The following references comprise a "mixed bag" ranging from web sites that are chiefly for marketing to scholarly books and scientific treatises.  Several of the latter include quoted or paraphrased information referenced to other publications (original+ sources);  I have checked only the “original publications” on the following list -- i.e., a few citations in my writeups to, for example, Dubin (1987) are indicated by her to come from sources I have not checked.

Abbott, R.T. and P.A.Morris. 1995. A field guide to shells:  Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the West Indies (4th edition).  Boston:Houghton Mifflin.

Aboriginal Affairs Victoria(Australia). post-2002 . A guide to shells commonly found in Victorian Aboriginal shell middens. <>  (acessed 12 Feb 2006)

Acosta, José de(1540-1600). 1962.  Historia natural y moral de las Indias en que se tratan de las cosas notables del cielo, elementos, metales, plantas y animales dellas; y los ritos, y ceremonias, leyes y gobierno, y guerras de los Indios (Edición preparada por Edmundo O'Gorman). México: Fonda de cultura económica.  (Translations: - ... 1880. The natural & moral history of the Indies (translated by Edward Grimeston).  London:Hakluyt Society [available on internet <>]  and  ... 2002. Natural and moral history of the Indies (translated by Frances López-Morillas). Durham(NC):Duke University Press. 

Adegoke, O.S., 1973. Mineralogy and biogeochemistry of calcareous operculi and shells of some gastropods. Malacologia, 14:39-46.

Agnes. 2002. What are gallstones composed of?  Science: Composition. <> (accessed 9 February 2006)

Ahrens, J.R. ca. 1986. Hornbill ivory.  Gems and Minerals ?. [I have seen only a phtocopy of this short note and have been unable to find the volume number.  The title of the publication may not be complete -- that given is the running bottom indicator. ]:8 & 24.

Aizenberg,  J.,  V.C.Sundar,  A.D.Yablon,  J.C.Weaver and G.Chen.  2004.  Biological glass fibers: Correlation between optical and structural properties.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101(#10):3358-3363.  < psych527fall05/additional/dan831/sundar03.pdf.   (accessed 28 January 2006)

Akta Lakota Museum & Cultural Center (St. Joseph's Indian School). 2001-2006. Lakota quillwork art and legend. < 10 February 2006)

American International Rattlesnake Museum (Albuquerque, N.M.). 1991. Information about snakes. <>   (accessed 7 March 2006)

American Musem of Natural History. nd. Pearls in human history. <> (accessed 3 June 2006)

Appenzeller, Tim. 1998. Evolution or revolution? in New Art column. Science. 282(no.5393):1451-1457.

Anderson, B.W. 1980. Gem Testing (9th edition). London:Butterworths.

Anon. nd. Butterflies (part of BugInfo series "Prepared by the Department of Systematic Biology, Entomology Section,
National Museum of Natural History [Smithsonian Institution]."  < (accessed 8 February 2006)

Anon. nd#1. The terrible bird. <> (accessed 27 February 2006)

Anon. nd#2 Precious Stones - Superstitions (Originally Published 1880). <> (accessed 2  March 2006)

Anon.1998. Iridescence on butterfly wings: Iridescence in Lepidoptera. Physics Reviews. September 1998.  <>  (accessed 25 February 2006)

Anon. 2006. Wild Things: Live as we know it (column).  Smithosonian.  36(#10):16.

ARCH [Animal rights collective of Halifax]. nd. Animal derived ingredients list. <   (accessed 9 February 2006)

Arkenberg, Rebecca. 1999. Gyotaku: Japanese Fish Printing. <>  (accessed 9 February 2006)

ARTFL Project ... 1997. ARTFL Project: Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary, 1913. <>  (accessed 31 March 2006)

Armstrong, W.  2004. Coconut pearls: A reevaluation of authenticity.  Ornament. 28(#2):46-49.

Art of Africa. 2003.  Handmade ostrich egg-shell jewellery. <> (accessed 7  February 2006)

Ashliman, D.L.(editor). 2001. Folktexts: Golden fowls.  <>  (accessed 4 April 2006)

Avila, Raquel. 1999. The biogeography of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).  <>  (accessed  15 April 2006)

Baicich, P.J. and C.J.O.Harrison. 1997.  A guide to the nests, eggs, and nestlings of North American birds (second edition). San Diego(CA):Academic Press.

Baldwin, W.C. 1863. African hunting from Natal to the Zambesi including Lake Ngami, The Kalahari Desert, &c. New York:Arno Press  (1967 reprint read)

Ball, S.H. 1935. A historical study of precious stone valuations and prices. Economic Geology30:630-642.

Ballarini, Roberto and A.H. Heuer. 2007.  Secrets in the shell:  The body armor of the queen conch is much tougher than comparable synthetic materials. What secrets does it hold?  American Scientist. 95: 422-429.

Barlow, Rich. 2006. The Monarch of the Glen. <> (accessed 20 December 2006)

Barta, Patrick. 2007.  Animal warehouse: [Kruger] Park builds horde of exotic treasures.  The Wall Street Journal. CCL(#67):A1 & A17.  

Bates, R.L. and J.A. Jackson (editors). 1987. Glossary of geology (Third edition). Alexandria(Virginia):American Geological Institute.

Bathurst, R.G.C.  1971. Carbonate sediments and their diagenesis. Amsterdam:Elsevier.

Bauer, Max. 1969. Precious stones: A popular account of their characters, occurrence, and applications, with an introduction to their determination, for mineralogists, lapidaries, jewellers, etc.(sic) with an appendix on pearls and coral (Translated from the German with additions by L.J. Spencer) and with new appendices on synthetic gems and the cultured pearl. Rutland(VT):Charles E. Tuttle.

BBC NEWS. 2006. Insight into mystery of antlers: Stem cells play a key role in the deer's remarkable ability to grow new antlers, according to research. <>  (accessed 14 January 2006)

BBC Online network.  1999.  World: Africa tusk count to fight ivory trade. < world/africa/newsid_261000/261794.stm>      (accessed 9 March 2006)

Behler, J.L. and F.W.King. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians.  New York:Alfred A Knopf.

Benson, L.B., Jr.  1959. Gem trade lab in Los Angeles. Gems & Gemology. IX:337.

Bergman, C.A., Ingrid Azoury and Helga Seeden. 2012.  Kxas Aqil: At the crossroads out of Africa.  Saud Aramco World  63(no.5):34-39 2000. <http:// > (accessed 6 April 2006)

Blackhawk. nd.  Egg Shell Scultures by Blackhawk.  <> (accessed 17 January 2006)

Blair, A. 1998. Gastropoda through the ages. <>  (accessed 13 February 2006)

Bliss, "Mr."  2005. Carved stone rattlesnake rattles.  <>  (accessed 10 January 2005)

Block, R.J. and M.K.Horwitt.  1937.  The basic amino acids of keratins. a note on the basic amino acid content of porcupine quills and echidna spines. Journal Biological Chemistry.  121:99-100.

Boskey, A.L. 2007. Mineralization of bones and teeth.  Elements.  3:385-391.
Bostrom, P(eter). 2003.  Polished gizzard stone Cahokia Points: Mississippian Culture, Madison & St. Clair Co., Illinois A.D. 750 to A.D. 1400. <> [#129].   (accessed 7 February 2006)

Brade, Christine. 1975. Die mittelalterlichen Kernspaltflöten Mittel- und Nordeuropas. Neumünster(Germany):Karl Wachholtz Verlag.

Brock, J.P. and Kenn Kaufman. Butterflies of  North America. New York:Houghton-Mifflin

Brodie, Christina. 2004. Geometry and pattern in nature 2: Iridescence in butterfly wing scales. Micscape Magazine. Microscopy-UK. Oct. 2004. <> (accessed 25 February 2006) 

Brost, F.B.and R.D.Coale, 
A guide to shell collecting in the Kwajalein atoll. Rutland(VT):Charles E. Tuttle.

Brown, Grahame. 2003.  Hornbill ivory - parts 1 & 2. IIS [International Ivory Society] Newsletter. 48:1-2 & 49:1-2.

Brown, Grahame and A.J.Moule. 1977. The structural characteristics of elephant ivory. Australian Gemmologist.  13(#1):13-17.

Brown, Grahame and A.J.Moule. 1977a. The structural characteristics of various ivories - Part two. Australian Gemmologist. 13(#2):47-60.

Brown, Grahame and A.J.Moule. 1982. Hornbill ivory. Journal of Gemmology. XVIII(#1): 8-19.

Brusca, R. and G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland(MA):Sinauer Associates, Inc.

Bullock, J.S. 2000. Mourning jewelry - made from human hair.  <> (accessed  24 February 2006)

Butterfly 2001-2006. Butterfly jewelry, keychains, letter openers, bookmarks. <>   (accessed 25 February 2006)

Callaway, Ewen. 2015. Neanderthals wore eagle talons as jewellery.  Nature|News  (Nature | doi:10.1038/nature.2015.17095)  <>
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CLLS (Canadian Lakes Loon Survey). nd. Facts about common loons.  <> (accessed 3 March 2006)

Cambefort, Yves. 1994. Beetles as religious symbols ( from Cultural Entomology, 2nd issue, February 1994).  <> (accessed 24 March 2007)

Cammann, S.V.R.  1950.  The story of hornbill ivory. University Museum [University of Pennsylvania] Publication15:19-47.

Canku Ota.  2001. Why porcupine has quills (Chippewa Legend).  <>   (accessed 29 January 2006)

Cariño, Micheline and Mario Monteforte.1995. History of pearling in La Paz Bay, south Baja California. Gems & Gemology. XXXI:88-105

Carmona, Charles, J.E. Cole and Jaqueline Marks. 2011. "Too precious to wear":  The role of the jewelry industry in coral conservation. Gems & Gemology. 47:158.

Carter, J.G. 1980. Selected mineralogical data for the bivalvia.  in Rhoads, D.C. and R.A. Lutz (editors). Skeletal growth of aquatic organisms: Biological records of environmental change. (627-643). New York: Plenum Press.

Carter, J.G. 1980a. Guide to bivalve shell microstructures. in Rhoads, D.C. and R.A. Lutz (editors). Skeletal growth of aquatic organisms: Biological records of environmental change. (627-643). New York: Plenum Press.

CephSchool (The National Resource Center for Cephalopods). 2003-2005.   Cephalopod photo, video and graphic illustration resources. <>   (accessed 24  February 2006)

Cervantes (Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, 1547-1616). 1605-1615 (publication date 1993).  Don Quixote (P.A. Motteux,18th century translation).  Ware(Hertfordshire):Wordsworth Editions, Limited.

Chalker, Kari(general editor). 2004. Totems to turquoise:  Native North American jewelry arts of the northwest and southwest.New York::Harry N. Abrams.

Choudhary, Gagan.   2013.  Orangy pink coated "sof coral." Gem news International. Gems & Gemology. XLIX:121.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    2014.  Composite coral veneer glued to artificial matrix.  Gem news International.  Gems & Gemology50:163-166.

Chichester, Inc. 2006. Chichester, Inc. <> (accessed 20 May 2006)

Child, R. 2006.  Looking after organic gems. Organic gems magazine.  1 (2006).

China four seasons travel.. 1996-2002. The folk dances of the Dai nationality. <> (accessed 22 March 2007)

Christy, Bryan. 2012. Ivory worship.  National geographic. 222(#4):28-61.  (photographs by Brent Stirton

CIESM (The Mediterranean Science Commission). 2006. Atlas: Exotic species in the Mediterranean. <> (accessed 2 July 2006)

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Cohen, Elias (editor). 1979. Biomedical applications of the horseshoe crab (Limulidae) New York:Alan R. Liss, Inc.

Colla, Phillip. 2006. Lobster photos. <> (accessed 15 April 2006)
Columbia Encyclopedia.  2001-2005. Oracle bones. Columbia Encyclopedia (6th Edition).  New York:Columbia University Press  (online -)   <>  (accessed  8  February 2006)

Conard N. J., M.Malina, S.C.Münzel and Friedrich.Seeberger. 2004. Ein Mammutelfenbeinflöte aus dem Aurignacien des Geissenklösterle. Neue Belege für eine musikalische Tradition im frühen Jungpaläolithikum auf der Schwäbischen Alb.
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Conniff, Richard.  2009.  Mad about shells.  Smithsonian.   August 2009:44-51.

Cornell University. 2005. Bush, Cheney and Rumsfeld are now species of slime-mold beetles...(
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Cox, L.R. 1960. Gastropoda: General characteristics of Gastropoda  in  Knight, J.B. et alTreatise on Invertebrate Paleontology (Part I.  Mollusca 1).  Lawrence(Kansas):University of Kansas Press.
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Croce, G.,  A.Frache, M.Milanesio, L.Marchese, M.Causà, D.Viterbo, A.Barbaglia, V.Bolis, G.Bavestrello, C.Cerrano, U.Benatti, M.Pozzolini, M.Giovine and H.Amenitsch.  2004. Structural Characterization of Siliceous Spicules from Marine Sponges. Biophysical Journal . 86(#1):526-534.   <>  (accessed 28 January 06)

Crowningshiled, G.R. 1950. Notes on imitation pearls. Gems & Gemology. VI:288.

Crowningshield, G.R. 1959. Highlights at the Gem Trade Lab in New York. Gems & Gemology. IX:292.

Crowningshield, G.R. 1994. Pearls: Early Japanese assembled cultural blister pearls. in Kammerling,R.C. and C.W. Fryer (editors). Gem Trade Lab Notes. Gems & Gemology. XXX:44-45..

Crowningshield, Robert. 1964. Stained marble beads.  in Gem trade lab in New York. Gems & GemologyXI:181

Crowningshield, Robert. 1967.  Snuff-bottle collecting.  in Gem trade lab in New York. Gems & GemologyXII:204-205.

Cunningham, Val.  2004. The Nature of Feathers. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer . January-February:42-53.

Curry, Andrew. 2012. Truth and beauty - The discovery of a 40,000-year-old figurine... (Photograph by H. Jensen). Smithsonian,  42(No.11): 28

Dana, E.S. 1892. The system of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana (6th Edition). New York:John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Das, Indraneil and Ghazally Ismail.  2002.  Crocodiles and turtles of borneo  <> (accessed 27 February 2006)  

Davies, T.T.,  M.A.Crenshaw and B.M.Heatfield.  1972. The effect of temperature on the chemistry and structure of echinoid spine regeneration. Journal of Paleontology. 46:874–883.

De Vos,Louis,  Klaus Rutzler,  Nicole Boury-Esnault,  Claude Donadey and Jean Vacelet. 1991. Atlas of Sponge Morphology. Washington(DC):Smithsonian Institute.

Denys, Nicolas [1609?-1686?]. 1908.
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Dietrich, R.V. 1989.  Stones: Their collection, identification, and uses (2nd edition, reprinted, 1995). Tucson:GeoScience Press. ("out of print" but a few copies are available  - contact author for information.)

Dietrich, R.V. 1997.  David Corp: Two men or only one?  Moran Township [Mackinac County, Michigan] Sesquicentennial Edition: April 1, 1844-April 1, 1994.  St. Ignace(MI):Moran Township. p.31-39.       

Dietrich, R.V. and P.A.Morris.  1953. Mollusks from Kwajalein.  The Nautilus - A quarterly devoted to malacology67(#1):13-18.

Dietrich, R.V. and B.J.Skinner. 1979. Rocks and rock minerals. New York:Wiley.

Dietz, D.C. 2000. Beach Gems. Lapidary Journal. 54(5):32-34; 40,41.

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Driessens, F.C.M. and R.M.H.Verbeeck. 1990. Biominerals.  Boca Raton(FL):CRC Press.

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Espinoza, E.O. and M-J.Mann.1993.  The history and significance of the Schreger pattern in Proboscidean ivory characterization. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation.  32:241-248.

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Fackelmann, K.A. 1993. Aztec cure for official fatigue bathing in mixture of herbs, animal blood and bird gizzard stones.  Science NewsMarch 27:.207.

Fisher, R.C. 1988. An inordinate fondness for beetles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 35:313-319. [[not yet seen]]

Fiske, Doug and Jeremy Shepherd. 2007. Continuity and change in Chinese freshwater pearl culture.  Gems & Gemology.  43:138-145.
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Hainschwang, Thomas. 2011. "Cat's-eye pearls": Unusual non-nacreous calcitic pearl imitations.  in  GemNews International. Gems & Gemology. 47:330-332

Hainschwang, Thomas and Laurence Leggio. 2006. The characterization of tortoise shell and its imitations.  Gems & Gemology. XLII:36-52.

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Hänni, H.A. 2005a. Chinese cultured pearls. Focus, 6:12. [SSEF Facette No. 12, January 2005 of Swiss Gemmological Institute seen.]

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