STRAITS'  STONES:A Picture Album
Fieldstones -- Buildings and Other Uses
Volume I. Mackinac County
© 2016
                                                                                                          by  R.V. ("Dick") Dietrich,

NOTE: The lack of interest within Cheboygan and Antrim counties, which were originally scheduled for coverage similar to that recorded for the "Straits part of Mackinac County," led to postponing that coverage.  Instead, additions and revisions from the Upper Peninsula area within and near the Straits' area, particularly in Mackinac County, will be made to this web site.  To view the Straits area, as originally defined, see Figure 2 in Appendix A. Maps. 
             The additional coverage will be directely below the dedication  -- i.e., precede the original Table of Contents.  It will be added in a piecemeal fashion -- i.e.,with no set timetable, rather whenever stone-based things that appear to be of possible interest are photographed and theirc
ondor captions are prepared.  The captions and additional information will be "drafts" --  i.e.,  subject to revision as additional data becomes known.

[ A few years ago, a PDFcopy of this web page was put in CMU's CONDOR repository;  CONDOR has recently been "replaced ... with the CMU Libraries Digital Collections --see"  In ay case, IF the file is there, it has NOT BEEN UPDATED(!!!) whereas the following copy has been and continues to be updated  with changes, additions, etc. These are shown in Red on this entry.]

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  for Frances, Rick, Kurt and Krista

Brain-Teasers, Additions and Revisions: 
          Four "brain-teasers," which include stones, groups of stones, and stone structures, are within the Straits area of Mackinac County.  Their uses or functions are either unknown or questioned. Illustrations and "in preparation" texts are in the web file  STONES -- Posers to Ponder, which is one of the files on this URL.

Additions and Revisions:
I. Buildings
        Public Buildings

      Former "bar".  This stone-sided building, referred to as a former bar by many nearby residents, was actually a garage that had a gasoline pump or two in front of it.  The building, which was built in the late 1930s, is on the south side of the Hiawatha Trail (Rte. H40) in Rexton, Hudson Township (NE¼ of Sec.1, T.43N., R.8W).  The alluded-to bar was an adjoining part of the original structure.  The bar was run by "Buck" Goodrow.
             Several years ago, the bar (etc.) portion of the original building was moved to the north side of Rte. 2, about ¼ mile west of the junctin of Borgstrom Rd. junctin.  Today, that building, which has been greatly modified, includes a fine example of stone masonry beneath the bottom of its windows -- see lower photograph.  Nearly all of the stones of this siding are "hard rock" types that are representative of the bedrock formation of Canada, to the north.  All exhibit split faces.
      [The historical information given in the above caption is based on a conversation with Harold Shoemaker.]


      Abandoned farm house.  This house, said to date back to the late 20s or 30s and to have been built for a . . . Houck, is on the north side of Linck Rd., in the SE¼ of Sec.7, T.43N., R.10W.  The upper photograph shows the west side;  the left photograph of the bottom pair shows the southeast corner ... The use of fieldstones in this house is especially interesting because the masonry of lower part of house -- i.e., downward from just above the level of the eaves -- consists of stones apparently laid course by course, though rather randomly, whereas the area above that level consists of blocks that appear to have been fashioned like those used in the residence in Germfask, which is included in the original report (q.v.).  However, the exposed stones of several of the blocks used in this house are arranged so they roughly resemble flowers -- see upper part of the right photo.
      [The historical information given in the above caption is based on conversations with Linnea Ault.]

      Country ResidenceThis house, is on the north side of McKelvey Rd. in the SW¼ of Sec.21, T.44N., R.10W.                   

        Other Buildings & Structures

      Milkhouse.  A barn on the south side of Swede Rd. (NE¼ sec.15, T.42N.-R.1E.), once included a fieldstone faced milkhouse, and part of its foundation extended upward as the wall of its "milk parlor"  --  see Cl8, on the Barns web site .  That overall structure is said to have been built in 1911 by Andrew Lofdahl, an immigrant from the Åland Islands.


      Root cellar (i.e., its remains)This originally stone sided structure is located in the NW¼ of Sec.5, T.40N., R.4W. (i.e., 45o55'33"N, 84o46'16"W). The area of the original floor is approximately 20 x 25 feet.  Glacial and/or glaciofluvial "hard rock" stones and stones and slabs derived from nearby sedimentary strata are included in the masonry.  This structure is known to have been one of the buildings on a former farm owned by William Bryce and apparently used by at least two generations of the Cheeseman Family.
            A nearby interesting feature includes parts of an old barbed wire fence that is now surrounded by several years of growth rings of a couple trees.  It seems likely that this fence dates from the early 1900s and perhaps to the late 1880s (see Dietrich, 2008, p.78). 
      [Curtis Cheeseman, shown in the lower right photograph, directed this structure and the fence to my attention and along with his mother, Janice Holle, supplied the historical data about the structure that are mentioned in this caption.

      Well house.  This fine example of masonry, which exhibits split-faces of fieldstones, is on the north side of Swedes Rd, northeast of Cedarville (SE¼ sec.7, T.42N.-R.1E.).  Nearly all of the included stones are "hard rock."  The structure was apparently builty by Karl Rosing, a Scandinavian who came as a homesteader to Les Cheneaux in 1900.  See also the barn  on the same property -- especially the foundation of its south side (see Cl5, )

   Parts of Buildings


              The above building, on Gros Cap Rd. is one of several within the area that shows how structures or parts of structures that consist of stone masonry -- in this case the FOUNDATION -- outlast those made of most other building materials.  It is included here because some readers (stone masons?) have indicated that not enough was said or even implied about this fact.   [ This building was razed in 2014. ]

              The eight chimneys that served structures that no longer exist and the "Hunting cabin ..." near Reston, which are included in the original report, are also examples to support
the above statement about the lasting quality of stone masonry. The chimneys were originally attached to buildings that were not sided by stone masonry.  Those buildings "wasted away," were burned, or torn down;  the chimneys remain!   And, if you do not recall, reread what happened to the preexisting wooden cabin near Reston.  In addition, attention is directed to C18, a barn in Clark Twp.;  it is shown in "Barns of Mackinac County, Michigan: ..." (Dietrich, 2012 -- see

         Bell tower  (An added subcategory)

              This tower, which serves two purposes -- i.e., as a bell tower, as well as a chimney for a fireplace that is in the church santuary -- is in Hulbert, Chippewa County. The church, including its fine stone masonry foundation, and this fine tower were built in 1935 (see concrete placque on "tower").  The church treasurer, James Snody, noted that the stones were brought to Hulbert from Paradise, a few miles north of Hulbert. 


      "Leaning Chimney of Brevort Lake."  The above photographs were taken at right angles to the "leaning" view shown in the original document, which is below this Additions and Revisions group of photographs and information.  Some aspects of this chimney that were not evident in the "leaning" view but are in this composite are:  The diverse makeup of the included stones;  the arrangement of the stones near the top of the chimney;  the strap, alluded to in the next paragraph;  and the "L" (for Litzner) that is outlined by what appear to be broken surfaces of bricks.   
                    Additional data about the chimney and house served by it have also become available.  These data provide answers to questions posed in the original document:    The house, including the chimney was built during the depression [early 1930s] on land given to Herman Litzner 
by his father.  Herman is said to have "built the house from excess supplies he could find and/or get cheap ...  the rocks were just found on the [surrounding] 10 acres of property.  [And, so far as the "leaning,"] the chimney was straight, but over nearly 90 years, time has taken its toll.  We tried to slow its demise by metal strapping it to the roof peak (which stopped its fall so to speak)." (Richard Van Overberg, grandson of Herman Litzner, p.c., 19 June 2013).  


              The stone-masonry corners of the above log-sided building have shapes, settings and apparent function that differ from virtually all the stone-masonry corners included in the original manuscript (several of those corners can be seen by using the search word corner).  That is to say, the corners of the previously included structures are continuous with other stone-masonry, such as siding, whereas the stone-masonry corners of this structure appear mainly to serve as pillar-like accents of a log-sided building.
             Most of the stones of the corners of this building are from nearby glacial and glacio-fluvial deposits;  a few are pieces of nearby bedrock, at least some of which were likely broken off outcrops as the result of natural activities such freezing (and expansion) of water within open joints. 
              This building is on the Trout Lake township campground that is west of Trout Lake village, in Chippewa Co.;  it is thought to "very old" and once to have been a roof-covered open space (p.c., person currently in charge of the campground, 2015).   Currently, the structure is used to store the garbage receptacles that are loaned to campers while they are at the campground.

II.Other Uses
        Landscape Accents

      Fountain. This fountain, on the west side of Church St. in St. Ignace, was fashioned by Steven Boatner in 2011 and 2012.  As can be seen, its more decorative permanent parts consist largely of large cobbles and boulders of diverse "hard rocks" from the nearby glacial and glacio-fluvial deposits.  The relatively flat areas that constitute much of the falls area proper and surround the streetside of the pool are "limestone" flagstones.  The masonry, of which most of the stones are "hard rock," that surrounds the porch area of the Boatner's house is also noteworthy -- see upper left photograph.

      Gateway.  This gateway, the waterfalls and the pond, which are shown in the upper photograph, grace the entrance to Hiawatha Sportsman's Club, which includes a nine-hole golf course.  They are on the north side of Rte. 2 west of Naubinway.  The gateway is thought to date to the 1960s;  the waterfalls and pond were added in 2009.  A large percentage of the stones in these structures are "limestones" derived from relatively nearby rock formations;  a few "hard rock" stones are also included.
             The left photograph of the composite shows the brass plaque-bearing memorial monument that is west of the gateway.  The plaque bears the following inscription:  Dr. W.E. McNamara / 1877-1953 /  Surgeon - Humanitarian - Pioneer /  Founder of the Hiawatha Club. The photographs on the right show the columns at the former main access to the Club's acreage, which is on the south side of the Hiawatha Trail (H-40).  Despite their different character -- e.g., the fact that their constituent stones exhibit split faces -- it is thought that these columns were made at about the same time as the Gateway.  As is evident part of the coloumn shown on the right is in need of repair because of its disintegrating mortar. 
      [Most of the information in the above caption is based on conversations with Gary Trombley, who fashioned the waterfalls, and Bobby Beaudon.]

             For some things it seems more fun (and thought-provoking) to imagine than to know WHY.  This display is in St. Ignace, on the north side of Portage Rd., west of the I-75 overpass.

       Miscellaneous Uses

           Decorative items.-

      "Sculpture" by Randy Dunn.  This piece, fashioned in 2011, is of special interest to me, a long time petrologist and bird-watcher.  It includes a stone, AND it depicts a bird.  

      Window display in preparation for an upscale store, "Decked Out," on Mackinac Island.  Pebbles, cobbles, and small boulders such as these are gaining apparently ever increasing roles as parts of all sorts of displays -- e.g., those in museums as well as those in store cases and windows, and even in photographs for catalogues and other advertisement media.  The stones of this display-in-preparation came from a beach on Lake Superior. 

      Labyrinth outlined largely with cobble- and small boulder-sized "limestone" is on the lake side of Pte. LaBarbe Rd.  A few "hard rock" stones and two pieces of concrete are also included.  Letters are on four stones of the outermost circle that indicate the compass directions;  that is to say, lines, which if present, that would extend from the center of the labyrinth to these stones woud point in the given directions (see inset example).  This labyrinth is said to have been fashioned by Gary Evans of Ann Arbor in 2011.

      A Special Path  with a row of angular cobble-sized stones along either side.  This bridal path was on the northern shore or Lake Michigan, just west of the Straits of Mackinac in mid August, 2015.  Stones like these are rather common here and there along the nearby lake shore area.  A few days later, only the stones remained;  it appears, however, that at least one of them is missing -- perhaps taken elsewhere, to have a special place . . . .

           Monuments & Markers.- 

      Fishermen's Memorial.  This cenotaph on the harbor side of State St. in downtown St. Ignace was erected in 2005.  Most of the constituent stones are relatively small "hard rock" boulders;  the metal "fish," which is mounted on a rod extending from its top, has an especially eye-catching eye.  Two plaques that describe the intent of this memorial are attched to the main pillar-like structure:  The one on the street side is shown.  The one on the harbor side lists the Fishermen "from Mackinac County [who] lost their lives while commercially fishing."  Twentyfive in uumber, those included were residents of Epoufette, Naubinway, St. Ignace, St. Ignace Township,  and Machinac Island.
ince 2006, this memorial has served as the focus of a "spiritual ceremony" that opens the Annual Fish Festival.  As reported in The St. Ignace News (vol. 132, no. 17, p. 1)  A local man, "Darryl Brown, also known by as his (sic) Native American name, Mididegwe Anamosh, offers a prayer to the Creator using Native American traditions to start off the Fish Feast ...  The prayer ...offered thanks for the fish and guidance and protection for the fishermen who make their way of life on the waters."     
             See also the left side photograph in the Gateway entry under the Landscape Accents subheading. 

      Cairn-like stack of stones, created in late July, 2012.  This stack was in a small, shallow bay offshore from Boulevard Drive in section 24, T.40N., R.4W.  As a WW-II veteran, and I admit that I know not why, this led me to recall several of the places I saw "Kilroy was here."  Furthermore, as I remembered how some of those "signatures" were short-lived (e.g., crossed-out or removed), my recollection became so-to-speak even more timely;  this was so because a few days later (by August 3rd), this cairn was no longer present.  However, a three-stone stack, which I had not seen before, was offshore from the Boulevard, fairly near the "Big Mac" Bridge;  I suspect it was put there to mark a shallow sand bar in the Straits -- See below.

The next evening (August 4th), a small stone had been added to the three-stone stack, AND an additional stack, a photo of which is shown below, was on the same bar, about 20 feet to the left.  As can be seen below, the more recently created stack includes more stones than the first one on the bar.  In any case, as I told my "kids," its presence reminded me of what my Grandmother Vincent used to tell me when I was trying to do something -- frequently, something not all that "smart" -- that one of my older cousins had done:  "Monkey see, monkey do!"  [I wonder if this old saw had anything to do with the origin of the verb to ape and its various forms.]

During the night there was a storm.  On the morning of  August 5th, neither of these stacks was on the bar. 
       - - -< + > - - -    


      Stones used as weights to hold something down can be seen here and there in many places within the county.  This example is on the south side of Town Hall Rd. across Derusha Rd., and the old Townhall, in Hendricks Twp. (Sec. 9, T.43N. R.7W.)

~~ << END of Additions and Revisions >> ~~

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Table of Contents (included to facilitate searches).

I. Buildings
Public Buildings  
Little Stone Church, Mackinac Is.
        Restaurant - Jockey Club, Mackinac Is.
        Former Cobblestone Café & Motel, St. Ignace
        Former Mackinac County Airport Terminal
        Former Store on Mackinac Trail

       Farm House, Portage Rd., St. Ignace
       Residence, North State St., St. Ignace
       Residence, northwest of Hessel
       Residence, Cedar Rd., Hessel
       Residence, Grove St., Cedarville
       Former residence, Cheeseman Rd.
       Summer cottage, Brevort Lake
       Summer home, Marquette Is.
     “Blockhouse,”  Marquette Is.
     “Cabin” on Bois Blanc Is.
       Officers' Stone Quarters, Mackinac Is.

Other Buildings & Structures
      Blast Shack, west of Brevort
        Fort Mackinac Blockhouses,  Mackinac Is.
        Icehouse & woodshed, Marquette Is.
        Former kilns:
               On Mackinac Is.
               On  Rabbits Back stack
               South of Kenneth
Powder  Magazine, Mackinac Is.
Playhouse, Avery Point,  Hessel Bay
        Root cellar,  west of Cedarville
Marquette Is.
       What?, St. Ignace     (Now #4 of "Brain-Teasers" in Update section)
       What??, northwest of West Lant Rd.    
(Now #3 of "Brain-Teasers" in Update section)
Parts of Buildings
       Partial facings:
               LaSalle High School, St. Ignace
               Residence, Huron St., St. Ignace
               Residence, Duke's Rd., Moran
               Residence, East Adolphus St., Moran
               House, East Lake
               Summer Place, Les Cheneaux Islands
               Vacation home, northwest of Brevort
               Residence, Adolphus St., Moran
       Foundations & Porches:
               Loyola Catholic Church, St. Ignace - foundation
               Cabin-home, Mackinac Trail - foundation
               Summer home, Bois Blanc Is. - foundation plus
               Trailer, Cedarville - faux foundation
               Residence, Schoolhouse Rd., Brevort - foundation & “stoop”
               Residence, Bertrand St., St. Ignace - porch
               House, Martin Rd. (west branch) - porch
               Cottage, Hessel - porch & chimney

  Chimneys & additional uses:
               Diverse chimneys - four examples
Leaning chimney of Brevort Lake
               Stairs & pedestals, Rockview Rd., north of Hessel
       Indoor Fireplaces:
               Former Mackinac Co. Airport Terminal, St. Ignace
               Summer home, Hessel
               Summer home, Hessel
               Residence, Rockview Rd.
               Summer home, Bois Blanc Is.
               Fire-proof backing for stove, north of Brevort
       Former Fireplace-chimneys:
Chimney Point, Marquette Is.
               Golf Course, St. Ignace
               Duke's Rd., Moran
               Brevort Lake and
Sofie's Tavern,
Pine River                    
               Rabbits Back Peak Peninsula
               State St., St. Ignace
               Martin Lake Rd. and Gros Cap

II. Other Uses 
Landscape Accents
               Boulder entities - Graham Ave., St. Ignace and  Brevort Lake Rd., west of Moran
               Boulder plus - Mackinac Is.
               Boulders,  group of - Schoolhouse Rd., Brevort
               Boulders atop boulders - Duke's Rd., west of Moran and Wartella Rd., east of Moran
               Small stones atop a boulder - Ponchartain Shores Small stones atop a boulder
               Rubble atop rubble - Mackinac Is.
               Boulders that welcome - Wartella Rd., east of Moran
               Boulder deterrents (No parking) - Bois Blanc Ferry landing area
               Boulder deterrents (No trespassing) - St. Ignace deterrents
               Driveway dots - East Lake Rd.
               Driveway dots - Gros Cap Rd.
               Painted “dots” - St. Ignace
               Lines of stones - Cedarville (2 entries)
               Waterfalls & cascade - Mackinac Is.
               Waterfalls & stream - Woodland Subdivision, Cedarville
              Dry waterfall" - Church Rd., Moran
               Patio-walkway - Bois Blanc
              “Total landscape” - LaVake Rd.
               Walkway - Bois Blanc
               Walkway & steps -Moran        
               Stones on steps - St. Ignace
               Planters & atone-bordered flower beds:
                        Duke's Rd., Moran; Huron St., St. Ignace;
                        Gros Cap Rd.; & Church Rd., Moran
              “Frame” around flagpole - LaVake Rd.
              “Frames” around ... -  Pte. LaBarbe Rd.;  Charles Moran Rd., Moran; & Brevort Lake Rd.
              “Frames” around ... -  Cheeseman Rd. & East Martin Lake Rd.
              “Frame” around Moran “Welcome ..” etc.- Rte. 123, Moran - “frame”
              “Frame”and base for old boat - Pte. LaBarbe Rd. - “frame”
              “Wishing well”  Evergreen Shores
               Pillars - Mackinac Is.;  Pte. LaBarbe Rd.; & Allenville
              “Pillar” - Cedarville
       Stone “fence” - Church Rd., Moran
       Dry-laid wall - Kenneth Rd., Hiwatha National Forest & Pte. Aux Chenes
       Dry-laid wall - Hessel
       Culvert headers - Moran
       Wet-laid walls - Fort Mackinac, Mackinac Is.
       Wet-laid wall - near Chimney Point, Marquette Is.
       Wet-laid walls - Duke's Rd., Moran & Huron St., St. Ignace
       Wet-laid walls - Martin Rd. extension
       Wing walls (former) -  Mackinac Trail
       Walls in Cemeteries - Grace Brethren Cemetery, near Ozark & Gros Cap Cemetery
       Wall in Cemetery - Brevort Township Cemetery
       Diverse walls - Mackinac Is. (2 composites)
Miscellaneous Uses
       Shore Protection and Docks
               Boulder and/or rubble piling - St. Ignace, Brevort Lake, & Brevort River
               Gabion wall - near Damsite, Brevort Lake outlet area
               Breakwater, off-shore, Hessel
               Pond side - Black Point Rd., west of Moran
               Former dock -  Brevort Lake
               Crib docks - Hessel
       Fire circles and Outdoor Fireplaces:
               Loose rubble & fieldstones - Search Bay, Hiawatha National Forest & Ponchartrain Shores
               Large one, loose stones - Schoolhouse Rd., north of Brevort
               Firecircle with mortar - Brevort Lake (2)
               Outdoor fireplaces - Marquette Is.& Worth Rd., northeast of Brevort
               Outdoor fireplace - Pte. LaBarbe Rd.
               Outdoor fireplace - East Lake Rd.
       Decorative items:
               Pebble mosaic table & vase - Moran
               Framed hanging - Allenville
               Boulder pendant -  Webb Rd.
               Birdhouse, mailbox, plant pot & birdbath - Hessel, Hill Is., Brevort Lk.            
                                                                                 Rd. & Cedarville,
               Birdbath - Bois Blanc
               Table tops - Cedarville
              Rock garden - Evergreen Shores
               Stylized fauxstone ... replica of  Old Glory - Chard Rd.
       Monuments & Markers:
               Rogers monument - Mackinac Trail
               Cemetery monument  & commemorative boulder - St. Ignace & Cedarville, respectively
               Bicentennial Time Capsule (Father Marquette National Park) & Michigan State Ferry ... - St. Ignace               
               Shipwrecks and Underwater Preserves -  St. Ignace
               Unknown Soldiers (1814 battle) - Mackinac Is.         
              Michigan's most historic spot -  Mackinac Is.  
       Cairn- and Inukshuk-like stacks of stones:
               Cairn-like stacks - Brevort Lake
               Cairn-like stacks -  Hessel
               Cairn-like stacks -  Kenneth Rd.
               Cairn-like stacks -   Mackinac Is.
               Piles -  Cheeseman Rd.
               Inukshuk-like stacks - Mackinac Is.
               Small and medium boulders - East Lake & Gros Cap
      “Wow”& Worry Stone - Brevort Lake & portable, respectively
      A matter of tangential interest,  Pte. Aux Chenes

III. Nearby Fieldstone Uses of Special Interest.
       Monck's Stone Bar, formerly in Epoufette, Mackinac Co.
       Hunting cabin plus, Hiawatha Trail, southeast of Rexton, Mackinac Co.
       House, Germfask, Schoolcraft  County
       House, west of Fibre, Chippewa County
       Pillar & wall, Pt. Iroquois, Chippewa County
south of Goetsville, Chippewa County
       Residence & wall, DeTour Village, Chippewa County

       Michigan Counties
       Area covered
Miscellaneous Uses of Fieldstones within the Area
Some Rocks and Geological Features exhibited by fieldstones shown in photographs

               Robert Brown, my son-in-law; Krista Brown, my daughter; Rick and Kurt Dietrich, my sons; Charles Brown, a St. Ignace attorney; Chuck Cullip, a St. Ignace businessman; John Evashevski, St. Ignace High School teacher and coach, retired; Charlie Fowler, St. Ignace middle school principal, retired; Paul Kreski, Consultant, Mackinac Environmental;  Mike Lehto, St. Ignace elementary school principal, retired; Phil Porter, Director, Mackinac State Historic Parks; Buck Sharrow, guide and carriage driver on Mackinac Island; and Jim Vosper, author and long time resident of Bois Blanc Island, accompanied me while I visited and photographed some of the buildings and other features included in this album.  Krista and Bob viewed an early and the next-to-final draft of the material, provided several interesting facts about the area and gave me suggestions that increased and improved the coverage.  Charlie Brown was especially helpful because of his knowledge about the area, where he has spent most of his life;  among other things, he supplied reports and records, some of which would have been difficult to get elsewhere.   Bob Brown, Charlie Brown, Chuck Cullip, John Evashevski, Charlie Fowler and Buck Sparrow took me to some localities that would have been extremely difficult for me to get to alone -- Bob Brown and Charlie Fowler by boat##; Charlie Brown, Chuck Cullip and Paul Kreski by 4-wheel drive vehicles; John Evashevski by his four-wheeler;  Buck by horse-drawn carriage (carriage and horses courtesy of Mike Young, Frankenmuth automobile dealer). David Ginsburg, Research Librarian Emeritus, Central Michigan University, helped me find some rather obscure references and checked the format of the References Cited.  Krista Brown, Rick and Kurt Dietrich and Reed Wicander critiqued the pre-final draft of the material included.  I gratefully acknowledge and thank each of these people for their contributions.
Colonel Curtis Cheeseman and his wife Caroline kindly provided me with a place to stay in October, 2009, when I did the preliminary data collecting.  The following people aided me by supplying information and/or in other ways as I collected information and took the photographs:  Hugh Anderson, Jon Arnold, Ray & Kim Arnold, Katherine (née Lehto) Babcock, Donnelda Baer, A.J. Baker, Mary Baker, Earl Bayush, Jack Bickham, Richard Beruning, Larry Bigelow, Steve Bird, Stella Bishop, Chalie Bomeister, Gertrude Boyd, Ollie Boynton, Prentiss M. Brown, Jr., Mallory Burkolder, Geraldine L. Collins, Chuck & Connie Cullip, Tom Della-Moretta, Jack Dougherty, Jerry Eifler, Pat Emory, John & Pam Engel, Vern Erskine, Lucy Evashevski, Barb Foster, Charlie & Karen Fowler, Dave, Janet & Chet Garen, Violet ("Marie") Gorman, Janet Hagen, Carol Hamel, Charlie Hanson, John Hessel, Mary Hill, Dan Hockett, Vicky Hough, Oliver House, Cathy Johnson, Kathryn (née Goyer) Johnson, Tom Johnson, Theresa Kelley, Diane Kreski, Nick & Laurel LaChapelle, Elmer Lamoreaux, Steve & Gretchen Lauer, Michele Ledy, Julie Lipnitz, Patricia Litzner, Louise Lowetz, Mike & Derinda Mann, Phyllis & Ed Massey, John & Madlyn Masten, Paul & Kay Matelski, Jennifer McGraw, Jim Mertaugh, Bob Monck, Lois Movalson, Robert J. Muter, Aggie O'Brien, Tracy Olmstead, Chuck Orr, Barb & John Palmer, Mabel Pechta, Mark & Wayne Peterson, Al & Pam Reilly, Roxanne Powers-Tallman, Ervin Rose, Robert St.Andrew, Steve Sjogren, Dan Smith, Elaine (née Dowd) Sprague, Michael Springsteen, Jon Steinbach, Dick Sterk, Dick & Karen Tobin, Andy Valentine, Elna VanHouten, Mark Vonderwerth, Betty Vosper, Bernice Weiss, Nancy (née Goyer) Welch, Ken Welton, Alan & Janet Werkheiser, Eldon Windberg and Robert L.Wirt.  I thank each of them for their gracious responses to my questions and their additional help.
               In addition, it seems only appropriate to add a "hats off" to the masons and others, both those mentioned in the captions and those unnamed, who used fieldstones to create the buildings, parts of buildings, and other uses of stones noted in this album.  Their creations made my taking the photographs and compiling the data a satisfying experience.

               This is the first of three anticipated photograph albums to record diverse uses of fieldstones within approximately 25 miles of the Mackinac -- widely known as the "Big Mac"-- Bridge.  This bridge, which connects Michigan's Upper and Lower peninsulas, crosses the Straits of Mackinac, which connect Lake Michigan and Lake Huron (See Map 2 in Appendix A). This volume covers the Mackinac County -- i.e., the Upper Peninsula -- part of this roughly circular area. Volumes 2 and 3, when and if completed, will provide similar coverage for the Cheboygan and Antrim counties parts of the encompassed area.
               My coverage of the uses of fieldstones within the area should not be considered comprehensive.  This is true because  1.several buildings other than those illustrated also have fieldstones as functional and/or decorative parts;  2.thousands of fieldstones, other than those shown, are used as landscape accents3.fieldstones very likely have had, or are having, roles other than those recorded herein;  [and]  4. additional fieldstone-faced buildings, not seen by me, may occur within the area.  Indeed, more comprehensive compilations may be warranted, especially for some of the relatively small parts of this area -- e.g., the Cedarville-Hessel area and Mackinac Island -- each of which could be beautifully illustrated.  These projects remain on my "Futures" list.
               A few uses of fieldstones in Michigan's Upper Peninsula that are outside of, but within relatively short distances of, the ~25-mile circle, made me want to extend the radius of the circle.  Critical considerations precluded that effort, at least for the time being.  It also, however, led to my decision to include seven of those uses in this volume.  They are in outlying areas of Mackinac County and adjoining Schoolcraft and Chippewa counties.  Perhaps their being included herein will whet the imaginations of others and cause them to extend my coverage to include the diverse uses of fieldstones within these "outlying" areas. 
                 Fieldstone, as used in this album, refers to stones of all sizes that are naturally loose on or near the earth's surface.  Pebbles, cobbles, boulders and rubble are included.  "On or near the ...  surface" includes stones that are atop or surrounded by soil, along or under lakes or streams, and within sand and gravel pits. 
               A large percentage of the fieldstones within this area consist of sedimentary rocks, a large percentage of which are dolostones or limestones.  Although, as a petrologist, I am reluctant to do this, all of these stones are referred to as "limestone" within this album.  This is done because 1.Except for geological reports, virtually all publications that mention these rocks within this region -- e.g., their uses on Mackinac Island -- refer to both of these rocks as limestone;  consequently, my following suit -- though including the term within quotation marks -- seems reader-friendly for most of those who are likely to peruse this album.  [and]   2.The time that would have been required to check the innumerable stones that consist of one or the other or both of these rocks whose uses are recorded herein would have been misspent, if, indeed, it could have been done.  Most of these rock fragments -- i.e., rubble -- occur as debris that is either directly above the bedrock formations from which they were separated by weathering and erosion or where they were deposited after having been transported, for the most part only rather short distances, from the rock formations from which they were derived.  Most of that transport was by downslope movement plus or minus stream and/or lake activities.  The other fieldstones within the area consist largely of cobbles and boulders that were transported from Canada into this area by glacial ice during the last "Ice Age."  They were deposited either directly from the melting ice sheet (i.e., they were merely dropped down) or by streams made up wholly or largely of melt water from the glacial ice.  Most of these stones consist of igneous or metamorphic rocks or migmatite, which are widely referred to as "hard rocks."
               The uses of these fieldstones are treated in two main sections:   I. Buildings -- i.e., fieldstone-faced buildings and parts thereof plus similarly constituted building-like structures  and   II. Other Uses -- i.e., fieldstones that are used for other functional and/or decorative purposes, such as Landscape Accents and Walls.  Except for introductory statements for these two main sections and a few of the subsections, the only text that is given is in the captions.
               Close-up photographs of some of the typical and particularly interesting stones, which as a petrologist I could not resist adding, are included with some of the main photographs.  As I have told several people while examining the stones of their buildings etc., "I could teach a course in petrology using these stones!"  Along that line, a list the rocks that constitute these specially illustrated stones is given in Appendix C.


                       The illustrated buildings are those that I saw as I drove or was driven along the public roads within the area or was told existed and directed to by residents who knew I was making this compilation.  Therefore, it seems quite possible that additional stone-faced buildings occur within the area -- i.e., ones I did not see them because they were obscured by trees or because they are located along roads marked as, for example, "Private Drive - Keep Out." 
                       If anyone knows of additional stone-faced buildings within the area or of additional uses of fieldstones, 
               either past or current, please let me know.  I will try to visit the buildings and, upon getting information about
               the uses, will include photographs of them, or at least mention them, in an addendum of updated information.


           "Little Stone Church" is the name widely applied to this Union Congregational Church on Mackinac Island.  Established in 1900, the building had its cornerstone laid August 2, 1904. The stones, said to have been collected from the Island, include relatively angular as well as rounded rubble and also several "hard-rock" stones.  The originally rubble fragments are the most common constituents of the main walls.  The "hard-rock" fieldstones, most of which are dressed, are the predominant constituents of the other elements, which are commonly considered chiefly decorative -- e.g., the stones around the windows and main entrance, the corner buttress-like structures and the two vertical accents that are between the large window and the two smaller windows on the front façade.  Note also the fact that the sill of the window is concrete. 
               The close-up on the lower right of the top composite includes the cornerstone.  The two other photographs provide views that exemplify the diversity of the shapes and compositions of the stones of the large expanses of the church's outer walls.  
               The two lower photographs show the main entrance, which is bordered by dressed, chiefly "hard-rock" stones and a close-up of similarly dressed stones from another of the so-to-speak architectural accents. 

             Restaurant. This subsidiary restaurant is part of the Grand Hotel Complex on Mackinac Island.  It is my understanding that in the past it has been known under several  different names.  Currently, I have heard islanders refer to it as either the "Jockey Club" or the "Grand Stand."  I was unable to get access to the structure so can only suggest, on the basis of photographs, that most of the stones appear to be "limestone" rubble that has been rounded, probably by lake-shore activities.  Both the shapes and sizes of the stones between the windows range rather widely.  Contrariwise, the single course of stones  directly above the windows consists of a single course of stones with similar shapes and of approximately the same size.   

           Former Cobblestone Café & MotelThese two structures were formerly south of Indian Village, on the lake side of State Street in St. Ignace.  They were built in the late 1920s or early 1930s and razed after the 1957 tourist season.  Many of the stones of the café were small boulders rather than cobbles, as the name suggested.  It appears from the photograph, however, that at least many of the stones of the second building were cobbles.  Harry Leafdale is thought to have been the builder, including the masonry.  Ed and Ida Quay were the original owners.  In an advertisement in Before the Bridge (Kiwanis ..., 1957, p. 199), it is noted that "this cafe has been in operation since 1929,"  and Don Vaughn is noted as the owner. The three unit motel is said to have been a garage when it was first built.  (Illustration is a photographic copy of a postcard in Phyllis Massey's collection.)  

           Former Mackinac County Airport Terminal at St. Ignace.  As noted on the sign, this fieldstone-faced building dates to 1934.   It was the airport terminal until 2001. The stones are virtually all "hard-rocks."  The close-ups beneath the main photograph show:   left, a breccia;   center, a "bull --i.e., vein -- quartz" fragment;   [and]   right, epidote (green) veins transected by quartz (off-white) veins, both within the granitic rock that is to the right of the "bull quartz" in the center close-up.

           Former Store. This building, currently used for storage, is southeast of the southern junction of Gorman Rd. with the Mackinac Trail.  The early history of the building is unknown.  From at least the mid 1930s to the late 1960s, it was, at least intermittently, a store.  People known to have run the store include Fred Houle, Janet Steele, Eugene and Hattie Mills, and Margaret Shreve.  Records and people with whom I have talked indicate that the building may date back to 1907 and perhaps to the 1800s.  Two people think that the store was also once a Gulf gasoline station when this part of the Mackinac Trail was the main road -- i.e., former Rte. 2 -- between St. Ignace and Sault Sainte Marie;  another person, however, believes that that station was, instead, at the northern junction of Gorman Rd. and the trail.  Kevin Montie (p.c. July, 2012) indicates that this store was run by the Wiggins during the 1960s, but that soon thereafter they moved the business about two miles northward to an area on the western side of Mackinac Trail that is about one-quarter mile north of the bridge over the Carp River (see "Wing walls occur...".).  He also said that no gas station was with the former store at that time, but that gasoline pumps were at the Carp River location.  As a matter of fact, an old sign gasoline station sign is still there.
               Most of the stones of this building are "hard rock" boulders, very likely from nearby fields.


           Farm houseThis house, on Portage Rd., St. Ignace, is said to date back to at least the first quarter of the 20th century.  Long-time residents of St. Ignace call it the Porter House, after its long-time residents. Lee Porter, a dairy farmer, delivered milk to many families in St. Ignace and the surrounding area for many years.  A photograph of one of the milk bottles, which is in the collection of Ollie Boynton, is shown below the two main photographs. 
               The kinds of stones included indicate that they probably came from glacial and glacio-fluvial deposits in nearby fields.  The middle photo, a close-up, shows the coarseness of the aggregate used in the original mortar and the general character of the finer mortar that was added later to repair parts of the original mortar joints. The coarseness of the original aggregate is unlike any I have seen elsewhere except in parts of Hadrian's Wall near Newcastle, northern England. 

           Residence on the west side of North State Street in St. Ignace.  Harry Leafdale, who lived in this house for many years, is thought also to have been the builder and mason.  The house dates back to at least the 1930s.

           Residence north of Rte. 134, northwest of Hessel.  The original stone-faced home was built for Albert Linberg during the 1920s or 1930s.  The  stones, virtually all "hard rocks," are thought to have been brought in from the Goetzville area, Chippewa County.  The pattern of these stones roughly resembles what I have referred to as the "Isabella polka dot" pattern in the central part of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan (Dietrich, 2008 -- cf. Fig H2,p. 23).   Mary Hill (p.c., July 2012) has informed me that the mason who built this house was brought to this area from Gladwin County, which is just northeast of Isabella County, where the alluded to "Isabella polka dot" pattern is common and was so-named.    

           Residence on Cedar Rd. in Hessel.  The lower floor, which is stone-faced, is the original house.  The second floor is a later addition.  Trees and other growth precluded my getting an overall view of this house. The stones of the house are a mixture of "hard-rock" stones and rubble.  As shown on the left, which is part of the back of the house, most of the stones are "hard-rock" cobbles, a rather large percentage of which have relatively flat exposed surfaces. The source of the flat slabs of "limestone" at the corner and along the sides of the windows is unknown;  but, considering their shapes, it seems likely that they were parts of relatively large rubble "boulders" like those that occur widely within the area -- e.g., along the nearby lakeshore. 

           Residence on Grove St. in Cedarville. This cobblestone-faced house is said to date to the mid-1940s. A large percentage of the component stones are "hard rocks."  The close-up photographs show the following characteristics: 
                              Left,  A typical section of the cobblestone facing.
                              Right,  A corner, where relatively flat, roughly discoidal, stones were used.

           Former residence in a wooded area north of Cheeseman Rd.  This house is known to pre-date the mid-1900s, and seems, on the basis of the trees near it, to have been built well before that.  Most of its stones are subrounded to rounded fieldstones or parts thereof.  They comprise a mixture that consists largely of "limestone" with only a few "hard rocks."  The large size of a few of the rocks -- e.g., the one below the left corner of the left window in the main photograph -- and the diverse shapes of the stones along the corners are particularly interesting. 

           Summer cottage on Brevort Lake on the north side of the extension of White Birch Road,which is also noted as Old Place Rd. on the road marker at its junction with Brevort Lake Rd. (Rte. H57).  This cottage was built in 1936-1937 by Joseph Luepnitz.


           Summer home on northwestern Marquette Island of "the Snows" (Les Cheneaux), near Hessel.  This structure, which includes six bedrooms, as well as the large central section, was built in 1917 for Edward K. Hardy.  John Stanholm, a Scandinavian immigrant, is thought to have been the mason.  Since 1941, it has been owned by former U.S. Senator Prentiss M. Brown and his heirs.  Most of the stones are "limestone" rubble fragments -- i.e, only a few "hard-rock" cobbles are included.  All of these stones are said to have come from the island and nearby lake bottom.
               A few parts of this structure are shown below the main photograph: 
                              Left,  A close-up that shows the predominance of "limestone" rubble in the masonry.
                              Center,  One of two fireplaces that are in the large room, which extends end to end in the central unit of the building.
                              Right,  One of two of the decorative walls with arched openings that occur at the ends of the complex.
               Similar stones have other roles here and there on the rest of this property -- e.g., decorative and functional walls that are around the tennis court and along pathways.  A stone-faced "blockhouse," "warehouse" and icehouse..., each of which are shown in this album, are also on this property.
           "Blockhouse" is the name widely applied to this building, which is near the northwestern end of Marquette Island.  The designation is based on the shape of the building, which was made to resemble that of military blockhouses -- e.g., those on Mackinac Island.  Most of its facing stones are cobble-sized, and both "limestone" and "hard rocks" are included.  This building, built as the "guest house" of the preceding Summer Home, was built in or about 1917.    

           "Cabin" near the eastern shore of Bois Blanc Island.  This building was built in 1934 as a log cabin.  The stone masonry was added in the 1960s.  Most of the stones are "hard-rocks" from nearby Lake Huron. Their variety, especially so far as their shapes, is evident in the left close-up, which shows part of the lower courses of the chimney.  The shapes and sizes of the stones chosen for corners is exemplified by the the close-up on the right. 
           Officers' Stone Quarters at Fort Mackinac, Mackinac Island.  This building, built in the 1780s, is "The only building remaining from the British era and the only one built entirely of limestone [--i.e., "limestone"]" (Petersen, 1973, p.30).  Until 1876, it provided quarters for two officers, including the fort commandant, and their families.  Bedrooms and parlors were on the upper floor; kitchens and dining rooms were on the lower level.  Even though obscured by the paint, it is clear that a few well-rounded boulders, most likely"hard-rock" stones transported into the region by glacial ice, occur along with the predominant "limestone" -- notice, for example, the two stones near the upper left corner of the close-up on the right.   The close-up on the left shows the dressed stones of the chimney. Currently, the front part of the lower level of this building is the fort Tea Room. 


           "Blast shack" is the name generally given for this fieldstone-faced structure, which is north of Rte. 2, west of Brevort.  The size -- ~ 14 x 12-feet, with roof peak ~13 feet high -- along with the windowless sides, thickness of the walls and overall character of the interior of this building evince its use as a place where explosives were stored.  Notice that with few exceptions the walls, other than the corners, are faced by cobbles rather than boulders;  I suspect that this, as well as the thickness of the walls, was considered an important safety measure for a building with this function.  In any case, nearly all of the stones consist of "hard rocks." 
               The blue paint, apparently added during a reunion (1987?) of members of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), indicates that the building dates to 1933-1937, when CCC Company #1664 members were stationed nearby.  This group referred to themselves as the "Lost Legion" and to their barracks area as "Camp Moran." For additional information about the CCC in the area, see Heritage... (1998).

           Fort Mackinac Blockhouses on Mackinac Island.  Three are present:  One on the west, one on the north and one on the east.  The one on the west is said to be the most photographed building on the grounds of the fort.  In this album, the one on the north is shown in the two top photographs, and the one on the east is in the two lower photographs. These two blockhouses are indicated to date from 1798.
               The upper right view gives an indication of the diverse sizes and shapes of the constituent stones.  The lower left photograph shows the lower level of this blockhouse.  Notice also the makeup of the chimneys.
               Like the other stone structures at the fort, the stones of the lower level(s) of the blockhouses are painted white.  On the basis of their shapes, sizes and surfaces most of these stones appear to be "limestones" but a few "hard-rock" stones appear also to have been included in each of these structures.
           Icehouse & Woodshed on Marquette Island.  This structure, with the enclosed part a former ice house and the open part where wood was stored, is another of chiefly stone-faced buildings included in the complex that includes the Summer Home, "Warehouse" and "Blockhouse"  on northwestern Marquette Island.  It was apparently built during the same general time that these buildings were built -- i.e., ~1917.
           Kilns The word structures, included in the subheading for this section, applies in particular to the next three entries.  None of them is a building in the true sense.  The first one is known to have been a lime kiln;  the second one has been tentatively identified as a lime kiln;  the function of the third one is yet to be determined. 

               As can be seen, this stone structure on Mackinac Island is recorded as a "Lime Kiln" and is said to date to 1780.  It was about a quarter of a mile from the fort, and the lime produced in the kiln is said to have been used by the soldiers in construction of the fort (Petersen, 1973).
               At least some of the "lime kilns" of this area were used to "burn" dolostone rather than, or as well as, limestone.  The product of "burning" dolostone is CaO, MgO whereas that of "burning" limestone is CaO;  both, however, were likely referred to as lime or burnt lime at that time, as indeed they continue to be in  many places even today.  In any case, whatever the product was called, most of it was apparently used as mortar for stonework.

               This "structure" is on the lake side of Rabbits Back Stack.  Its remains consist largely of "limestones," many of which are block-like though of various sizes and overall shapes.  Nearly all of the "blocks" have weathered surfaces. The characteristic weathered surfaces plus their overall shapes indicate that at least most of these "blocks" represent rubble rather than building stones that were removed -- e.g., quarried -- from the nearby bedrock. The structure is roughly cylindrical with an inside diameter of about nine feet and a backside height of about eight feet.  Trees around the structure indicate that it is at least 75 years old, and it seems likely that it dates back several more years, perhaps to the 1700s.  Indeed, Eby (1928, p.36) describes it as one "of the old French lime kilns," which would date it as existing before the mid-1700s. 
               The shape of a grown over area a few feet away from this structure indicates that a second similar structure was once there or at least once in the process of construction there.  I wonder if it, in fact, if either of these structures may have been used to make charcoal rather than "lime."

               These remains of a kiln are east of the former railroad track, south of Kenneth.  This kiln may be one of "about seven" charcoal kilns that were part of the Martel Furnace Company venture of the 1880s (Kiwanis, 1957, p.82).  I say "may be" because Luepnitz (1936?, p.10) reports, on the basis of his personal observations, that the Martel Furnace Company's charcoal kilns were on the William Pecta farm near Allenville.  In any case, although recorded as charcoal kilns, these kilns are widely referred to as lime kilns by nearby residents. The old brick, shown on the lower right, was found near this kiln. 

           "Powder (dynamite) Magazine" on the grounds of State Park, Mackinac Island.  This small, nearly square, stone building consists of both "limestone" and "hard-rock" stones.  The walls are approximately seven feet long, outside dimension.  It is not known for sure when this building was made, but apparently "after the fort was abandoned (1895) and probably between 1920-1940" (Phil Porter, p.c., 2010).  Perhaps it dates to the 1930s when the CCC was on the island. 

           "Playhouse" on Avery Point in Hessel Bay.  This building is thought to date back to at least the 1910s.  It is part of a complex that includes a summer home, a boathouse, a teepee-shaped whatever, and other structures. Although I have only seen this building from a distance, and the photographs were taken with a telephoto lens, it seems safe to say that the stones very likely came from nearby.
               The close-up, to the right of the larger photograph, shows:  1.the relative abundance of dark-colored stones on the smaller chimney and  2.the fact that stones of about the same size make up the individual courses of the wall. 
               The inset close-up shows the characteristics of the corner of the building (entranceway?) to its left.


           Root cellar. This former root cellar, north of Rte. 139, just west of Cedarville, is said to have been built about 1910.  Nearly all of the stones are "limestone" rubble from relatively nearby rock formations.  Many of the rubble fragments have been rounded -- some apparently only by weathering, others more likely during stream transport or while they were on the lakeshore.  

           "Warehouse" is the name one of the long-time owners applies to this building on northwestern Marquette Island.  Built in the late 1910s or early 1920s, its original use is not known.  Currently it is used as storage shed. Its facing consists of rounded "limestone" rubble and "hard-rock" stones from the island and nearby lakeshore.  The building in the background shows the chimneys of the fireplaces in the large gathering room of the Summer Home of this complex. 

               St. Ignace's LaSalle High School and a few residences within the area are faced in part by masonry that features fieldstones.  These buildings, along with a few examples of fieldstone-faced entranceways, foundations, porches, chimneys and other residence-related uses are treated in this section.  The examples shown were chosen to indicate the variety of these features that occur. That is to say, the list is not inclusive -- i.e., several more of these fieldstone-based parts of buildings occur within the area.

           Partial Facings. Although these are functional as siding, several are better characterized as decorative.  
                        LaSalle High School is on Portage Rd. in St. Ignace.  Built in 1961-1962, this school was first used in the Fall of 1962. Split-face fieldstones serve as “decorative” portions of the two walls that are shown. G. Arntzen & Co. of Escanaba is recorded as the architect(s).  Jack Riness, formerly of East Lake, is said to have been responsible for the stone masonry.
               Nearly all of the fieldstones of these walls are "hard rocks."  Each has been split and its split-face is exhibited.  Although the stones are said to have come from a nearby sand and gravel pit, the identity of a few of them indicates that at least they were brought into the area from elsewhere.

                        Residence with fieldstone trim on the east side of Huron St., St. Ignace.  This masonry, which exposes the natural surfaces of rounded fieldstones, is said to date back to the 1950s.  Ned Fenlon is said to have been responsible for the masonry, but it is unclear as to whether this means that he had it done as owner, which he was, or if he may also have done the masonry.
               Notice also the fieldstone-faced chimneys.  In addition, a fieldstone wall, which is said to have been laid during the same time period, is on the street side of this house and originally extended southward along a couple other lots.
               The small photo on the bottom right is a close-up of part of the dolerite fieldstone to its left.  

                        Residence with fieldstone-faced section on the south side of Duke’s Rd. in Moran.  Albert Langstaff is said to have built the house, including the masonry in 1949.  Both stones with their natural surfaces and stones with their split-faces exposed are included.  A few of the stones -- e.g., two jasper puddingstone cobbles, which are above the doorway -- were brought into the area from, I suspect, eastern Chippewa County (e.g., Drummond Island) or perhaps Bois Blanc Island of Mackinac County.

                        Residence with fieldstone-faced section, near the end of E. Adolphus St. in Moran.  The fieldstones that grace the front of this house are chiefly small boulders with their split-faces exposed.   Several kinds of igneous, metamorphic and migmatitic rocks, which were glacially transported southward from Canada, are included.   Two particular interesting ones are shown.

                        House with stone trim, on the bluff east of East Lake.  This stone masonry veneer is beside the main entrance.  It is included here as an example of the masonry of Jack Riness, one of the area's well-known masons.  Riness and his wife, who was from near Tupelo, Mississippi, and their children lived in this house.  It is said that they were the first family to have lived the "year around" at East Lake. 
               Nearly all of the stones of this façade are sandstone, albeit a rather diverse variety.  Some of these stones appear possibly to represent split-faces of fieldstones.  It is not known, however, whether all, none or only some of them are really parts of fieldstones rather than of quarried and dressed bedrock.  In any case, split-faces, some of which appear to represent former bedding planes, are exposed.  The mortar joints are those widely referred to as beaded (see close-up).

                        Summer place on Marquette Island of Les Cheneaux Islands, near Cedarville, with its lower level faced by split stones and the flat sides of rubble.  The masonry of this summer home, widely referred to as the Armour House, was done during the 1930s.  All of these photographs were taken with telephoto lens while I was in a boat -- i.e., I was unable to see this masonry and the stones included otherwise. The "close-ups" show details of the stonework over a doorway, a window and a double window.  Each consists of stones that were dressed to produce the desired pattern.  Notice that "red" stones -- naturally red? -- are near the centers of the arches over each of the double windows.

                        Vacation Home on the north side of Worth Rd., near Brevort.  Part of the front of this home is faced by split-faced fieldstones.  A nearby storage building has a similarly fieldstone-faced lower section, part of which can be seen in the background on the right side of the main photograph.  The current owners, John and Madlyn Masten, had this place built in 1993.  A fieldstone-faced panel behind a stove within the dwelling and an outside fieldstone fireplace on this lot are shown elsewhere in this albumOn the basis of their compositions, virtually all of the constituent stones could have been picked up from glacial and glacio-fluvial deposits within the nearby area.  However, John, who did the masonry, told me that he brought these stones from near their home in the Ludington area.

                        Residence on Adolphus St., Moran.  This house, including the masonry around the main entrance and of the chimney, is said to have been built by John Lipnitz in the 1930s.  "Limestone" rubble, "hard-rock" stones and even brick are included in the entranceway. 

           Foundations and PorchesMasonry that includes fieldstones constitutes many foundations and the facings of several porches within the area.  The following are examples.

                        Foundation of St. Ignatius Loyola Catholic Church in St. Ignace.  The cornerstone of this church, established in 1670, is dated  1904 (see lower middle photo).  The sections of the current building's foundation include several noteworthy features:  Virtually all of the stones are "hard-rock" stones, probably from nearby glacial and glaciofluvial desposits.  Most are boulders;  a few are cobbles;  all have split-face surfaces exposed.  Some sections of the foundation have rather uncommon mixtures of the different sized stones.  A bead, originally painted red, but now faded in most places, occurs on top of the mortar of most of the surfaces.  Where present, the diameter of the bead is markedly less than the exposed widths of the mortar.  Although the bead typically surrounds the individual stones, here and there it extends around two adjacent stones, and in a few places is atop a stone's exposed surface (see photo on upper right).  One area of the stone masonry of this foundation was placed more recently -- i.e., about 25 years ago (Ollie Boynton, p.c., 20100).  It consists of similar "hard-rock" stones, but the mortar joints have no bead (see photo on lower right).

                        Foundation plus of a cabin-home on the eastern side of the Mackinac Trail north of Garden Hill Creek.  Built in 1940, the fieldstone part of this structure is approximately 4½ feet thick at its base and gradually decreases upward to a little less that 2 feet thick at its top. Most of the fieldstones are "hard rocks" that were glacially transported into this area from Canada.   A few, however, are slightly rounded rubble fragments derived from fairly nearby sedimentary rock formations -- note, in particular, the light gray ones near the corner.

                        Foundation and "cellar" wall of summer home on east side of Bois Blanc Island.  The facing of this foundation consists of stones from the surrounding area, including the shore of Lake Huron.  John Engel, the owner, did the masonry in 2002. His stonework includes several "images" -- e.g., the "faces" of two guardians one on each side of the "cellar" door, which is foreshortened in the lower right photograph. The three stones shown on the right side of the main photograph are relatively uncommon in stone structures within the Mackinac County part of the Straits area.

                        Foundation-like arrangement of stones around the base of a trailer in the trailer park on Grove St., Cedarville.  These stones, most of which were collected nearby, have been added by Derinda and Mike Mann, the owners, within the last two or so years.  The close-up, lower right, shows the corner of this faux foundation that is behind the wooden pole in the main photograph.  The two stones that resemble an animal track and a human skull, which are two favorites of the owners, are on display elsewhere on their plot.  Stones like these, which resemble other objects, are called mimetoliths -- see Dietrich, 2010a.

                        Foundation & "stoop" of a house on the eastern side of Schoolhouse Rd., Brevort.  The milk can is on the area referred to as a stoop -- at least that is the name usually applied to these "small porches" in my native northern New York. The mortar around the stones of the foundation and the stoop and the makeup of the slabs that constitute the "railing" appear to be identical concrete -- i.e., their cement and aggregate are indistinguishable, at least macroscopically.  This is mentioned because the penny, dated 1941, is embedded in the concrete near the bottom of the sloping "railing" on the left.   This, of course, does not mean that the masonry dates to 1941, although it may;  it means only that the concrete of the railing was made some time after this 1941 penny was in circulation.  I suspect, however, that the penny was "new" when the concrete was made, and therefore is another example of how the masonry of some fieldstone structures can be dated, at least tentatively (for other examples, see Dietrich, 2010).   In any case, this general date agrees with the fact that the original residents are said to have lived in this house when the "man of the house" returned from WWII.  So, the masonry appears to date to the early or  mid 1940s. 

                        Porch  on the north side of Bertrand Street in St. Ignace. The base of this porch, the supports for its posts and the risers of its steps are faced with fieldstones, most of which have "hard rock" compositions.  The stone on the left, an amphibolite, is part of the stone work.  The stone in the center, an amygdaloidal volcanic rock, was loose beside the porch and may or may not have once been part of the masonry;  the photograph to its right is a close-up that shows the character of the amygdules.

                        Porch on the west side of the west branch of Martin Road, which extends north of Rte. 2 west of St. Ignace.   This is the only fieldstone masonry  face that I have ever seen painted black.  No one seems to know why this was done.

                        Porch with split-faced stones -- see close-up --  and Chimney with the natural surfaces of its stones exposed.  This is cabin No. 1 of the Loreli group at Hessel.  It is said to have been built in the the late 1920s.  John Stanholm, a Scandinavian immigrant, is credited with the masonry. 

           Chimneys and two additional uses. One of the most common uses of fieldstones within the area was, and continues to be, to face chimneys, especially those for fireplaces.  There are literally scores of these chimneys. Those shown here are examples that are indicative of the fact that each is quite unique.  Additional chimneys can be seen in some of the other photographs.          
               A story about Edwin W. Windberg, a former well-known mason in the area, warrants recording here:  While building a stone chimney, Windberg was told that the man for whom he was working was "poor pay."  Upon hearing this, Windberg, unbeknown to the man, placed a pane of glass horizontally across the opening of the chimney before adding higher courses and "completing" the masonry.  The following Fall, the man, who, as a matter of fact, had not paid for the work, called Windberg and told him the chimney was no good, that it did not draw, ... .  Windberg is said to have responded, "If you pay me, I will come out there, and guarantee that when I leave the chimney will work."  The man then paid for the work. Windberg put up a ladder, climbed to the top of the chimney, dropped a boulder into the opening, thus breaking the glass, whereupon the chimney drew, etc.
               The additional uses are also shown as examples of ways fieldstones have been used in masonry within the area.      

on Boulevard Drive, St. Ignace:  The "log house" precursor of this house was moved from its original location when the "Big Mac" bridge was being built.  The chimney was added later, probably during the 1950s.
                                     B, on a cabin at Ponchartrain Shores.  
                                     C, on a house on the north side of Dickerson Street, St. Ignace.  
                                     D, on the house on the southwestern corner of Casey and Huron streets, St. Ignace.  
                                   E, on the west side of Huron St., next-door to "D," in St. Ignace.

                         "Leaning Chimney of Brevort Lake."  Not the "Leaning Tower of Pisa" -- But, while viewing this chimney -- and, by the way, the flag pole is vertical! -- one wonders such things as:  Was it built that way?   Has any budding scientist dropped objects of different weights from its top? ...?  -- Unfortunately, I have been unable to find anyone who could answer my questions about this chimney.  Consequently, it seems only safe to say that it consists largely of small boulders and cobbles that were probably collected from nearby deposits of glacial and/or glacio-fluvial transported rocks that were once part of Canada's bedrock.   See some later learned information about this chimney in the Additions and Revisions:        Parts of Buildings      Chimney   section at the beginning of this file.

                        Stairs & Pedestals.  Most uses that I consider "additional ..." are rare, and some are probably singular, at least within this area. Two are illustrated by the above photographs.  Left, Fieldstones plus mortar comprise both the steps and risers of these stairs to the back door of this house, which is on the north side of Rockview Rd., east of Three-Mile Rd.  Right, Fieldstone and mortar pedestals serve as the bases for the "log" posts at the corners of the covered back entrance to this same house.

           Indoor Fireplaces.  Examples of fieldstone-faced fireplaces and a fireproof backing for a stove are included in this subsection.  Several additional fieldstone-faced fireplaces are in residences of the area.  On the other hand, the fire-proof panel that is shown is one of only two that I have seen within the area. 

                        Fireplace in the former Mackinac County Airport Terminal at St. Ignace.  The mortar to stone ratio is greater for this fireplace than virtually all of the others I have seen within the area.  

                        Fireplace in a summer home in Hessel.  This fireplace, built in 1979 by Edwin Winberg, is faced by split-face chiefly "hard-rock" boulders from the nearby area.  The current heating unit, however, is gas-fueled.  As shown by the photograph on the lower right, a similarly faced area, which is outside of the fireplace, constitutes a sizeable part of the southwestward-facing side of this home. 

                        Fireplace and chimney of another summer home in Hessel.  A second, back-to-back fireplace is in the master bedroom. This side includes several remarkable stones, a few of which have special connections for the owners.  Three examples are shown:  Top, a stone, which exhibits differential erosion, that was collected on Beaver Island by one of the owner's mother;  Center, a cobble, which includes a  fault, that was collected by her father at Whitefish Point (this one was wetted when photographed);  Bottom, a quartzite boulder from Poor Mountain, Virginia, which is near her birthplace.  Most of the rest of the stones came from near Moran and from old dock cribs around the Les Cheneaux islands.  This fireplace was built in the early 1990s;  Eldon and Edwin Winberg were the masons. 

                        Fireplace in a residence on the north side of Rockview Rd. east of three-mile Rd. 
                                     Left,  The stones of this fireplace, other than the relatively large boulders of "jasper puddingstone" -- e.g., the central, roughly heart-shaped stone below the mantel and four of the large stones in the front part of the hearth -- came from nearby.  This "puddingstone" -- from the Lorrain Formation of Ontario -- is well known and widely sought for such use.  Although this rock is not known to occur as fieldstones within the glacial deposits of Upper Peninsula part of this county, it does occur on Bois Blanc.  These boulders, however, came from Drummond Island, which is part of Chippewa County. The masonry is said to have been done in 2002. 
                                     Right, The outside chimney for this fireplace.  The large central boulder of this chimney is also "puddingstone" from the Lorrain Formation.

                        Indoor fireplace in a summer home on the east side of Bois Blanc Island.  This fireplace, with split-face stones, replaced the brick fireplace that was originally in this residence.  The stone work was done by Jim Vosper, the present owner, and his father in 1933.  The stones came from the shore of Lake Huron.

                       "Fireproof" backing for the stove in the vacation home north of Worth Rd, north of Brevort.  Split faces of the stones are displayed.  Several different igneous and metamorphic rocks that were glacially transported southward into Michigan from Canada during the last "Ice Age" are included.  The masonry was done by John Masten.

           Former Fireplace-chimneys.  A few fireplace-chimneys that stand alone are within the area -- i.e., they are no longer connected to their original building or any inhabitable remains of that original dwelling.  Some of these are relatively large and consequently serve as prominent "landmarks." In any case, these structures, which are quite different from outdoor fireplaces, provide strong support for the lesson that was to be learned from the old Fairy Tale about the big bad wolf, who "huffed and puffed ..." on the three little pigs' houses that were built of straw, sticks and stones (or bricks) -- a tale that was often told to children of my generation. That is to say, these structures make it quite obvious that structures made of stones and mortar outlast structures made of such things as wood.  

               This one dates from the 18th or early 19th century (See text on plaque).  
               Both of the old photographs are said to show the remains of the chimney that was part of Shabwaway's cabin, which was located near "Chimney Point" on eastern Marquette Island.  The photograph on the left, slightly cropped, is attributed to Myron E. Wheeler (Grover, 1911, Frontispiece);  the photograph on the right is from the collection in the Les Cheneaux Historical Museum at Cedarville.  These two photographs seem not to be of the same structure, even if they are considered to have been taken at different times as the structure was deteriorating.  An alternative explanation can be hypothesized on the basis of the following "facts":  "this chimney was, until some five years ago [i.e., ~1906], in the condition shown [i.e., as shown in the left photograph] ... when some campers thoughtlessly tore down the upper part of it.  ... [Subsequently, a person] replaced it as carefully as possible, with the same stones thus torn down, and upon the same foundation," (op. cit., p.64-65) which would be the structure shown in the right photograph.  However, this explanation seems unlikely, at least to me, when one considers the differences between the two structures.  So, . . . ?  In any case, the makeup of both structures appears to have included both "hard-rock" stones and "limestone" rubble like that now along the nearby lakeshore.  Unfortunately, no stones that seem to represent the former chimney remain at the location.  The brass plaque on the marker, which consists of fieldstones and concrete, is located at the former site of the chimney.   

               This fireplace and its chimney was part of the former clubhouse of the St. Ignace Golf Course.  The clubhouse and stone fire-place-chimney are said to have been built in the late 1920s and razed in 1998.  Fortunately, this chimney has been preserved and remains in fine shape.
                              Left,  the out-of-doors part of chimney.
                              Center,  the chimney and clubhouse in 1953
(photo courtesy of Ollie Boynton).
                              Right,  the indoor side of the structure.  Notice the features, bottom to top, that can are exhibited:  the fireplace, which is faced by split-face surfaces of fieldstones;  the section that was covered by the top four logs of the wall and the siding of the gable part of the clubhouse;  [and]  the top several inches that include stones that were exposed to the "elements" above the peak of the roof.

               This fireplace and its chimney served a cabin that was formerly northwest of the intersection of Church St. and Duke's Rd. in Moran.  The sequence of features, bottom to top, is essentially the same as that described for the preceding fireplace-chimney.  The round hole above the fireplace was for the stovepipe of the cook (and heating) stove within the cabin. The cabin and chimney were built by Frank Becker in 1934. The black and white photographs show the cabin when the chimney was being built and soon after it was completed (black and white photos, courtesy of Kay Matelski).

               Two more: Left, This one is on the lake side of White Birch Rd., near Brevort Lake.  Originally, it was the source of heat for a homestead that is said to have dated back to at least the early 1900s.  Today, it sometimes is used as an outdoor fireplace.  This fireplace, unlike the two preceding ones, is faced by the natural, rounded surfaces of its constituent fieldstones.
                                     Right, This two-flue chimney is near the east bank of Pine River, north of Rte. 134.  Built in the 1950s, it served as the flue for a fireplace and for two other heating units.  It was at the so-to-speak second generation "Sofie's Tavern."  The original Sofie's Tavern, which was located about a mile to the west, on the western side of the Mackinac Trail, was reputed to be a favorite "watering hole" for steel workers who worked on the Mackinac Bridge.  Part of an advertisement in Before the Bridge (Kiwanis ..., 1957, p. 221), states: "See the wheels [two, I am told] that spun the 41,000 miles of wire on the Mackinac Bridge."-- apparently a tie between the workers and the tavern.   The successor to the original tavern, of which the photographed chimney was a part, became a popular stopping place for deer hunters. The former roof line, which slants downward to the right, is readily apparent.  This second tavern was destroyed by fire "about 30 years ago."   

               This one is on Rabbits Back Peak Peninsula, near the shore of Lake Huron.  The area of white defaced stones  is not the work of gulls;  it is white paint, apparently the work of vandals.   According to a long-term resident of the area:  This chimney and an adjoining cabin were built in the early 1950s;  John Englehardt and his family lived in the cabin for several years;  [and] as of the late 1980s, the main building had deteriorated and "was no more."
              This fireplace-chimney that featured the natural faces of fieldstones was part of a residence that was located on the hillside north of State Street (Rte. 75B) east of downtown St. Ignace.  The house was torn down in the late 1970s.  In any case, the continued existence of even this part of the fireplace provides another good example of the durability of stone masonry.  In fact, the stone part of this fireplace has even outlasted the part of the associated chimney that was brick.  I suspect, however, that at least some of those bricks may have been recovered for reuse elsewhere.  The topography, perhaps due to the former existence of a cellar, and overgrowth made it extremely difficult for us to get these two photographs.  (The khaki cloth in the lower left is the knee of my slacks;  I was in a rather precarious position while taking the photographs;  Charlie Brown was holding the trees and bushes so some of the stones would show.)  

                 Parts of the buildings that once were served by these last two fireplace-chimney examples also remain.  Nonetheless, they also provide examples of how structures that consist of stones and mortar outlast most of the other common building materials, in these cases, predominantly wood.
                              Left,  This fireplace(?)-chimney was part of a small residence west of the northern end of Martin Rd. The positions of the old logs of the wall right up to its peak are evident.  The stones of the structure are virtually all "hard rocks" and consist largely of boulders near the bottom, which is overgrown but can be seen on the outdoors side.  Cobbles, including some rather small ones are higher up -- see, for example, those that are above the former peak.  The makeup of the fireplace, if indeed there was one, is unknown;  it appeared unwise to try to remove the logs etc. that now cover it to make this determination.  It is believed that this residence dated back to at least the 1930s. The fact that it had electricity indicates that it probably did not fall to nonuse until after the mid-1900s.        
                              Right, This fireplace-chimney was part of a cabin near the shore of Lake Michigan near Gros Cap.  The stones used to make it were loose on the nearby shore.  They consist of diverse "limestones" derived from relatively nearby formations. The masonry of this structure, which was done by Joe Moody, dates to the late 1960s. 


               The diverse uses of fieldstones for things other than the facings and other parts of buildings is amazing.  More than a few of the uses have made me marvel at (wo)man’s ingenuity.  These uses range from strictly functional to merely decorative, and some of them serve both purposes rather well.  So far as this area
               The fieldstone population within much of this area differs markedly from that of other areas where I have made similar studies.  The main difference relates to the predominance of loose fragments of "limestone" in much of the area.  "Hard-rock" fieldstones are, however, predominant in a few parts of the area.  And, fieldstones of both of these kinds of rocks occur together here and there.  However, despite the overall predominance of "limestone" rubble in much of the area, most of the uses treated in the following, as well as in the preceding, parts of this album involve "hard-rock" fieldstones. This may lead some readers to think that my coverage in this album has been overly influenced on the basis of my earlier experiences and my predilections as a "hard-rock" geologist.  So be it.  Actually, it is quite clear that "hard-rock" stones were preferred by most of the people who have used fieldstones within the area.  This preference is easily explained:  Virtually all "hard-rock" fieldstones have more attractive colors and textures and are more durable than "limestone" rubble.  

               The most widespread use of fieldstones within the county is to modify the appearances of landscapes. Althought this use appears to be concentrated in some areas -- e.g., Hessel and parts of Cedarville and St. Ignace -- it occurs sporadically throughout the whole area.  The stones that are used range in size from pebbles to large boulders.  As already mentioned, both "limestone" rubble and divese "hard-rock" stones are used. In some places, only one or the other of these two kinds of stones are used;  in other places, mixtures of both have been used. 
               In viewing the diverse uses of this genre, one wonders how many of the stones that are being used were originally moved merely to get them out of the way -- e.g., so they would no longer trip someone or ruin the blades of some farm tool or the land owner's lawn mower.  However, it is known that some of these stones have been purchased, either as individual stones, usually boulders, or in numbers and transported over relatively long distances to be put in their current locations.  Indeed, fieldstones, especially "hard-rock" cobbles and boulders, are widely marketed as "designer stones."
               Fieldstones as landscape accents range from single boulders, placed as "highlights," to large numbers of fieldstones of similar or diverse sizes, shapes and ompositions,that have been arranged around such things as flower beds, shrubbery, flagpoles, mailboxes and along driveways. The examples included in this volume provide only a sampling of the uses within the area.  Several other examples could serve the purpose equally well.  Indeed, a large volume, much larger and more colorful than this one, could be compiled about these uses within this area!

           Boulders serve as landscape accents at many places.  These are great to see, especially for those who, like me, have never seen a rock that doesn’t make them stop to look at it and to think -- think about its origin, its subsequent history, how it got to where it is, etc., etc.  In addition, some of us also tend to consider each boulder that is, or is part of, a landscape accent on the basis of its aesthetics and how it fits its location:  Why was this one chosen?   What does it say to those see it?  Is its presence inviting?  foreboding?  . . . . . .
                       In addition, my thoughts about these boulders’ current settings have led me to wonder what motivated the person to put them where they are:   Did (s)he just like the looks of the particular boulder and want it nearby?   Was it an ego thing -- i.e., was the property owner’s primary desire to have, for example, the largest boulder in his or her neighborhood?   Was it chosen because of some historical attachment (s)he had to the boulder or perhaps to the place from which it came?  --  One can speculate almost endlessly.  In any case, I have mentally applied one or more adjectives to almost all of these boulders on the bais of how I see them so far as fitting into their surrounding area.  Those adjectives, with connotations that range from highly positive to rather negative, expressed my thoughts as I viewed each of the hundreds of  boulder accents within the area.  Several of the adjectives that came to mind were preceded by "too," "very," or "quite." The following, listed alphabetically, are examples:  Appalling, appealing, appropriate, atrocious, attractive, awful, bizarre, bold, charming, choice, delightful, disgusting, excessive, extravagant, fitting, flamboyant, gaudy, harmonious, hideous, horrendous, horrible, interesting, intriguing, lovely, monstrous, obtrusive, ostentatious, outrageous, pleasing, preposterous, pretentious, repulsive, revolting, showy, suitable, tasteful, terrible, terrific, ugly, weird,  ...  And, I should add that a few led me only to think, or say to myself, "Wow!"  Some viewers of the same boulders would, I feel sure, use other descriptive terms.  Consequently, it seems imprudent for me to characterize any of those shown in this album by any of these terms. 
                       One method by which a few of the accent boulders were moved to their current locations was "new" to me and thus seems to warrant recording:  Janet Werkheiser, upon seeing some boulders with characteristics that she liked under relatively shallow water on the bottom of Lake Huron, loaded them onto two surfboards that were lashed together, and pulled the boards plus the boulders to shore.  From there, the boulders could be moved by commonly used methods and put where she wanted them.  Though quite different, Janet's removing boulders from beneath the water reminded me of the contrasting method used to remove boulders from the lake bottom during the construction of Martin Reef Lighthouse (see Sellman, 1995, p. 29).


                                     Boulder entities. A, This large boulder, on Graham St., Saint Ignace, is a granitic gneiss that includes small folds.  It was moved to this location from a pit that was formerly in the area behind LaSalle High School.
                                                                        B, This similarly sized boulder, on Brevort Lake Rd, is a dolerite.  It was moved to this location from the field behind the house.

                                     Boulder plus. This boulder and several other landscapes that feature fieldstones are are on Mackinac Island.  Here, the other features include grass. lichen, moss, small and large trees (including their roots), slabs of rock and a man-made sign -- though granted, nary a flower.  To me, these constituents provide an eclectic overview of the use of fieldstones along with the other elements that characterize the diverse kinds of landscaping on Mackinac Island. 
                                     Boulders in groups occur here and there within the area.  In some places, they are close together;  in other places, they are in so-to-speak patterns.  Those shown here are south of the Keg & Anvil shop on Schoolhouse Rd. in Brevort.  They are part of a complex in which the owners plan to have one or more tepees and a large "peace pipe" as its main features. (The tepee-to-be in the main photograph, with its Norway spruce beams now covered, is 18 feet across (Ayala, 2010)).  These great, at least geologically speaking, boulders came from a small island near the mouth of Pte. Aux Chenes River.  The one on the lower left is a gneiss;  the one on the lower right is a migmatite transected by a granitic dikelet;  the one on the upper right exhibits the effects of differential weathering and erosion.   

                                     Boulders atop boulders.  Stones have been placed atop stones in several places.  Some of them are certainly meant to be landscape accents -- e.g., above, right;  others become such, at least in the broad sense, even though they certainly were not meant to be -- e.g., above, left.  Th Some of them were apparently so-placed just to get them out of the way -- e.g., above, left.  Others were apparently put where they are to prove that boulders of their sizes could be so-balanced, stay that way and become "showpieces" -- e.g., above, right. 
                                                     Left,  This example appears to be an example of just getting the stones on top out of the way.  It is on the south side of Duke's Rd., west of the Immaculate Conception Catholic Cemetery, Moran.
                                                     Right,  This, to me, is an example of a landscape "showpiece" that proves that boulders of these sizes can be so placed.  The pair are west of Wartella Rd., north of Brevort Lake Rd. (H57), east of Moran. 
             Other occurrences of stones atop boulders (etc.) within the area seem to indicate quite different activities and objectives.  Those shown in the two following photographs and those shown under the subheading "Cairn- and Inukshuk-like stacks of stones," near the end of the album, are examples.   Only one group of these,  the cairn-like stacks near Brevort Lake, appears to have been conceived as landscape accents.  But, each certainly changes the appearance of the landscape where it occurs.  

                                     This group is at Ponchartrain Shores.  The boulder base is much smaller than the two preceding ones -- the surrounding grass and leaves and   the pen knife provide a scale.  The four stones atop this boulder are intriguing:  When I saw them, I could not help but wonder "What little hand or hands put them here?  Why were they put in their relative positions?   . . . ?" 

                                     The base of this group is a relatively large boulder-sized fragment of the breccia formation that constitutes the "stacks" of this area.  The stones atop it are typical of the "limestone" fragments that occur nearby.  This group was on the southwestern shore of Mackinac Island on September 29th, 2010.  The balancing of the relatively large stone, on the right, is rather remarkable.  The close-up is included to direct attention to two mimetoliths:  1.Notice how the upper left part of the balanced stone resembles a person -- parted hair, eyes, etc. -- peering over something (a là Wilson of the TV sitcom Home Improvement).  [and]  2.Notice how the front of the boulder-sized base resembles an animal -- a sheep,  a shaggy dog, whatever -- including its eye.

                                     Boulders that welcome.  These boulders and painted wagon wheels are on the west side of Wartella Rd. near its northern end.  To me, their grouping must have said to anyone who approached this lane "Welcome, Come In."  Today's quite different directive seems but another "sign of the times."

                                     Boulders as deterrents to traffic, be it foot or vehicle, are widespread within the area.  Several of them are near the borders of the restricted areas.  Some of them actually serve as obstructions.  Others are better described as "signs" to be respected.  Many of these  boulders serve also as "Landscape Accents." The group shown in the two top photographs, which are beside the parking lot for the Ferry on Bois Blanc Island, seem to emphasize the No Parking sign.

                                     No Trespassing ! ! !  These boulders were placed to keep vehicles from parking or encroaching on the owner's property, which is on both sides of Boulevard Drive, St. Ignace.  The boulder with two sides shown -- upper center and right -- is an especially interesting migmatite, my favorite group of rocks.  The black subplanar mass that transects the rock is a metamorphosed igneous dikelet.

                                     Driveway "dots".  Small boulders and cobbles along a driveway east of East Lake Rd., just north of Charles Moran Rd.

                                     Driveway "dots".  Larger boulders along a driveway off Gros Cap Rd., northeast of St. Ignace.

                                     "Dots" such as these, though neat and tidy, are upsetting to geologists, especially petrologists.  This is true because the stones are painted. Be the colors patriotic -- i.e., red, white and blue -- or green, yellow, purple, ... black or brown, painting of stones, whatever their use, conceals their identities and other features, each of which is a "document" that may be important to deciphering some part of our geological history.  In addition, the paint blots out the stones' natural beauty!

                                     "Lines" of juxtaposed stones. These fieldstones, chiefly boulders, abut one another and consequently really serve to obstruct vehicles from going from the driveway onto the grass.  They are near the lakefront in eastern Cedarville.

                                     "Lines"  Left, These small boulders surround a billet for a trailer at the trailer park on Grove St., Cedarville.
                                                       Right, These small boulders and cobbles delineate a walkway within the trailer park.

                                     Waterfalls and cascade beside the 12th hole of the Grand Hotel's Woods golf course.  Some of the combinations of fieldstones and water, particularly moving water, are for me the crème de la crème so far as use of fieldstones as landscape accents.  Consequently, this is my favorite on Mackinac Island.

                                     Waterfalls and small streams are highlights on this property in the Woodland subdivision near Cedarville.  They serve both to complement and, in my opinion, to compliment the diversity of the stones, rocks and plants of the area -- or vice versa, depending upon the viewer's point of view. 
Stones, which range in size from pebbles to boulders and include some large blocks of rubble, have several diverse roles on this property.  Most of these stones are from nearby.  However, several rocks from distant localities -- e.g., the flagstones on some of the paths that are from Montana -- are also included.  

                                    "Dry waterfall" northwest of the junction of Church Rd. with Brevort Lake Rd. (H57).  These stones were placed to resemble a waterfall by Robert Wirt.  All of the stones were on the surrounding grounds.

                                     Patio-walkway. This patio-walkway is on the east side of Bois Blanc Island. The stones were selected and placed by John Engel.  In placing the stones, he incorporated some interesting arrangements -- e.g., the "point" of the black, spearhead-shaped dolerite stone and the "streaks" of the gneiss, which are shown on the close-up, are oriented so they point toward the north.

                                     "Total Landscape". This designation has been used elsewhere for collections of stones, especially boulders, that have been placed in certain ways that make them appear to dominate a sizeable area.  The grouping of fieldstones in the main photograph seems to fit this definition.  It is the focus of the "turn around" area at the end of the drive to the home of Nick and Laural LaChapelle, who created the arrangement in 2009-2010.  The lower right photograph shows another area where the LaChapelles have put some more of their favorite fieldstones as the main components of a "flower garden."  And, when I took the photographs, they were working on yet another area that will be fieldstone based. 
                       With two or three exceptions, all of the boulders in these displays came from within a mile of their residence.  The boulders included, which are chiefly igneous and metamorphic rocks and migmatites, constitute a veritable museum collection of the diverse rocks carried into this area during the last "Ice Age" glaciation. 

           Cobbles. Cobbles are, in essence, small boulders.  In this area, as elsewhere, most fieldstones of cobble size are used in groups.  In several of these groups, virtuallyall of the fieldstones are of cobble size;  in several others, fieldstones of cobbles, particularly large ones, and boulders, typically relatively small ones, occur together.  The examples shown under this subheading in this Volume consist largely or wholly of cobbles.

                                     Walkway on Bois Blanc Island that extends from a summer home to the beach area.  Cobbles, nearly all of which are "hard-rock" stones are along the edges.  The walkway itself consists largely of relatively flat "limestone."  This walkway was made by the owner, Jim Vosper.

                                     Walkway & steps.
                                                     Left, This stone and mortar walkway is between the yard and driveway at the house northwest of the junction of Duke's and Martin roads, Moran.  Some of the exposed surfaces are natural;  others are split-faces.  The narrow area covered by concrete with a coarse aggregate, which is between the walkway and the driveway, serves not only to eliminate a short step that could lead to one's tripping but also as a surface where mud that may have accumulated on one's footwear while working in the lawn or garden could be easily removed -- i.e., "scraped off."  The masonry was done by George Litzner. 
                                                          Right, These stones, with no mortar, provide steps from the lawn area down to an area that is at near the lake level of Brevort Lake.  The constituent stones might well be considered "stepping stones."  Notice also the roughly circular group of stones that constitute a stone planter and the smaller group of stones around the young pine tree.  These arrangements were created by Barb Palmer;  they are at the same locality as her Cairn-like stacks.

                                     Stones on steps. These large cobbles and small boulders are on steps that are on the north side of Portage St. in St. Ignace.  Although this use of stones is hardly a Landscape Accent as such, as can seen in the smaller scale photograph, this use does tie into the adjacent use of Landscape Accent stones on the adjacent slope.  Notice that the nearly all of the stones on the steps are well-rounded stones of diverse compositions whereas most of those on the adjacent bank are rubble.

                                     Planters & stone-bordered flower beds. Many fieldstone based structures that are referred to as planters are indistinguishable from flowerbeds surrounded by stones.  The terms that are enclosed in quotation marks here are the designations applied by the owner or someone else who talked to me about the feature.
                              A,  This retaining wall, which extends from the ground upward to the level of the top of the house's foundation, is beside the house on the northwestern corner of the junction of Duke's Rd. with Martin Rd. in Moran.  It dates to 1950 and 1951.  Two kinds of stones are included:  those that exhibit their natural surfaces and those that have their split-faces exposed.  George Litzner was the mason;  his wife Patricia "finished" the mortar joints.
                              B, Two views of a two-level "planter" on the corner of Casey and Huron streets in St. Ignace.
                              C, A planting area beside Gros Cap Rd. -- Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of flower beds surrounded by stones occur within the area.  Each could claim this spot in this volume.  This is one that I drive by each time I go west to Rte. 2;  I do not know who designed it, when it was created, where these stones came from or who owns it, but I like it!               
                             D, An elongate "planter" with its right (road) side higher than its left.  This planter, actually with boulders, rather than pebbles, predominant, is on the western side of Church Rd., just north of Brevort Lake Rd. (H57).  The boulders were dug up from the surrounding grounds and put in place by Bob Wirt in 2010.       

                                     "Frame" or "display frame" are the names frequently applied to groups of stones that surround things other than flowerbeds and shrubbery.  Some of these frames are merely juxtaposed stones like those that around flowerbeds.  Others constitute veritable walls, albeit typically low ones.  In any case, the main purpose of fieldstone "frames" appears to be to exhibit and, in some cases, protect the things they surround.  The diversity of things that are displayed in this way is mind-boggling.  Although many of the "frames" within this area consist wholly or largely of stones that were picked up nearby, others include stones from sand pits and from beach areas, especially those along Lake Superior.

                                     "Frame" of loose fieldstones around the base of a flagpole.  It is north of LaVake Rd. near its dead end.

                                     Left, frame, which is a low wet-laid wall around an old hand-held tiller, on a lawn north of Pte. LaBarbe Rd.
                                     Center, frame, which is a dry-laid wall, around part of an area that includes some rather diverse man-made items as well as trees and bushes, on the north side of Charles Moran Rd., west of Rte. 123. 
                                     Right,  stones around a bird bath -- not for the bird shown! -- north of Brevort Lake Rd. (H57), west of Moran.

                                     Left, part of an old harrow, with the stones as its background as well as its "frame," along Portage Rd.
                                     Right, stones around the lower part of a debarked, broken-off tree along with larger stones that more or less surround an old, rusted drag-anchor comprise this display near the junction of the east and west branches of Martin Lake Rd.

                                     A one-boulder-high "frame" around Moran's "Welcome" and plantings on the east side of Rte. 123.

                                     A fieldstone "almost-'frame'" that sets off a mid-20th century cedar-strip(?) sports rowboat on a lawn north of Pte. LaBarbe Rd.  The group of fieldstones include several diverse rocks -- both "hard rocks" and "limestones."  Differential weathering and/or erosion of some surfaces of the latter rocks is especially evident.


                                     "Wishing wells" with bases of stones occur sporadically throughout the area.  In essence, these bases are circular, freestanding walls, and virtually all of them are wet-laid.  Most of these "wells," including those with windlasses, are only decorative -- i.e., they are not directly related to a source of water. This one, which is beside Shore Drive in Evergreen Shores, is an exception.  Although it is now only decorative, it was formerly associated with a flowing spring/well, which is now virtually dry.  The fieldstones of this structure were taken from a dry well that was formerly on the same property.   Alan Werkheiser, the current owner, did the masonry in 1971 or '72

                                     Pillars that consist of fieldstones occur here and there within the area. They are particularly common on the "built-up" part of Mackinac Island.  Three examples are shown.
                                               Left,  Light "post" near Grand Hotel, Mackinac Island.
                                               Center,  "Name post" for a summer home on Pte. LaBarbe Rd.  This marker, dated as September 1942, was made by George Yates, then the owner.  The stones were collected nearby.  The small boulder on the top is a salmon-pink granitic rock that is transected by a black basalt dikelet.  The small stones spelling "Youngstown" and "Ohio" are pebbles that have been painted black. 
                                               Right,  Light "post" on the north side of Brevort Lake Rd. (H57) east of Rte. 123.  Roxanne Powers-Tallman included stones from several sources including fields, gravel pits and Lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior to create this structure.

                                     This quasi-lighthouse "pillar" is beside the entrance to a trailer park on Grove St. in Cedarville. The approximately 12-feet high fieldstone masonry base, the outside of which consists largely of mortar with the included fieldstones as decorative elements, was built in 1984. 


                       When I think about the walls within this general area, I recall the information recorded1 about stone structures beneath Lake Huron.  I wonder if any of the accumulations of fieldstones treated in this album were also made soon after the glacial ice of the last "Ice Age" no longer covered the area.  See, for example, the roughly donut-shaped "pile of stones," which is the last entry in Part I, BUILDINGS:  Subsection OTHER BUILDINGS & STRUCTURES
According to O'Shea and Meadows (e.g., 2009), the structures beneath Lake Huron include stone piles, which
                          appear to  have been used to attract caribou, and drive lanes.  The lanes are described as long rows of rocks (walls?)
                          that were meant to channel the caribou into ambushes.  These, as well as other stone structures, occur on the now
                          submerged Alpena-Amberley ridge
which extends some 100 miles between Presque Isle, Michigan and Point Clark,
                         Ontario.  This ridge was apparently dry land between about 9,900 and 7,500 years ago.

           Stone "fence" west of Church Rd., Moran.  Fence-line accumulations of fieldstones are frequently referred to as stone fences or stone rows.  Although some people refer to them as walls, they are not walls per se.  Most of these "fences" consist of stones removed from their adjacent field(s) to "clear the land."

      True walls.  The stones of true walls are chosen and placed by the individuals who make them. The stones may be wet-laid or dry-laid -- i.e., with or without mortar.  These walls are often characterized as freestanding or retaining:  Freestanding walls are those that extend upward from the ground with their sides and tops open to the air;  retaining walls are those that have only one side, plus or minus their tops, open to the air.  Fieldstone walls of each of these kinds occur here and there throughout the area, and are especially common in Hessel and central Cedarsville.  A few examples of these diverse kinds of walls that are within this area are shown in the following photographs.                            

           Dry-laid walls.  Relatively low dry-laid stone walls mark the edges of driveways at many places.
                              Left, freestanding wall beside a circular drive north of Kenneth Rd. in Hiawatha National Forest.
                              Right, retaining walls that keep the grass-covered soil from creeping to lower levels at Pte. Aux Chenes.

           Dry-laid wall at Hessel.   This freestanding wall consists of diverse "hard-rock" and sedimentary rock boulders, angular to slightly modified rubble, fragments of rock apparently derived from of nearby bedrock, ..., ... and even concrete blocks.  It is said that this wall was "squared up" and the concrete blocks were added relatively recemtly.

           Culvert headers.  Dry-laid retaining walls are often named on the basis of their special roles and/or locations. These two are on the north side of Charles Moran Rd., west of Rte. 123.  The photograph on the right also includes a stone-surrounded planting area.

           Wet-laid walls define the perimeter of Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island.  Retaining, freestanding and hybrid walls are present.  The earliest walls date to 1779-1781;  later walls, primarily on the north side of the fort, date from circa 1800.  Parts of some of the walls are eight feet thick.  Although the constituent stones are painted white, their shapes and other characteristics indicate them to be a mixture of "limestone" and "hard-rock" boulders.  History is said to indicate that a large percentage of the "limestone" was quarried (P. Porter, p.c., 2010), but I suspect several of the "limestone" components represent pieces of rubble from the surrounding area including the shore and off-shore areas of Lake Huron. 
                         The walls are said to have been white from soon after the time they were built
(op. cit., 2010).  Whitewash was likely used for the first and several later coatings.   That being the case, the apparent lack of such a coating in a photograph, dated 1865 (Petersen, 1973, p.27, bottom), would seem to indicate that it was taken when much of the whitewash had been removed by rain etc.  Currently they are painted white.
                         Over the years, the stone walls and other parts of the fort have been repaired.  For example, about ten years ago, the walls underwent a restoration that "involved repointing 16,250 square feet of façade ... [and,] when it was not possible to rely solely on historic techniques, all modern materials were concealed.  For example, a system of modern steel reinforcements was embedded several feet into concrete and hidden under a shell that precisely matched a 19th century walkway's original appearance" (Smithgroup...n.d.).   
                         The area of the fort also includes several other fieldstone-faced structures.  Along with the Officers' Stone Quarters and the ground-level stories of the three blockhouses, which are treated elsewhere in this album, stones are also major constituents of such things as the "frames" and bases for some of the cannons and the foundations of several structures as well as the bastions and ramparts which are incorporated with the perimeter walls.
                         The black and white photographs, both taken between circa 1885-189
, are reproduced here courtesy of the Mackinac State Historic Parks.  The photos taken in 2010 show part of two walls including a sally port.

           Wet-laid wall near "Chimney Point," Marquette Island.  This wall, which was built beside a former pond that also had sporadic, marginal terraced sides, apparently dates to the early 1900s and perhaps to the 1800s.  The view on the lower right shows the pond side of the wall.  The top of the dry land side is somewhat rounded whereas that of the pond side is not.

           Wet-laid walls of more recent times.
                              Upper,  This curved retaining wall is northwest of the junction of Duke's and Martin roads in Moran.  It consists of split-faced stones.  George Litzner, a well-driller and then resident of the house, fashioned the wall during the early 1950s.
                              Lower,  This freestanding wall, which exhibits the natural surfaces of its fieldstones, is part of a discontinuous wall on the east side of Huron St. in St. Ignace.   It is said to have been built by Ned Fenlon during the 1950s.  Three of the constituent building blocks of one of the "posts" of this wall are slag (i.e., the glassy residue of smelting of iron ore) -- see the bluish one in the lower left photograph.  Another completely different slag is at the bottom of the nearby wall.  The stones in this lower left photograph are indicative of the diversity of the kinds of stones that are included in this wall and its posts. Actually, however, most of the wall consists of well-rounded "hard-rock" fieldstones.

           Wet-laid wall along the drive to the residence that is beyond the end of the west branch of Martin Road.  This wet-laid retaining wall, said to have been built in the 1930s, is the longest wall associated with a single residence that I have found within the area. 
                       The top photograph shows a large portion of the wall and the former house, which may be the one that was listed on the tax roles of the mid 1920s.  In any case, the house is known to have been there by the mid 1930s, and is said to have been built for Dr. Kirk Stewart.  It and the nearby barn and other outbuildings were widely referred to as Kirkwood.  The house included three fieldstone chimneys, one of which is shown in the photograph (courtesy C. Cullip). This house was destroyed by fire in 2009. The chimneys survived the fire but were not incorporated in the house that has subsequently been built on the site.
                       The two photographs in the middle show parts of the wall as it appears today.  They were taken within a ten-minute period with the same camera setting.
                       The two fieldstones shown at the bottom of this group were found on the property.  Both are "hard-rocks."  The one on the left exhibits some percussion marks, probably formed when this basalt was hit by another stone during transit.  The one on the right is a metamorphosed sandstone -- i.e., a quartzite.

           Wing walls occur at both approaches to this bridge where the Mackinac Trail crosses Carp River.  The bridge, listed on the National Register as of December 17th, 1999, was built in 1920.  The wing walls, also called "cobblestone retaining walls" (MichiganGov...2001-2010), were added during the 1929-1930 biennium (ibid.).  The presence of the USCGS benchmark, dated  1934,  which is embedded in the concrete of the base upon which the railing of the bridge is mounted, has led to questions about some of the just-mentioned dates. It should not, in my opinion.  As can be seen in the photograph on the lower left, the concrete around the benchmark is not of the same batch as the concrete of this part of structure;  it appears to have been added to fill hole made for the concrete base upon which the benchmark was placed.  This, of course, means that the benchmark was added after the bridge was made, probably in 1934 as indicated.  In any case, these parts of this bridge were demolished, unfortunately (in my opinion), in the early fall of 2010.
                       Most of the cobblestones and small boulders of these walls are "hard rock" -- i.e., igneous, metamorphic and migmatitic rocks.  The stones of the top course were split, and those along each edge were dressed to give them at least two surfaces at nearly right angles to each other.  A few of the stones have fallen out of the mortar (see close-up). 
                       The Carp River, by the way, was apparently named on the basis of its going over a nearby escarpment, rather than on the basis of the identity of its fish population (P.M. Brown, Jr., p.c., 2010).

           Walls in cemeteries.
                              Left, This group of small boulders certainly does not constitute a wall per se.  It is more akin to the previously described frames.  My sensitivities lead to its being included here along with the other walls in cemeteries.  It is in Grace Brethren Cemetery, which is east of 27-Mile Rd., about one and half miles east of Ozark. 
Right, This low, wet-laid stone wall, only part of which is shown, is around a burial plot in the Gros Cap Cemetery northeast of Rte. 2, northwest of St. Ignace.
                              See also the next photograph.

                              This more elaborate wet-laid wall is around a family burial plot in the Brevort Township Cemetery. 

           Walls featuring fieldstones are widespread, especially in the residential areas of Mackinac Island.  They also are a prominent part of Fort Mackinac and surround part of St. Ann's Cemetery.  This, of course, is what one would expect because of the topography of the southern part of the island where most of the residences, the fort and the cemetery are located.
                   Several diverse kinds of walls are are present. Indeed, those of just about any description that one can imagine occur.  Many of them are best characterized as hybrids on the basis of their constituent stones and/or their structures. The following are only examples.
                              A.  Dry-laid retaining wall that consists of boulders.
                              B.  Wet-laid freestanding wall made up largely of rounded rubble.
Wet-laid retaining wall made up of rounded rubble with its end-posts consisting of dressed, "squared," blocks.  Notice also the top course of this wall, which consists of breccia with its rough edges (etc.) exposed.  This reminds me of the walls that occur around, for example, some haciendas in Central America -- i.e., the walls that are topped with embedded pieces of broken glass with their sharp edges protruding upwards, apparently to keep intruders from climbing over them.
Wet-laid retaining wall, the boulders of which include many diverse "hard-rocks."

                               E.  Apparently one of the oldest walls on the island?!
                               F.  An entrance and adjacent walls around St. Ann's Cemetery.  Both are wet-laid and consist largely of rubble, some of which has been dressed. The total length of fieldstone walls at this cemetery appears to constitue the longest fieldstone wall in the area.
      Walls galore:      G. Chiefly dry-laid walls.
                               H. Chiefly wet-laid walls.


                       Only a few fairly common "miscellaneous uses" of fieldstones within this area are illustrated here.  Additional  "miscellaneous uses," are treated briefly in Appendix B. 

           Shore Protection and Docks.  Shore protection  and docs are extremely important in this area.  Both of these uses are common along some of the inland lakes as well as along Lakes Michigan and Huron. 

                   Boulder piling is a widespread form of shore protection.  Three places where boulders and/or quarried blocks have been piled to provide such protection serve as examples of this kind of shore protection within this area.  
                 Upper Left,  along Lake Huron just north of the Indian Village in St. Ignace; 
                                               Upper Right,  along the southern shore of Brevort Lake.
quarried blocks of dolostone along a concave bank of the Brevort River near one of the bridges on Dam Rd.

                   Gabion wall along the shore of Brevort Lake near its outlet into Brevort River.  The top photographs (courtesy of USDA Forest Service) were taken after its installation in 1966 (John Franzen, p.c., 2010).  Notice that another  gabion-constituted structure was placed near the base of this wall, on its lake side;  its remains are now below lake level, covered with sediment.   As can be seen in the close-up of the two lower photographs, which were taken in 2010, the wire -- albeit galvanized and of greater diameter than, for example, typical chicken wire -- has a relatively fresh appearance.  The fact that it is only rusted near lake level is rather remarkable considering the climate of the area and the fact that the gabions have been here for almost a half century.
                   The placement of this "wall," near the control dam at the outlet of Brevort Lake into the Brevort River, was so-to-speak dictated because this section the shoreline witnesses more so-to-speak flowing water than the rest of the lake, especially when the lake is relatively high and outflow into the river is greater than normal.   Indeed, if this part of the shoreline were not so-protected, it would be particularly subject to erosion. Consequently, I tend to think of this wall as the area's best wall by a damsite. 

                   Breakwater, off-shore, Hessel.  The fieldstones of this breakwater are said to have come from a former crib dock.

                   Pond side east of Black Point Rd., north of Duke's Rd. The stones along this "duck pond" merely define the shape of the pond -- i.e., they are hardly needed for shore-line protection. During the 1980s, Ervin Rose put these fieldstones around this area after loose mantle was removed for use as fill, and the area filled with groundwater. The stones came from nearby fields.

                   This is but one of several remains of fieldstone docks within the county.  It is on the southeastern side of Brevort Lake near Brevort Lake Rd. (H57). 

                   These two crib docks are at Hessel. The close-up shows the structure and relations between the stones and timbers.   

           Fire Circles and Outdoor Fireplaces.   Five examples of what amount to several scores of fire circles within the area are shown in this album.  Each of them includes dolostone rubble and “hard rock” fieldstones.  On the contrary, outdoor fireplaces are relatively rare.  This may reflect, at least in part, the fact that the usual roles of these fireplaces had have been taken over by semi-permanent fire circles and portable barbecues.

                   Left, This relatively simple, one-stone-high, fire circle is in Hiawatha National Forest, west of Search Bay.
                   Right, This more complex fire-circle, in that it is more than one stone high, is at Ponchartrain Shores.

                   Large fire circle, with surrounding benches and sawed-off tree trunks for people to sit on, is on the west side of School House Rd., north of Worth Rd.  When I saw this setup, I recalled sitting around such fires and listening to and telling all sorts of tales.  I had to wonder what stories had been told and what other activities may have occurred around this circle.

                   These two fire circles differ from the preceding ones in that their fieldstones are held together by mortar.  Both are near the shore of Brevort Lake.  The seating around the one on the left differs markedly from that around most of the fire circles within the area. 

                   Outdoor fireplaces are relatively sparse within the area.  Those shown exhibit rather different features.
Left, This fireplace (~ 12 ft. high) is on northwestern Marquette Island in the complex that features the Summer Home, "Blockhouse," etc.  The constituent stones were picked up from the island or along its shore.  Its construction predates that of the fireplace on the right by about 80 years.
Right,  This fireplace (~ 7 ½ ft. high) is on the lot of a vacation home on Worth Rd.  John Matsen, the owner and mason, built it in 1994.  The split-faced stones were brought to this area from near Ludington, even though similar stones occur nearby.  Three coins are included in the mortar:  Upper left (straight up from 1), a "Big Mac" Bridge token;  Lower center (... up from 2), a Kewadin Casino (Sault Ste. Marie, Canada) token;  Upper right (... up from 3), a Sacajawea U.S. dollar.  Notice also the black rock on the top of the left-side unit;  it was dressed to resemble the shape of Michigan's Lower Peninsula.
                   This outdoor fireplace, with its idyllic setting, is northeast of Pte. LaBarbe Rd.  It was built in the 1920s by Lloyd Obeshaw.  The "trees" surrounding it are pruned lilacs that are progeny of a really large lilac, the trunk of which is farther back and left of the fireplace.

                   This fireplace is east of East Lake Rd., in the East Lake community.  It consists largely of dressed stones, at least some of which appear to have been fieldstones.  The masonry is attributed to Jack Riness, former occupant of the nearby house, a section of which is faced by similar sandstone stones and shown elsewhere in this album.

           Decorative items that feature stones, most of which are pebbles or small cobbles, have been made by a few artists/crafts(wo)men residences of the area. 

                   Mabel Pechta (d), formerly of Moran (see McKevitt, 2008), covered things, such as vases, baby's shoes, plates and tables, with small stones.  She attached the stones with Elmer's glue and then sprayed them with a clear acrylic to bring out their colors and heighten their lusters. Plates with the names of the owners spelled out with white pebbles and surrounded by black pebbles were one of her specialties.  Mabel put the pebbles on this table in the early summer of 2010, when she was 98 years old.  Although pebbles virtually identical to those she used occur sporadically within the the county, most of those that she used came from beaches along Lake Superior.
                   Roxanne Powers-Tallman collected the stones and made this 22 x 40-inch framed hanging.  The background is a sandy grout;  the stones' brightnesses have been enhanced by an acrylic coating.  She created this piece as a memorial to her father.  Roxanne, an avid collector of stones, has many decorative pebbles, cobbles and boulders as accents within her residence and on the surrounding grounds.  Most of the stones are from the nearby area and along the shores of Lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior.     

               This interesting piece, created by Mallory Burkolder, is in front of a walkway between his house and a storage shed that is west of Webb Rd. south of Poglese Rd.  The stone (~15 inches in greatest dimension) is a good example of the well-known jasper puddingstone of the Lorrain Formation that crops out sporadically in a belt that extends from north of Sault Ste. Marie to near Bruce's Mine, Ontario.  This stone was collected from glacial debris near Jonesville, Hillsdale County.  The stone has had a groove cut around its shortest perimeter so the cable stays in place.  In addition, it was sandblasted to give it its relatively regular surface and coated with polyurethane to enhance its luster.  The metal frame is an ~4-inch wide, 44-inch diameter wagon wheel.  The circular frame can be rotated on its vertical base;  the stone rotates on its cable, sometimes with only slight changes of the wind. This piece, with the fieldstone as its focus, serves not only as a unique decorative addition to Burkolder's grounds, but also as a barometer.  For details relating to the latter "use," I suggest that you contact Mallory.     

                    Additional items of this genre include the following: 
                                   Top, Left,  This pebble-covered birdhouse (height ~5½ inches) is, as is true for many like it, more decorative than functional.  In fact, this one spends most of its time on the mantel of its owners' fireplace.  
Right,  This pebble-sheathed mailbox is on Hill Island.
     Bottom, Left,  Relatively large pebbles and/or small cobbles plus mortar are widely used to make such things as this plant pot (height ~1 ft.).  The stones of this one, which is on a porch on Brevort Lake Rd., are said to have come from near Lake Superior and the vicinity of Weidman in Isabella Co., Michigan. 
Right, pebble-faced birdbath on the lawn of the fieldstone-faced house in Cedarville. 

                    This "birdbath," more decorative than functional for any but small birds to use individually, is on eastern Bois Blanc Island.  It was conceived and created by the Engels, whose patio and cottage foundation are also shown in this album.  It consists of two quite different stones: The top one is a rubble fragment that apparently was rounded by abrasion to give it its concave top, as shown, while near the shore of Lake Huron.  The base is a "hard-rock" boulder glacially transported into the area from Ontario;  the weathering and erosion responsible for the size, shape and surface features of this boulder could have occurred prior to its being picked up and transported into this area by glacial ice and/or during its transport by glacio-fluvial streams and/or as the result of later erosion while it was along the lake shore.

                    Table tops that are flat stones occur here and there within the area.  All of those I have seen are decorative -- i.e., they are so-to-speak landscape accents -- as well as functional.  The  tops of these two tables are dolostone slabs from nearby rubble.  They are in the Woodland subdivision near Cedarville, on the same property as the waterfalls  and small stream also shown in this album.

                    "Rock garden" at Evergreen Shores.  Calling this pictured group of fieldstones a rock garden, even enclosed in quotation marks,  is a real "stretch."  It certainly does not constitute what are usually called a rock gardens.  It is so-designated because that is what Janet Werkheiser, who conceived it, collected the stones for it and made it, calls it -- note the stone that is farthest back on the right.  Janet collected most of these stones from the nearby area, some from below the water, off the bottom of Lake Huron.
                    This stylized replica of "Old Glory" is north of Chard Rd.  The constituent stones are NOT fieldstones;  rather, they are "manufactured stones" made to resemble natural stones like those that occur in the adjacent pit.  The replica was made by the son of the pit owner.  Fairly natural-appearing dolostone-like "cobbles" comprise the white stripes;  surfaces that replicate split faced stones fill the area where white stars on a blue background are on real flags; bricks constitute the red stripes.  This entry is included in this album with "tongue in cheek."  My hope is that it will lead someone to make an "Old Glory" using only natural fieldstones. 

           Monuments and Markers. A few boulders within the area have been engraved or bear plaques, most of which are "bronze," to commemorate certain persons, events, or the like . Examples are shown in the next few entries.
            Two other rocks in St. Ignace that bear commemorative plaques are not shown here.  One, formerly on the west side of Boulevard Drive south of its junction with Rte. 2, but moved in 2010 to the Bridgeview parking area east of Boulevard Drive, is "dedicated to" David B Steinman, designer of the Macnkinac Bridge.  The other, near the parking lot for the American Legion Memorial Park on State Street, is "in memory" of James Montcalm, a scuba diver in the area.  The former is a squared block of relatively homogeneous dolostone;  the latter is a somewhat modified, roughly diamond-shaped slab that consists of interlayered fine and medium grained calcite-bearing dolostone.   Although the squared block may have been part of a former fieldstone, I suspect it was not.  On the other hand, it seems likely that the slab of interlayered dolostone is part of a former fieldstone. 
Three other plaque bearing boulders within the area, which are not illustrated here, are in or near Cedarville.  They are:  1.A rounded dolostone boulder with an attached bronze plaque that memorializes, "A man of vision," which is near the waterfront in Cedarville;  2.A nearby slab of dolostone with a plaque bearing a list of contributors to the Downtown Cedarville Streetscape Project of 2000;   [and]  3.A rounded dolostone boulder with a bronze plaque at the "Scenic View" driveout beside the swamp area on the south side of Rte. 134 between Hessel and Cedarville that has an attached bronze plaque that includes a list of individuals, including three memorials, and sponsors, and the fact that the lookout was a "A project [not dated] of Les Cheneaux advisory (beautification) Committee." 
                    Rogers monument is southwest of the junction of Rte. 123 and the Mackinac Trail.  How many of the constituent stones of this monument were fieldstones is unknown.  Some of the included stones were more likely mined -- e.g., the copper-bearing rock from Houghton County and the banded ironstone from Marquette County.  Whatever their occurrence, at least one of these stones came from each of the 15 counties of the Upper Peninsula, and all are said to have been "carefully selected and intended to represent the mineral and rocks products of that section of the state" (Anon., 1929, p.5).    
                    Unfortunately, some of the mortar of this monument, especially on its north side is crumbling.  It should be replaced in the near future, not only to preserve the integrity of the monument, but to be sure that none of the stones fall out and injure a nearby observer.

                    Cemetery monument and commemorative boulder:  
                                     Left & Center, An engraved gneissic boulder in Lakeside Cemetery in southern St. Ignace. 
An engraved granite commemorative boulder at the
Les Cheneaux Historical Museum in Cedarville.

                    These two boulders are at the following locations:
                                     A. This ~5 ft. high granite plaque-bearing boulder is in the Father Marquette National Memorial Park, northeast of Boulevard Drive, St. Ignace.  
                                     B. This ~5½ ft. high boulder, is also granite.  Its nearly flat surface, upon which the plaque is attached, appears to be a natural joint surface.  It is in a grassy area near the entrance to the Arnold Line's passenger dock, St. Ignace.

                    This ~5½ ft. high boulder, "C," is on the lake side of the parking lot at the American Legion Memorial Park on State Street in downtown St. Ignace.  It is an especially interesting rock:  Much of it is a granitic gneiss, but the composition of its right side, as shown, indicates that the overall rock unit from which it came is a migmatite.  Mackinac Island is in the background of this photograph.  The island's terraces, which were formed when the precursor of Lake Huron had levels quite different from that of the present-day lake, are quite obvious.  For an explanation of these levels, see, for example, Hough (1958).
                    This, ~2½ ft. high dolerite boulder, is northeast of British Landing Rd., on Mackinac Island.

                    This marker differs from the others.  It consists of a boulder-size dolostone fragment surrounded by rubble from one of the stacks or similar occurrences of the Mackinac Breccia (see Landes, 1945).  The dolostone "boulder" appears to have been split to give the relatively flat surface upon which the plaque is mounted.  The surrounding rubble fragments are held together with mortar.  The statement on the plaque, which has aroused some controversy, has led some people to call it the "Mac Plaque."  The Missionary Bark Chapel, a reconstruction thought to replicate the one built on the island during the winter of 1670 by Jesuit Priest Claude Deblon, is on the left in the background.
                    A few additional plaque-bearing boulder occur on Mackinac Island.  To me, the most noteworthy, and prominent, is the one at Fort Mackinac that commemorates some some medical research performed at the fort by Dr. William Beaumont.  The plaque is mounted on a granitic rock atop two blocks of the same rock, each of which was apparently shaped and imported rather than made fashioned from local fieldstone(s).

           Cairn- and inukshuk-like stacks of stones. As mentioned under the subheading "Boulders atop boulders" in the section dealing with LANDSCAPE ACCENTS, stones have been placed atop stones in several places within the area.  With the exception of the first group, it appears that none of these was conceived as a landscape accent per se.  In any case, all of those shown here warrant special attention because of their general forms. 

                    These are four of several cairn-like stacks of stones that are on a lakeside lot on Luenitz Ln. west of State Rte. H57.  Barb Palmer, who made them, calls them "Stone Castles."  Most of the stones of these creations are dolostone from relatively nearby formations and were collected along the nearby shore of Brevort Lake.
                                     Left,  The largest stack, on the left, includes the most "hard-rock" stones of any of Barb's "castles".
                                     Right,  This one, her first at this locality, is the only stack I have ever seen with a tree stump as its base.  It is unfortunate that rotting of this base will very likely lead to its not standing upright as long as the ones on the ground.

                    These two stacks of loose stones are close to the shore of Lake Huron near the end of Hessel Point Rd.  They were created about five years ago by Gretchen Lauer.  All these stones, including the boulder bases, are from nearby formations.  At the currently exposed level of the lake, the shape of the boulder base of the "cairn" on the right, resembles that of a reclining dog or perhaps a seal. 

                    This "stack" is north of Kenneth Rd.  It is one of the two that are at the east and west corners of a yard.  Each is 5½ to 6 feet high and consists of dolostone rubble.  As can be seen, the top of this one roughly resembles a person's head topped by some sort of headwear.
       An aside:  Stones such as this one, which resembles a person's head;  the boulder base in the preceding pair of photographs, which resembles a reclining dog...;  and the two shown in composite illustrating the "Foundation-like ... trailer" entry are called mimetoliths.  For more information and photographs of mimetoliths from several places, including elsewhere in our planetary system, see Dietrich (2010a).  
                    A score or more of cairn-like stacks of stones occur within the stony, near-shore area along the southwestern side of Mackinac Island.  Unlike the preceding examples of cairn-like stacks of stones, which were made by nearby residents, those of this area were apparently made by tourists.  The location of many of these cairn-like structures leads me to believe that many of them will probably be short-lived.  It seems likely that they will be disrupted by either natural or human invasive activities -- e.g., the movement of ice, especially in the Spring, and the "people traffic," especially during the tourist season(s).  These four were photographed on September 27th, 2010.

                    These piles of loose rocks are on the north side of Cheeseman Rd. about ¼ mile north of Rte. 2.  Although I have heard the piles referred to as cairns, I have found no evidence that they were erected as either memorials or markers for anyone or anything.  In addition, they do not look like any cairns that I have seen -- e.g., in the Scottish Highlands.  From another standpoint, their location does not seem to be such that they might would deter any vehicle, other than perhaps a snow-mobile, from going any place its driver might logically want it to go;  so, they seem not to be deterrents.  Whatever they should be called and whatever their purpose, each of them consists largely of pieces of rubble from nearby sedimentary formations plus or minus a few boulders from nearby apparently reworked glacial and/or glacio-fluvial deposits.

                    These inushuk-like stacks, which consist largely of pieces of rubble from the nearby shore area, were near the southwestern shore of Mackinac Island, 27 September 2010.  One of these kinds of stacks has also been photographed on one of the beach areas of Bois Blanc Island;  however, while looking at fieldstone structures on Bois Blanc, I found no one who knew anything about either it or the other interesting displays that included stones, of which photographs are on the internet (see "All trees ...", 2008).  As mentioned for the cairn-like stacks along this shore, I suspect that these stacks are also ephemeral.  I also suspect, however, that others will take their places in within the area for all to see in the future.
       An aside:  I have been told that inunnguaq, rather than inushuk, is the correct name for cairns that represent the human figure.

           Weights. The use of fieldstones as weights is widespread. Although most stones that have this role are used near where they are picked up, a few kinds of "stone weights" are carried well away from their original locations. Two examples are the pebbles used as sinkers by fisher(wo)men and the boulders used as anchors.  Another particular interesting use, similar to the one shown on the left, below, is the placing of boulders atop garbage cans to keep the coons from getting into them, ...

                    Two examples of fieldstones used as weights that were picked up near where they were used: 
                                     Left & Center, The small boulders atop the plastic containers are along a driveway on the east side of East Lake.  These stones keep the lightweight containers, which are protecting plants from winter freezings and thawings, from blowing away.  The close-up is shown to emphasize the fact that stones with one relatively flat surface are considered best for this purpose. 
                                     Right,  This use of boulders to stabilize a basketball backboard and hoop is along Gros Cap Rd.   


          "Wow" & Worry Stone.  As I have noted elsewhere, some fieldstones affect people's mental states.  Sight, sound or even touch may be the activator(s).  The two following photographs show a sight and stone of this genre, at least for my mental state.  The sound aspect is represented by the "Waterfalls ..." photographs in the LANDSCAPE ACCENTS section of this album. 
       An aside: 
Anyone who has listened to the sounds that arise when water flows over or moves stones has, I suspect, been affected.  It happens to me wherever streams flow over stones, be it a cascade or waves flowing on and off stone covered beaches. --  The different sounds that are made range from quieting to disquieting.  They are ever intriguing and sometimes nearly hypnotic. 
                         Buson, the famous Japanese haiku writer, alluded to these phenomena as follows:  "Winter storm, //  The voice of rushing waters  //  Is torn by the stones" (Translation courtesy of Tadao Okazaki).  Henry David Thoreau (1912, p.181), wrote the following about a stream that he could cross by stepping from stone to stone:  "Its constant murmuring would quiet the passions of mankind forever."   Oscar Hammerstein II's lyrics in The Sound of Music provide yet another pertinent epigram:  "To laugh like a brook when it trips and falls over stones on its way ..."  
                        Certainly many of you have witnessed, thought about and cherished your own or others' words about this role that stones have so far as in giving voices to water as it flows over them or the voices that water gives the stones as it causes them to move over one another.

                                        WOW!!! ---
       Another aside:  What about these Fieldstones? ... Are they:    In transport?   For sale?   A landscape accent?   What?  -------  I just do not know and was unable to find out!   BUT, to me, this collection and setting seemed right out of a story book. --  One with thoughts of the past, of today and of the future ! ! !   [Unfortunately, this “ancient” wheelbarrow, laden with fieldstones, is no longer present where I first saw it.  Consequently, I really
prize this photograph.]

                                        Worry Stone.  --  It's mine. 

  A matter of tangential interest:
                      An APPARATUS SIMILAR TO THOSE USED TO COLLECT PIECES of a ROCK NOT USED AS a FIELDSTONE, though some people may consider the use of compacted snow as building blocks of igloos to be an analogous use. This set of tongs, said to have been used by loggers, is one of four that are mounted on a fence in Pte. Aux Chenes.  I have been told that similar tongs were also used "in the early days" while harvesting ice from lakes in the area.  And, YES, ice is a rock.  It forms by solidification of a fluid (water) just as igneous rocks form by solidification of the fluid called magma, which is widely referred to as lava when it is on the Earth's surface.  In addition, glacial ice -- so important because of its role in transporting virtually all of the "hard rock" stones into this area -- is a so-to-speak metamorphic rock.
                       Large quantities of ice were formerly taken from the lakes for ice houses (See Kiwanis..., 1957, p. 95).  Apparently, before some of more modern methods were developed, tongs with long handles like those shown, were sometimes used to give the men near open water a longer reach to grab the ice blocks that were cut -- i.e., they could use such tongs without having to lean over, and possibly falling into, the frigid water.  Also, such tongs were apparently sometimes used by two-men teams to lift the larger blocks, which were sometimes harvested, onto the wagons that transported them to the ice houses where they were stored. 


                       Several uses of fieldstones in Michigan's Upper Peninsula that are outside of, but within relatively short distances of, the ~25-mile circle, which was arbitrarily used to define the area covered for this album, made me want to extend the radius of the circle.  Critical considerations, however, precluded that.  Nonetheless, a few of those uses, which I had heard about or noticed in particular over the years, seem well worth including in this volume.  I hope that my doing this will whet the imaginations of others and cause them to extend my coverage to include more of the uses of fieldstones within these "outlying" areas. 
                       The order followed in presenting these occurrences extends clockwise around the circumference of the ~25-mile radius circle starting near the north shore of Lake Michigan, just east of Epoufette, Mackinac County.  Examples are given from Mackinac, Schoolcraft and Chippewa counties.

           Stone studded panels in Monck's Stone Bar, a widely known "watering hole" in Epoufette, Mackinac County, from 1948 until the late 1970s.  The stones in the panels were collected by the owner, Bill Monck, his wife Winnie, and their son Bob along Lake Superior where Muskallonge Lake State Park is now located.  The three Moncks also made the panels.  Bill, a veteran of WWII, is said to have always had his U.S. Navy sailor's hat on while tending the bar.  (photo, an old postcard, courtesy of Bob Monck)

           Hunting cabin & companion building in Hendricks Township of Mackinac County, on the east side of the road between Epoufette and the Hiawatha Trail (Rte. H40), east of Rexton.  The widely told story about the building on the right is that the words "Porky no chew," above its doorway, were put there after this stone-faced building was made to replace a former wooden building that was ruined by porcupines.  Both it and the adjacent building were built by Clarence Brown, of the Fatsco Ant Poison Company, in the early 1950s.  Unfortunately, the "Porky no chew" building, with its concrete roof and partial iron lining, was found virtually impossible to live in during hot weather, especially for a few days after it was first opened each year;  it just didn't breathe, and is said to have sweat profusely.  Therefore, the owner made the building on the left, which has, among other things, a wooden roof, and breathes.  The stones for both buildings were collected from several places in the area between the building site and Lake Superior.  The intrusive breccia, basaltic dike and folded gneiss shown left to right, respectively, are three especially interesting stones included among the fieldstones of these buildings.

           House on the west side of Rte. 77  in Germfask, Schoolcraft County.  This house was built in 1931 by Dan Decker, who was also the mason for the stonework of the former Catholic church, which was next door to this house.  The church, built in 1932, was destroyed by fire in 1972 (See Stone Church... 2005). 
                       The close-up on the left is part of the nearly square post on the left side of the concrete steps.  The dark gray, nearly black, stone with the off-white spots is a porphyritic basalt.  The two close-ups at the bottom show the patterns that are characteristic of the upper and lower parts of the south wall of the house, respectively.  The foundation, below the solid concrete layer, consists of rectilinear-bounded blocks that consist of rounded fieldstones and mortar.  These blocks were made in forms and their tops, bottoms and sides were given rough surfaces. Production and use of these blocks allowed the mason(s) to add more height during any given time than could have been done by using the more common procedure whereby individual stones and mortar are added in courses.

           House on the west side of Rte. H40, west of Fibre, Chippewa County.  This house was built in 1935 for Donner Dowd, who specified that he wanted the stones to stand out from the mortar;  this accounts for the spacing.   Jess Riness, father of Jack Riness, was the mason.  The included fieldstones, most of which came from near Lake Superior, represent virtually all of the igneous, metamorphic and migmatitic rocks that occur in Canada, north and northeast of this area. 

           Pillar-marker on the grounds of  the Point Iroquois Lighthouse Station, which is on the shore of Lake Superior, just off 6-Mile Rd., which is called Lakeshore Drive near the lighthouse, north of Brimley in Chippewa County:  Three sides of the pillar are shown, along with an additional photograph of part of a  wall on the property.  
                 Top, Left, the pillar-marker and its general setting; 
                         Center, the side of the pillar that faces the lighthouse; 
                         Right, one of the other sides of the pillar. 
a close-up of part of the masonry wall that is around the lighthouse area. 


           Stone "fence" west of Rte. 48, south of Goetsville, Chippewa County.  No stone fence of the magnitude of those that are widely referred to as such is known within the circular area.  This is one of a few that occur in this nearby area.

           Residence on the lake side of Huron St., DeTour Village, Chippewa, County.  This residence was built in 1924 for Thomas Luke Durocher, a local business man who was involved in the salvage of ships and operated the "limestone" quarry on Drummond Island.  Most of the stones of this house are "hard-rock" cobbles from the shores of Lake Superior.  Workers for Durocher are said to have hand-picked the stones during "down periods" at the quarry.  The size sorting of these stones is remarkable;  note especially how those of the planters and risers of the steps are smaller than those of the main parts of the building.
                         The stone wall, which is on the street side of this residence, has an overall length of ~250 feet.  Gateways and a garage break its continuity. The longest continuous segment is ~150 feet long.  Built after the house, the wall includes several "hard-rock" stones, including boulders, some of which were likely from nearby sources, also several "limestone" slabs and blocks, at least some of which probably came from the Drummond Island quarry.
                         Saint Stephens Episcopal Church on Ontario St. is another noteworthy stone-faced building in DeTour Village.  Its stones, virtually all of which are split or otherwise dressed, consist of a chiefly boulder-sized mixture of "limestone" blocks, most of which were probably quarried, plus a few diverse "hard-rock" fieldstones.  Its cornerstone is dated 1903. 


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1. County map of Michigan with counties in Straits area shown in Blue. 

2. This album, volume I, covers the Upper Peninsula part of the area within the circle on this map.  The center of the circle is the midpoint of the "Big Mac" bridge.  The radius of the circle is ~25 miles.  (Map is modified after the Michigan's Official Department of Transportation's State Road Map.)

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           Stones have had and continue to have many uses within this area other than those illustrated in this album.  Those uses that are known or considered almost surely to have been made within the area are given in this appendix.  They are listed alphabetically. 
          The stones of a few of the listed uses have not, so far as I know, involved fieldstones that were picked up within the area.  These uses are included because stones within the area could have "filled the bill."   Several additional uses also may have occurred, especially by Native Americans of the area.   For a general rundown on such possible uses, see Dietrich (1987 & 2008).

           Anvils. Stones have been used as the anvil as well as the hammer by, for example, people cracking nuts and  geologists breaking rocks to see their fresh surfaces and/or to collect specimens for research.  And, I strongly suspect that many people have also used relatively large cobbles and boulders as anvils for various other purposes.
           Artistic expression(?). Certain arrangements of stones are included, albeit with tongue-in-cheek, here.  Two examples are:  1. The previously mentioned display that was on Bois Blanc Island;  as already noted, I have seen only a photograph of this display on the internet (see "All trees ...", 2008).   [and]   2. A heart, with the traditionally included arrow, was outlined by stones on the southwestern shore of Mackinac Island during part of the summer of 2010.  When I saw it, all that was left was some of stones that made up the outline of the heart, which was ~20 feet across, and a few of the stones of the arrow.  The stones were chiefly "limestone" rubble from the nearby the beach.
           Auxiliary parts of displays. Pebbles and small cobbles are used rather widely as background pieces in displays, especially window displays.  I  know, for example that the store "Decked Out," on Mackinac Island has used pebbles and cobbles as background elements for both jewelry, wallets and shoes. 
           Ballast. Boats ranging in size from models and small craft to lake steamers have used stones for ballast. 
           Bed warmers.  Although I have found no one in this area who says (s)he has ever used stones in this way, I feel sure that fieldstones have been heated and so-used.  I know, for example, that stones were used as be warmers even as late as the depression era (1929-1933+) in my native northern New York where the climate is similar to that of this area.
           Beehive stabilizers. Especially during the "off season,"  stacks of beehives are frequently and widely held in place by putting small boulders atop them.
           Blinds for hunters.  Some relatively large boulders have been, and continue to be, used as blinds.
             Cesspits & cesspools.  Stones were a major component of these sub-ground structures that were relatively common before the advent of septic tanks.
           Door stops.  The use of stones, usually cobbles, as door stops is widespread.   
           Drainage fields. Sand, gravel and pebbles are used for many drainage fields within the area.  I have been told that zoning provisions require these drainage fields in some areas.
           Dry well.  See "Wishing Wells" in the subsection dealing with Landscape Accents.
           Gerplunking (also spelled kerplunking).   See Stone Skipping entry.
           Ground cover, on areas where, for example, people do not want to have grass, are here and there throughout the area.  Stones of about the same size constitute most of the individual covers. Pebbles appear to be most common, but cobbles and small boulders also occur here and there.  An often seen cobble ground cover is  on Beach St. across the road from the Cedarville High School. Some people have told me that they use such cover because they really like stones;  this I can understand.  Others admit, sometimes rather sheepishly, that they just do not want to cut grass;  so be it.
           Jewelry that features pebbles, though not common, is a favorite of some people. 
           Knobs & faucet handles. Fieldstones have been used essentially "as is" as well as fashioned for use as knobs for doors and furniture and for use as faucet handles.
           Labyrinths with their paths marked by stones are relatively common -- see, for example, Wolkoff's photo of the one in a private garden in Woodstock, New York (Dominus, 2010, pages 214 & 215) and the one in the wooded area in northwestern Isabella County, Michigan (Dietrich, 2008a, "Photo Archive..." -- Coldwater Township, last photograph).  Gretchen Lauer made one, which I presume, on the basis of her description, was a spiral one on the shore near the end of Hessel Point a few years ago;  it is no longer there.  A rather different one, also using stones, was on the beach at Straits State Park in St. Ignace during the spring of 2010.  Its stones, albeit only a few, were used to mark the "corners" of an almost square "labyrinth" the path sides of which were outlined by grooves indented into the sand;  it was, in any case, called a labyrinth by the leader who made it for a group involved in a Yoga class.
           Nutcrackers.  Stones have been used, especially in the field, to crack, for example, hickory nuts (See Anvil on this list.).
           Paperweights that are pebbles or small cobbles are common in commercial, home offices, etc.
           Pencil  sharpener.  I, for one, have used stones "in the field" to put sharp points on the pencils I was using for taking notes.
           Pillows. Several hikers et al. have certainly lain down, like Jacob in the biblical story,  and rested with their heads on boulders, albeit probably cushioned by, for example, a jacket.
           Population control.  As noted elsewhere, whenever I think of the relationship between stones and this morbid subject, I am reminded of a line from one of Tom Lehrer's songs:  "She weighted her brother down with stones and sent him off to Davy Jones."  Whatever, I suspect stone-laden gunny sacks or the like plus some four-legged animals may have been dropped into one or more of the bodies of water of this area.
           Projectiles. Stones, usually pebbles or small cobbles, have a long history of use as projectiles.  Examples are those that have been merely picked up and thrown at something and those used with slingshots.
           Sauerkraut crock weights. The use of cobbles or small boulders as weights on the inside "lids" of kraut crocks and barrels was widespread in the past and apparently persists in a few places even now.  I suspect that similar devices have also been used in the area to convert cheese curd to solid cheese, but have not been able to find records or recollection by anyone to whom I talked to confirm this use.
           Saunas. I have been told that there are saunas within the area.  I have seen only one, and it does contain some cobbles.  It, and I suspect at least some of the others within the area, is/are not fashioned after the saunas in Finland, where saunas originated. 
           Sitting room.  Hikers, hunters, berry pickers, et al. rather frequently stop and sit on a boulder for a short rest.
           Stone skipping.  The "granddaddy" of stone skipping contests in the United States is held every Fourth of July on Mackinac Island. This competition, actually billed as a "tournament," is under the auspices of the Mackinac Island Stone Skipping and Gerplunking Club.  In the 2010, "Guinness Book ..."  world record holder Russ ("Rockbottom") Byars, of Franklin, Pennsylvania, won with 30 skips.
           Stone therapy.  At least one professional masseur within the area practices stone therapy.  Most of the stones used in such therapy sessions are well rounded pebbles and/or small cobbles of a black rock, typically basalt.  These stones are not from local occurrences.  Similar stones do occur locally but the time to find and collect them probably would make them more costly than those available on the markeplace.
           Thirst quencher.  The holding of a small pebble within one's mouth -- usually under one's tongue -- is a long-standing habit of some people.  I can vouch for the fact that it works.
           Weights.  Several uses as stones as weights other than those noted elsewhere in this album have certainly occurred within this area.        
           Weirs.  Although many of the weirs in roadside ditches within the area consist largely or wholly of quarried rocks, some include or consist of only fieldstones -- typically large cobbles and/or small boulders.

           Uses by birds & by four-legged animals.  Two examples are killdeers' including stones among the building materials of their nests,   AND   dogs' fetching certain stones, even when thrown into water among similar stones.

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. SOME of the ROCKS and FEATURES exhibited by fieldstones shown in the photographs:
             The names of rocks and features illustrated by the stones shown along with some of the main photographs in composites in the main part of this album are given here rather than in the main captions.  I thought several readers would consider their inclusion there to be superfluous clutter.    
             In this Appendix, the names of the rocks and features are given in bold-face type, and each is followed by references to the photo composites in the album where the rock or feature can be seen.  For detailed descriptions of these rocks and features, see, for example, Dietrich and Skinner (1979) and Wicander and Monroe (2006).

             COMMON ROCKS:
                   LaSalle High School -- pink -- group photo, top, right
                   House ... on Duke's Rd., Moran -- right (syenitic)  

               Granite porphyry:
                   House on E. Adolphus St., Moran -- two on right (lower one is a close-up of a phenocryst)
                   Former Store and Gasoline Station -- upper right 
                   Worry stone
               Basalt/dolerite porphyry:
                   House on State St., St. Ignace -- right
                   Boulder and several other landscape features on Mackinac Island
                   House on Huron St., St. Ignace -- lower center
                   House on Huron St., St. Ignace -- lower right (close-up shows texture of preceding stone)

                   Former Store and Gasoline Station -- below  main photo 
                   House on Huron St., St. Ignace -- lower left
                   House with partial stone trim, East Lake
              "Limestone" -- i.e., Dolostones &  Limestones:
                   Residence north of Cheeseman Rd. -- bottom, right
                   House ... on Duke's Rd., Moran -- middle
                   Entranceway ... on Adolphus St., Moran
                   Walls, wet-laid ... Huron St., St. Ignace -- lower left (elongate, block-like specimen)
               Conglomerate (each of these is a meta-conglomerate): 
                   Foundation ...summer home on east side of Bois Blanc Island -- top right
                   Birdbath on eastern Bois Blanc Island -- base and close-up on right
                   Decorative items (#3):  ... piece, created by Mallory Burkolder -- the focus of this creation (This rock does not occur naturally as a fieldstone within the mainland area of the part of Mackinac County covered in this album.  Stones of the rock do, however, occur naturally on and around parts of Bois Blanc Island.  In any case, most of the stones of this rock that are included in masonry  etc. within the area have been brought in from Drummond Island.   The one referred to here is from Michigan's lower peninsula. )

                   House on State St., St. Ignace -- center  
                   LaSalle High School -- group photo, top, second from right
                   Wing wall -- one below knife
                   Boulder entities -- A
                   Porch on Bertrand St., St. Ignace -- bottom, left
                   Foundation ...summer home on east side of Bois Blanc Island -- two middle close-ups close-ups        
                   Indoor fireplace[2nd one] -- bottom, right
                   Wall ... west branch of Martin Road -- bottom right, including close-up

                   Boulders in Groups, Schoolhouse Rd., Brevort -- a gneissic migmatite, lower left

                   Former Mackinac County Airport Terminal -- bottom, left (intrusive breccia?)  
                   Residence north of Cheeseman Rd. -- bottom, left (tectonic? breccia)
                   Hunting cabin ... Hendricks Township -- bottom, left (intrusive breccia?)

             SPECIAL ROCKS:
                   "History rock":  Many fieldstones are a literal store of geological history.  The one shown below is an example.  It is a sketch of a specimen in my collection.  It was not found in this county, but stones with similarly complex histories very likely occur here.  See, for example,  the lower right boulder shown in the Boulders in Groups, Schoolhouse Rd., Brevort -- lower right composite.
             FEATURES exhibited by some STONES:            
                   Aplite (pink) - Residence, north of Rte. 134, west of Hessel

                   Basalt transecting granite - Pillars group -- top stone on center pillar
                   Basalt transecting gneiss - Hunting cabin ... Hendricks Township -- bottom, center

                   Granite transecting gneiss - LaSalle High School -- group photo, top, left
                   Granite extending from larger mass to transect gneiss -- Vacation home, Worth Rd.
               Vesicles and amygdules:  
                   Porch on Bertrand St., St. Ignace -- bottom, center & right
                   Former Mackinac County Airport Terminal -- bottom, center ("bull quartz" from vein)
                   Former Mackinac County Airport Terminal -- bottom, right (off-white veins that transect the green veins)  
                     (epidote) :
                   Former Mackinac County Airport Terminal -- bottom, right (green veins transected by the off-white veins)                      
                   LaSalle High School -- group photo, top, second from left stone -- surface (green) is parallel to the vein
                   Summer Cottage, Lk. Brevort -- right, top (the black masses in the pink granite)
                   Boulder entities -- "A" ( gneiss that exhibits folding)
                   LaSalle High School -- upper photo
                   Indoor fireplace at Hessel (2nd one) -- right, center
                   "Blockhouse near the northeastern end of Marquette Island -- bottom, right (Ordovician?!!)
                   Entranceway ... on Adolphus St., Moran (close-up exhibits cross-section of this colonial coral)
               Weathering and erosion:
                   (CHEMICAL )
                   Residence north of Cheeseman Rd. -- bottom, right
                   Former Store and Gasoline Station -- upper right 
                   "Blockhouse near the northeastern end of Marquette Island -- bottom, center
                 [an example of so-called "tropical weathering" of Silurian rock]
                   Walls, wet-laid ... Huron St., St. Ignace -- lower left (upper left specimen)
                    ( PHYSICAL )
                        [ glacial straie (on granitic rock )]

                    Former Store and Gasoline Station -- lower right
                        [ percussion marks ]
                    Foundation ... Bois Blanc -- right (on tan colored quartzite)
                    Wall ... west branch of Martin Road -- bottom left, including close-up (on a basalt)  
                     ( DIFFERENTIAL )
                   House on State St., St. Ignace -- left
                   House ... on Duke's Rd., Moran -- left
                   Indoor fireplace at Hessel (2nd one) -- right, top
                   Boulders in Groups, Schoolhouse Rd., Brevort --upper right

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GLOSSARY.  Definitions of the following terms pertain to their use in this book.  They should NOT be considered either comprehensive or universally applicable.  Rock and mineral names are not included;  those names are used herein in accordance with international standards.

aggregate,  the sand, gravel or crushed stone added to cement and water to make mortar or concrete.
bedrock,  the continuous solid rock exposed at the surface or directly beneath overlying unconsolidated materials, such as soils and
          sediments, including glacial deposits..
boulder,  a loose piece of rock, commonly rounded,  with its longest dimension greater than 256 millimeters (~ 10 inches).
cairn,  a "pile" or "stack" of stones erected as a marker or memorial.
cement,  the pulverized ingredient of concrete that is made by burning a mixture of limestone and clay.  It is widely known as Portland
cobble,  a loose piece of rock, commonly rounded, with its longest dimension greater than 64 and less than 256 millimeters ( i.e.,
          ~ 2 to10 inches).
concrete,  the solid rocklike material that forms when a mixture of cement, an aggregate (q.v.) and water are mixed and dried.
course,  a continuous row of masonry units, such as stones or bricks bonded with mortar, that trends horizontally or nearly so across
          the face of a masonry structure such as a wall.
culvert,  a drain that crosses beneath a drive- or other roadway.
designer stone,  name sometimes given stones, especially boulders, chosen for particular roles in landscapes.
dolostone,  name of a rock that consists wholly or predominantly of the mineral dolomite and occurs in sedimentary sequences. 
          Many geologists call this rock dolomite -- i.e., by the name of its predominant constituent mineral.
dressed stone,  a stone masonry unit that has been shaped (e.g., squared) so it will be virtually flush with adjacent stones or serve
          some particular role – e.g., as a corner stone.
dry-laid,  adjective applied to stone structures built with no mortar to bind the stones together. 
dry well,  a so-to-speak chamber with stones plus or minus sand that is located near a building and used to collect water runoff
           from the building, thus stopping soil erosion from the area.
façade,  the principal face of a building be it facing a street, a body of water, or some other area. 
facing,  an outer layer or coating applied to a surface for protection and/or decoration.  (cf.  veneer).
fieldstone,  a stone (boulder, cobble or pebble -- q.v. ) that occurs loose above bedrock -- e.g., in soil, along or under bodies of water
          or in sand and gravel pits.   (cf. rubble)
formation,  geologically named unit that consists wholly or largely of a given rock type -- e.g., the St. Ignace Dolomite, which is a unit
          that consists largely of the rock dolostone.
foundation,  the base of a building that is meant to provide stability and rigidness to the building;  the lower parts of some foundations
         are a basement walls.
freestanding wall,  wall that extends upward from the ground with its sides and tops open to the air.
glacial,  adjective that refers to activities and deposits attributable to glaciers, including the continental glaciation of the last "Ice Age."
gabion,  a stone-filled metal "basket" used in construction -- e.g., as major elements of retaining walls such as those used to 
           maintain shorelines.   The typically used metal "baskets" are akin to chicken wire in appearance.  
glacio-fluvial,  adjective that refers to the activities and deposits that are attributable to streams that flow from or along the edges of
          glaciers as they melt.
gravel,  an unconsolidated mixture of sand and stones, typically pebbles. Some gravels are given special names on the basis of the
          size of the stones – e.g., pea gravel.
"hard rocks",  name sometimes applied to igneous, metamorphic and migmatitic rocks to distinguish them from sedimentary rocks;
         "hard-rock" is the adjectival form. 
"Ice Age",  a synonym, usually rather loosely applied to the last period of extensive glacial activity.  Herein, it refers to the Pleistocene
          Epoch, which began some 2.6 million years ago and ended approximately 10,000 years ago.  As modified by "last" or "recent,"
          it refers to the latest of several stages of glacial advances and retreates during the Pleistocene Epoch. The glacial ice of this
          last stage, widely referred to as the Wisconsin stage, no longer covered this area as of about 10,000 years ago. 
  name applied to rocks formed by the consolidation of magma -- i.e., molten or partially molten rock material.  Magma is
           usually called lava when it occurs on the Earth's surface.
"limestone",  name applied to both limestone and dolostone in this album -- see Introduction. 
masonry,  construction consisting of stones set in mortar.
metamorphic,  name applied to rocks formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks have their physical and/or mineralogical makeup
          changed as the result of being submitted to temperatures and/or pressures and/or chemical environments where their original
          components are unstable.
migmatite,  name given mixed rocks that consist of what appear to be metamorphic and igneous or igneous-appearing components.
mimetolith,  a natural topographic feature, rock outcrop, rock specimen, mineral specimen, or loose stone the shape of which
          resembles something else -- e.g., a  real or fancied animal, plant, manufactured item, or part(s) thereof.
mortar,  any mixture – e.g., the ingredients of concrete –  used to fill open spaces and bind stones and/or bricks together.  When
          mortar dries it becomes solid.
mortar joints,  the exposed mortar surface between the stones of masonry;  a diagram showing those with different characteristics is
         given by Dietrich (2008). 
pebble,  a loose piece of rock, commonly rounded,  with its longest dimension greater than 2 and less than 64 millimeters ( i.e., ~1/10
         to 2 inches).
petrography,  the description, identification and naming of rocks.
petrology,   the study of rocks, especially their origins. 
porch,  a covered entrance and/or, for example, a sitting area outside of but attached to a building such as a house.
puddingstone,  name widely applied to conglomerates that consist of, for example, red jasper pebbles that are scattered within a
         white or off-white matrix, which was originally quartz sand plus or minus quartz pebbles.  (The first rocks so-named were seen to
         resemble plum pudding.)
retaining wall,  any wall that has only one side, plus or minus its top, open to the air.
rubble,   term applied to irregular fragments or pieces of rock, and herein used to distinguish these fragments from rounded or partially
         rounded boulders, cobbles and pebbles.
sedimentary,  name applied to rocks formed from deposits of particles, such as gravel, sand or silt, and/or of chemically or
        biochemically precipitated minerals.
siding,  material – e.g., clapboards, stucco, shingles (wooden, vinyl, aluminum, etc) that are used to cover the outside walls of
       buildings or parts of buildings.
split-face,  a relatively flat surface on a fieldstone that has been formed by breaking a larger stone.  The term is also applied to
       masonry using such stones.
squared stone,  a dressed stone the sides – at least those that show – of which are roughly rectilinear. 
stone,  a loose entity, larger than a sand grain, that is made up of rock and is loose as a consequence of natural processes.
stonework,  masonry involving stones.
veneer,  a thin layer used as a facing. Most veneers are used to cover original materials, such as a building's wall, and thus change –
      presumably enhance – its appearance.
wall,  an upright structure (masonry in this album) that encloses, divides or protects an area or building. 
wet-laid,  adjective used to describe groups of stones that have a binding mortar.
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"All Trees Have A Heart Garden of Hope." Obama Gardens of Hope.  2008.

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Anonymous. 1929. Monument to be erected in honor of Frank F. Rogers.  Michigan Roads and Pavements, XXVI(No. 21):5.

Ayala, Michael. 2010. Brevort artists Gary and Jamica Revord working to establish gathering place for artisans.  The St. Ignace
July 8, 2010:9.

Dietrich, R.V.  1980.  Stones: Their collection, identification, and uses. San Francisco:W.H. Freeman and Company.  145p.    
. . . . . . . . . . . .  1989.  Stones: Their collection, identification, and uses (2nd edition).  Tucson(AZ):Geoscience Press. 191p.
. . . . . . . . . . . .  2008.  Isabella’s stones: Fieldstone buildings, walls, landscape accents, and other uses.
                                  http://condor.cmich,edu/u?/p1610-01coll1,3225. 176p.
. . . . . . . . . . . .  2010.  Fieldstone Buildings in Isabella County, Michigan: An illustrated directory. 
. . . . . . . . . . . .  2010a.  Mimetoliths.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .and B.F. Skinner.  1979. Rocks and rock minerals.  New York:John Wiley & Sons, 319p.

Dominus, Susan. 2010. See how they grow  (photos by Katharine Wolkoff).  Real Simple. 6/10:210-215.

Eby, C.C.  1928. Mackinac County of the Straits Country (An official tourist guide into the Upper Peninsula of Michigan).
                         St. Ignace:Republican News.  66p.

Grover, F.R.  1911.  A brief history of Les Cheneaux Islands. Evanston (IL):Bowman Publishing Company. 140p. (available online:
                         ed=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false )

Heritage Research, Ltd. 1998.  Historic resources evaluation for Gull Point Bridge & Brevoort [sic] Lake Dam.  [prepared for USDA
                       Forest Service, Hiawatha National Forest under the provisions of Contract No. 53-54-BO-7-01107, as a subcontractor
                       to Great Lakes Research Associates, Inc.] 32p.

Hough, J.S., 1958, Geology of the Great Lakes.  Urbana:University Illinois Press. 313p.

Hunt, M.G. and D. Hunt. 2010. "CCC Camp Round Lake interpretive site/sand dunes cross-country ski trail."  Hunts' Guide to
                        Michigan's Upper Peninsula
(online version:

“Inukshuk Garden of Hope Overlooking Lake Huron.”   Obama Gardens of Hope.  2008.

Kiwanis Club of St. Ignace, Mich.  1957.  Before the bridge.  A history and directory of St. Ignace and nearby localities.  St. Ignace:     
                      Kiwanis Club. 269p.

Landes, K.K., G.M. Ehlers  and G.M. Stanley. 1945.  Geology of the Mackinac Straits Region and sub-surface geology of northern
                     southern peninsula.   Michigan Dept. of Conservation. Geological Survey Division. Publication 44 (204p.). Geological
                     Ser. 37:123-153.
Luepnitz, William. n.d.(post-1936).  An early history of Moran, Michigan. undated private printing. 16p.  (The copy read, in holdings of
                     Louise Lowetz, daughter of the author, is a  booklet  that is a includes Luepnitz' article that first appeared in the April
                     20, 1936 issue of the Sault Ste. Marie Evening News, which I have not been able to locate.)

McKevitt, K.V.  2008.  Ageless art: Mabel Pechta creates true folk art.  Michigan country Lines.  28(#7):13-14. 

Michigan.Gov (Official State of Michigan web site). 2001-2010. "Mackinac Trail Carp River Bridge St. Ignace Twp - Mackinac County.
                     (on line - )

Mineral Information Institute.  n.d.  Lime-Limestone.  (on line )

O'Shea, J.M. and G.A. Meadows. 2009.  Evidence for early hunters beneath the Great Lakes. Alpena-Amberley ridge. Proceedings
                     of the National Academy of Sciences
(U.S.A.). (online

Petersen, E.T.  1973.  Mackinac Island: Its history in pictures, by Eugene T. Petersen.  Mackinac Island:Mackinac Island State Park
                     Commission. 103p.
“Plans in progress for monument to Frank F. Rogers.” 1929. Michigan roads and pavements. XXVI(#30, July 25):7.     

St. Ignace Public Library. 2008. St. Ignace [Images of America St. Ignace].  Charleston(SC):Arcadia Publishing. 128p.

Sellman, J.J.  1995.  Martin reef lightwhip to lighthouse, another chapter in Les Cheneaux history.  Cedarville(MI):Les Cheneaux
                       Historical Association. 71p.

Smithgroup (architecture engineering interiors planning).  n.d.  Fort Mackinac wall restoration.  (on line )

Stone Church, Germfask MI, GERMF 05.  Superior View. 2005.  (on line )

The Western Historical Company (A.T. Andreas, Proprietor).  1883. History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan... Chicago:Western
                      Historical Co. 549p. (Reissued volume, published in 1972 by the mid-Peninsula Library Federation, Headquarters: Iron
                      Mountain, Michigan used by compiler.)

Thoreau, H. D.  1867.  A Week on the Concord and Merrimack rivers. The Riverside Press (Cambridge edition)  Boston & New York:
                      Houghton Mifflin Company.   (also, 1912, ... New York:Hurst & Company -- which is, among others, available on line

Wicander, Reed and J.S. Monroe. 2006. Essentials of geology (4th edition).  Belmont (CA):Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning
                      Publisher.  510p.

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 ADDENDUM.  Stones on Farmlands

Stone piles in fields within the area – like the one shown here, which is north of Brevort Lake Rd., east of Wartella Rd. – brought several things to mind.  One of them, a real brain teaser, seems noteworthy here.

As indicated in the caption for the next-to-last ("Stone fence ...") entry in this album, stone "fences" like those that are relatively common in areas where stone-rich glacial debris occur -- e.g., in parts of Scotland and the New England States – are uncommon in this area. This may be explained in different ways (see Dietrich, 2008, p.78). 

In any case, the piles of stones, like those shown above, clearly indicate that those stones were removed from the fields to facilitate farming of the land -- its plowing (etc.), seeding and even its harvesting.  Along this line, a common lament of farmers in areas with such "cover" relates to the fact that “‘new’ stones seem to appear each year... [which] has led some people [even] to believe that stones grow in the fields.”  And, of course, the fact that these “new: stones also need to be removed. (op. cit., p.134)
Consequently, when my son Rick read the following and forwarded it to me I thought it well worth including here. 

              “The soil of this district produces scarce any other grain but oats and  barley; perhaps because it is poorly
          cultivated, and almost altogether uninclosed [the writer is thinking of “inclosure” by stone walls, not wooden
          fences].  The few inclosures they have consist of paultry walls of loose stones        gathered from the fields,
          which indeed they cover, as if they had been        scattered on purpose.  When I expressed my surprise that
          the peasants did not disencumber their grounds of these stones; a gentleman, well acquainted with the theory
          as well as practice of farming, assured me that the stones, far from prejudicial, were serviceable to the crop. 
          This philosopher had ordered a field of his own to be cleared, manured and sown with barley, and the produce 
          was more scanty than before.  He caused the stones to be replaced, and next year the crop was as good as
          ever.  The stones were removed a second time, and the harvest failed; they were again brought back, and the
          ground retrieved its fertility.  The same experiment has been tried in different parts of Scotland with the same
          success—Astonished at this information, I desired to know in what manner he accounted for this strange
          phenomenon; and he said there were three ways in which the stones might be serviceable. They might possibly 
          restrain an excess in the perspiration of the earth, analogous to colliquative sweats, by which the human body is
          sometimes wasted and consumed.  They might act as so many fences to protect the tender blade from the
          piercing winds of the spring; or, by multiplying the reflexion of the sun, they might increase the warmth, so as to
          mitigate the natural chilliness of the soil and climate—But, surely this excessive perspiration might be more
          effectually checked by different kinds of manure, such as ashes, lime, chalk, or marl, of which last it seems there
          are many pits in this kingdom; as for the warmth, it would be much more equally obtained by inclosures; one half
          of the ground which is now covered, would be retrieved; the cultivation would require less labor; and the ploughs,
          harrows, and horses, would not suffer half the damage which they now sustain.”
(The above, from "The Expedition of Humphry Clinker" by Tobias George Smollett, was published in 1761. It is available on line at   And, it seems only fair to note that Rick added to the above, when he sent it to me, that "I’ve kept Smollett’s spelling and punctuation.")

Seeking additional information about Smollett’s publication and also the geology and glacial deposits of the area led me to find the following:

                   Smollett’s NOVEL is generally described as humorous, comic ...  It is made up of a series of letters, apparently by people he “invented,” none of whom was to be considered completely reliable.  These things make one wonder not only about the intent of the above passage and if it described an observed sequence of events.

                   So far as the geology ..., I contacted Craig Gibson, a long-time friend and fine professional geologist who as a youth lived in the area to which Smollet’s description refers and was educated (University at Edinburg, Scotland), and solicited  his comments about the report.
Among his pertinent comments were
                 "The Carse of Gowrie to which he [Smollett] refers to specifically ... is the richest farming area in Scotland."
                  "I have never heard anything about removal reversal of rocks in the  soil or of ... [such stones/rocks] affecting the
          quality of crops. There were though widespread stone walls built of stones cleared from farm fields - that  was done ...
           to facilitate cultivation and improve grain production."
So again, one has to wonder about Smollett’s intentions.  Nonetheless, one must admit that in addition to being a Scotsman, he rather obviously read widely and wrote some of the best travel literature of his time.  Nonetheless, I continue to wonder if the practice he describes ever did occur -- i.e., was it based on empirical observations of good farmers of those times(?).  If so, that leads to the question of what might the stones of such a debris be(?).  It would seem that all that would be necessary would be that the stones would have been rocks that included some mineral(s) with relatively easily transferred elements, even traces of which could act  to fertilize the crops involved. 


R.V ("Dick") Dietrich (b. 1924), a native of the St. Lawrence Valley, Northern New York, is a graduate of Colgate University (A.B.), and Yale University (M.S. & Ph.D -- Geology).  Now retired, he was a College professor of Geology, with Petrology his main field of research.  He has authored or coauthored many professional papers and books, some of which are textbooks, and also 14 web sites, most of which are available at .   For additional informaton, click the following link: XXXX.

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 R.V. Dietrich © 2016
  Updated 12 October 2016