.1005).
- TASMANITE - Not amber: It is described as a
resiniferous shale (Dana, 1892*, p.1010), a light brown spore-rich
cannel coal (www.turnstone.ca), and a brown to black oil shale
from oil-shale deposits in Tasmania (Dyni, 2003).
- TRINKERIT - An "ill-defined [reddish brown] resin":
From Gams, Styria [i.e., Steiermark, Austria], it
was named for a Tyrolean mine captain, Josef Trinker (1815-1873)
(www.emporia.edu/earthsci/amber/ksamber; Dana, 1892*, p.1010).
- VALCHOVITE (walchowite) - Local name for amber found in
coal from Walchow, Moravia [now part of Czech Republic] (Dana, 1892,
p.1005; Jehlicka, Villar and Edwards, 2003).
- VALAITE - Not amber: Black, lustrous resin that
"Occurs in thin crusts on dolomite and calcite, or in druses of small
crystals, in the Rossitz-Oslawaner Coal formation, Moravia [now
part of Czech Republic] (Dana, 1892 *, p.1051). [Not to be
confused with the "discredited" mineral
- VENDEEN(N)ITE - Not amber?: A fossil resin, not
otherwise defined, from the Vendee district of western France
- WHEELERIT(E) - A retinite?: "A resin ... found in
Cretaceous beds of northern New Mexico [e.g. near Nacimiento],
fissures of the lignite, or interstratified in thin layers in it."
(Dana, 1892*, p.1008). [Not to be confused with the
"redefined or renamed"
- XILANTITA - Not amber: Fossil wood
- XILORRENTIN(A) (xilorrentinita, xylorentinite, etc.)
– Not amber: "derived by Forchhammer through the
action of alcohol on fossil pine-wood from the marshes of
Holtegaard in Denmark" (Dana, 1892*, p.1009).
- CHINESE (etc.) [all on www.ambericawest.com] -
A-Shih-Mo-Chieh-P'o, Fêhg I Sung Chi, Fuling,
Fung Chi, Hsiang P'o, Kao Li, Ming P'o, Nan P'o, Shih Chieh,
& Sung CHINESE & KOREAN - Wo kuo; CHINESE
& VIETNAMESE - Tun Mou. [To date, I have found no one
who knows the language(s) who is willing to comment on any of these
terms other than to say something to the effect that each would have to
be seen in script
and/or context before anyone should even suggest what any of them
to "(Dana, 1892...)" are given in lieu of his cited original/basic
references, which I have not checked. Also, it seems only
mention that several hydrocarbons, which are similarly described in
compilation, are not included on the above list because I have not seen
them recorded as referring to amber as such.
listed designations were found in printed and online dictionaries,
glossaries and other publications and/or sent to me by correspondents.
Individuals from several countries provided information used to verify
the fact that the
designations given for their languages apply to amber the fossil resin.
Some of those correspondents also supplied the included image files for
the non-Roman scripts. Others helped by supplying or directing me
to sources of additional information, getting references (some rather
obscure) through interlibrary loan, critiquing the copy, etc.,
etc. I extend my grateful thanks to each of these
people: Simon Ager, Mahmood Bahaee, William Birch, Akiva Caspi, Frances
S. Dietrich, Kurt R. Dietrich, Richard S. Dietrich, Carla Dimalanta,
Margaret Dodd, Jeffrey de Fourestier, Ebbe Friis, Craig Gibson, David
Ginsburg, Eden Golshani, P. & Vipin
Gopal, Tea Kharitonashvili, Stephanos P. Kilias, Alfred A. Levinson,
Li, Emmett Mason, Mahmoud Moursi, Junlin Pan, Chengxiang Peng,
Vladimer Petkov, Prentiss Riddle, Maxim N. Severinovsky, San San Hnin
Tun, Reed Wicander, Graciano P. Yumul, Jr., Aparna V. Zambare, unnamed persons associated with Funwitharabic.com
and Salik Ltd.,
and one of the members of the
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