BIRDS: Mackinac County, Michigan
  Checklist
 and Photo Album

                                                                                                    Compiled by R.V. ("Dick") Dietrich


The Checklist, with information about most of the birds recorded as occurring within the county is on this, the first, part of this website.  It was compiled and first made available in 2009.   The Photo Album, also made available in 2009 with relatively few photographs, now has more than 650 photographs taken by 41 people.  It shows birds while they were within Mackinac County.  To go to directly, to the Album, click  the following  >.

  | Photo Album |

Latest update of "Checklist":  24 April 2017
      Latest change of "Photo Album":  28 April 2017

              
                  


                       
     
This compilation is dedicated to the memory of 

                   
Frances Smith Dietrich (1921-2007),
                   
Grace Lillie Dietrich (1895-1962), and
                    Rena Vincent Marsh (1893-1951)






[ A PDF file made spring 2013, which has NOT been UPDATED(!!!) that was in CMU's CONDOR repository has been "replaced ... with the CMU Libraries Digital Collections.  . . .  visit scholarly.cmich.edu." ]

 
          
This website, unlike the PDF version, will be continually updatedAdditional and revised data will appear on the "Checklist" and additions and changes will be made to the "Photo Album."  The updated data, captions on the added photographs, etc. will be in red to help viewers spot them.
 
| Photo Album  |



INTRODUCTION

Three hundred and three (303) species of birds and at least one hybrid have been recorded as observed in Mackinac County of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.  The species are listed in this compilation;  the hybrid (Brewster's warbler, in some books listed as "Vermivora leucobronchialis"  -- note quotation marks) is mentioned only in the Notes/Referemces of its parents).  It also seems noteworthy that one of the listed species is now extinct, one was introduced and is now absent, one is extirpated, two others are thought possibly to be extirpated, two others are not included on the Michigan Checklist (MICkLst), and 19 are questioned as valid records; each of the questioned records is preceded by a bold-face question mark (?) on the A.O.U. list (see Addenda, An Aside.).  One of the so questioned birds is the Kirtland's Warbler:  It is listed because the species was among the "thousands of birds killed annually [during migration] at the Spectacle Reef Light" (Barrows, 1912).  This lighthouse is in Lake Huron, ~10.7 miles east of Bois Blanc Island, which is part of Mackinac County,  and south of the eastern Upper Peninsula just west of a southward extension of the county line between Mackinac and Chippewa counties.  Consequently, it has been thought likely that this warbler has also been within Mackinac County one or more times in the past;  nonetheless, lacking any direct record of the bird's being recorded as present within the county per se, it seems only prudent to question that possibility.  By the way, species recorded for this lighthouse are preceded by three asterisks (***) in the Notes/References column on the A.O.U. list. 

[The birds referred to in third sentence of above paragraph are as follows:  Extinct - passenger pigeon;   introduced, now absent - gray partridge;  extirpated - greater prairie-chicken;  thought to be extirpated - northern bobwhite and loggerhead shrike;  not included on the Michigan Checklist -- Barnacle Goose and Black Swan;   questioned - brant, Eurasian wigeon, Cinnamon Teal, snowy egret, tricolored heron, Mississippi kite, yellow rail, black-necked stilt,  buff-breasted sandpiper, long-billed dowitcher, black-legged kittiwake, Franklin's gull, royal tern, white-winged dove, rufous hummingbird, vermillion flycatcher, Kirtland's warbler, and lark sparrow.]

Two lists are included:  The first one gives the common and scientific names of the birds according to the A.O U. list  -- i.e., The American Ornithologist's Union Check-list of North American Birds, 7th Checklist, through 55th supplement  [i.e., http://checklist.aou.org/taxa/http  <last accessed 5 June 2016> ].  The second list, given as the INDEX, has the common names of the birds in alphabetical order.
          

The A.O.U. list includes additional information as follows: 

                      NOTES are given for several of the species in the column headed Notes/References,   The first entry for birds that are protected under the Endangered Species Act of the State of Michigan, according to the list that became effective on April 9, 2009 (sfee (MB) in references cited), gives their status -- i.e., Endangered, Threatened or of Special Concern.  Additional information includes such things as the following:  Species listed on  Michigan's Bird Records Committee's state checklist  as only Casual or Accidental (see (MA) in references cited);  selected records that support the given bird's having been identified as being within the county;  tidbits that include such things as former names widely applied to a few of the birds and information about a few of the birds that indicate that marked changes have taken place in the county's avifauna during the last century or so;  and relatively recent information, most of which has been sent to the compiler or is based on his own observations.  Sources for the former information are noted; the latter are not attributed.  In any case, many of both of these bits of nformation are supported by photographs that are included in the Photo Album;  and, for example, the dates (etc.) given in the captions for some of the photographs provide noteworthyl information about those species. "See photo" or "See photos" indicates that one or more photograph(s) of the given species is(are) in the "Photo Album" that is linked to this compilation, just click the following   | Photo Album |   to get to that album, where the photographs are in alphabetical order according to their common  names -- e.g.,  Eastern  Bluebird  photographs occur under the heading Bluebird, Eastern, after the blackbirds and before the bobolinks. . 

                     BREEDING RECORDS, column headed BR are indicated as definite ( ! ), probable ( # ) or possible ( ± ) for each bird that has been so-recorded within the county.  Most of these indications are those published in Brewer et al. (1991),   Regrettably,  I have not been given access to the county-based data recorded during the more recent compilation of breeding records. 

                     OCCURRENCE DATA are historical  -- i.e., they are based on recorded sightings and other observations, albeit some of which are relatively recent.:  Those from the literature, including the internet, are attributed to the source that is cited in the Seclected References;  those not so-attributed are based on the compiler's tentative conclusions, which, in turn, are based on conversations, discussions, etc..   The validity of the identification of those preceded with a bold face question mark (?) has been questioned.  The occurrences of most of the species are correlated with winter, summer, and/or spring/fall, the last being the most common migration seasons -- i.e., a large percentage of the occurrences listed in the S/F column pertain to a so-to-speak record of the bird as a migrant.  The time periods used for the seasons are based on the weather rather than on astronomically based  terminology whereby each season is considered to begin with an equinox or solstice -- consequently, winter, for example, refers to the time when there is usually snow cover.  The descriptive terms -- common, frequent, uncommon, and occasional -- are subjective. That is to say, they merely indicate that the given bird is relatively common in an appropriate environment within the county during the noted season(s).  Most of the indications in the Hbt (= habitat/environment) column are those given on the Hiawatha National Forest brochure "Breeding Birds of Eastern Upper Michigan:  A Field Checklist."  The key for these follows:     
         
AS - alder swamp CM - cattail marsh LS - lakes & swamps
SM - sedge marsh
BF - brush forests
DB - dense brush MF - mixed forests UO - upland openings
BL - Great & inland lakes GL - Great lakes MH - mixed hardwoods UR - urban areas
BO - brush openings IH - all inland habitats PF - pine, wet forests WB - wide beaches
CF - conifer forests IL - inland lakes R - rivers       WD - wet/dry openings
CL - cliffs  LK - lakeshore SC - swamp conifer WL - wetlands


The gray background color for a few of the entries has NO significance so far as the context.  It is there only to facilitate correlation -- i.e., correctly lining up --  of the pertinent notes etc. with the individual species.

                     ALSO NOTEWORTHY:  Several birds recorded for Mackinac County are protected under the Endangered Species Act of the State of Michigan (Part 365 of PA 451, 1994 Michigan Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act).  These  birds are listed below according to the designations on the Michigan Natural Feature Inventory web site:         http://mnfi.anr.msu.edu/data/specialanimals.cfm  The birds' names that are preceded by and asterisk (*) on these three lists are shown on photographs in the [ Photo Album  |.    
            "Endangered":  *American bittern, *peregrine falcon, *short-eared owl, *piping plover, Kirtland's warbler?, prairie warbler  
            "Threatened":  Least bittern, *red-shouldered hawk, *common loon, *merlin, long-eared owl, yellow rail, trumpeter swan, *Caspian tern, *common tern, Forster's tern;  
            "of Special concern":   Dickcissel, *bald eagle, northern goshawk, *sharp-tailed grouse, *spruce grouse, *northern harrier, western meadowlark, *black-crowned night-heron, *osprey, *Wilson's phalarope, *black tern, grasshopper sparrow, *black-backed woodpecker, marsh wren.


                    Finally, it seems prudent to mention again that  the contents of this column will be changed continually -- i.e., modified, added to or even deleted.  This is especially true of the associated Photo Album, which has its own INTRODUCTION.

          I shall greatly appreciate anyone's directing my attention to changes -- e.g., corrections or additions -- that should be made in this compilation ! ! !   

 Click here to send them to me via email

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS     

         First, the dedicatees, Frances, Aunt Grace and Aunt Rena:   Aunt Rena, my mother's sister, first started me watching and identifying birds at feeders in her garden during the late 1920s.  Aunt Grace, my father's sister and ever the teacher, purchased bird books to help me identify birds wherever I saw them.  Frances, my friend for nearly seventy years and my wife for alnmost sixty-one years, helped me in innumerable ways as I observed birds here and there throughout the world.  Although I do not easily relate to such thoughts, even now, whenever I see certain birds unexpectedly, especially a relatively rare one, I almost always glance upward and say, "Thank you, Girls!"  -- meaning these three ladies.

        Two highly knowledgeable, widely reputed bird-recorders, Dr. John W. Murray and Dr. Nicholas L. Cuthbert, while spending many days in the field with me, helped me improve certain aspects my bird-watching procedures.  In addition, their kind comments about my observational skills increased my confidence so far as identifying birds not previously seen.   Frances S. Dietrich, Robert B. and Krista D. Brown, Kurt R. Dietrich, Richard S. Dietrich, David D. Ginsburg, Stephen J. Sjogren, Alan Huff, Barbara Brown, and Kathleen Schacht, have graciously given their time, supplied information, and/or accompanied (frequently driven for) me in the field as I have been observing birds within Mackinac County. Debbie Sterk, aided my searches of the Town Crier for information and Judy Gross finally located a printed report and photograph that served to support its stay within the county.  Ornithologists Francesca Cuthbert and Memuna Khan have been ready-accessible to provide information and opinions about diverse questions that have arisen as this document has evolved since the PDF file was prepared.  Emmett E. Mason helped design a chart that evolved to the A.O.U. list.  Additional acknowledgments are included in the Introduction and captions in the Photo Album.
 

        As the "compiled by" indicates, much of tthe information about the birds included on this list is taken from records of former observers.  Most are indicated by the references with  the notes on the A.O.U. list and/or given in the selected references.  It seems only prudent, however, to note that many of these references are "secondary" -- i.e., compilations of data rather than the originally published records or observations.

         Special thanks are due those who feed birds within the county.  Several observations and many of the photographs could not have been made/taken had their feeders not attracted the recorded birds. 

         I  gratefully acknowledge my indebtedness to each of these contributors.  

                                                                         R.V. ("Dick") Dietrich, October, 2009/ last revision, March,  2017

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 A.O.U.  Listing

ANSERIFORMES (order)

            ANATIDAE (family)

      
                               Notes/References


BR

Wi 
Su 

S/F

Hbt

   LEGEND
$Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons On older lists, and once considered common, it was not been recorded for the county for nearly a century (see discussion by Barrrows, 1912, p. 117).  In fact, N.A. Wood (1951) "excluded [this species] from [his Michigan checklist] ... for lack of positive evidence" but put it on his "Hypothetical List."
       Recently, the species has been identified within Mackinac County:  Robert B. Brown, of St. Ignace and Hessel, saw 6-8 of these geese at Hessel on 02 March 2011
(p.c., 4 March '11.); Stan Lilley and Myles McNally recorded one near the Arnold line #3 dock in St. Ignace on 12 Feb 2012, and I  observed the bird daily on or near the dock until 28 Feb.2012, a day when strong winds and blowing snow moved into the area.  Four at Epoufette 15 March 2017 -- see Ross's Goose entry. See photos | Photo Album |.




 o 


 o 

GL

$Snow Goose, Chen caerulescens
One at St. Ignace marina, mid November, 2002 (Wg). One in Straits area 21-25 Oct. 2011.  One offshore from Huron St., St. Ignace 8 Oct. 2012 (K.Schacht, p.c.). See photos | Photo Album |. 
               A small flock, including some dark morph individuals (formerly referred to as blue ...) in Lake Michigan, along Rte. 2, near sand dunes, west of Pte. Aux Chenes, late November, 1978.  A single dark morph individual was with several Canada geese ~4 miles north-northeast of Engadine, 19 April 2014;  seven (7) - six white and 1 dark, were  in northeast quarter of Sec.4, T.41N.-R4W Brevort  Twp. 25 March 2017.   See photos | Photo Album |.



 o
 o
 o

GL


        Key:
   R - resident
  
c - common
   f - frequent
  
u - uncommon
   o - occasional

$Ross's Goose, Chen rossii One with six greater white-fronted geese at small parking area on lake side of Epoufette Bay Rd., at junction of southern end of road that formerly extended north to  Rte.2, 15 & 16 March 2017 - See photo | Photo Album |.


 o


 



? [Brant,  Branta bernicla] A lone individual tentatively identified in Straits area off South State St., St. Ignace, 23 March 2013.  [p.c. (telecom.)  unidentified caller]

 

 


o?




$+ Barnacle Goose,  Branta leucopsis  "An immature was identified on 21 May [1965] near Naubinway, ... and determined to be this species rather than an Am. Brant (EGB)." (Ke).
Frances, my wife,  several other bird-watchers (one from Great Britain, another from Connecticut, et al.) and I observed one   [NOT on Michigan Checklist (MICkLst)]  at the municipal dock south east of Whitefish Pt., Chippewa Co. -- late May, 1983. 







o?



Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii One observed in Brevort Lake, October, 2008
 (Steve Baker, p.c. 24 Jan. 2010)   See photos | Photo Album |.







o



$Canada Goose, Branta canadensis Common!!  Four family groups -- i.e., two adults, apparently a pair, plus downy hatchlings were swimming offshore from Boulevard Dr. on 7 May 2012;  the number of hatchlings per group ranged from three (3) to ten (10).
See photos | Photo Album |.  -- one of the geese is banded.

  !
 o
cR
c
BL

$Mute Swan, Cygnus olor  An example:  50 to 60 mute swans made a stop of about 24 hours in Lake Michigan, just west of the "Big Mac" bridge 28-29 Nov. 2011;  another group of 36 were in the same area 2 Dec. 2011 
      Some observers have mistaken immature mute swans as other species -- e.g., black swans . See photos | Photo Album |.

  !
 u

cR
 c

BL

  Breeding record:
     ! - definite
    
# - probable
    
± - possible
$Trumpeter Swan, Cygnus buccinator Threatened  "Louie Dombroski had 4 TRUMPETER SWANS in a flooded field on Dollarville Road on March 29th." (UP: April 2, 2007)  Also said to have bred on South Manistique Lake.  Eight observed on Lake Brevort 14 Apr. 2011.

  #
 

uR
 c 
 IL


$Tundra Swan, Cygnus columbianus Formerly widely known as "whistling swan."  "[14] at LaBarbe on 13th [April, 2006]."  (UP: April 25, 2006)   At Pte. LaBarbe 2 October 2009 (UP: October 15, 2009).  See photos | Photo Album | Six in Epoufette Bay 11 Oct. 2103.   Forty-five were in the southern part of Brevort Lake 23-2 October 2015 (p.c., Karen Fowler).
       [ Ninety-five (95 counted, probably a few missed), -- along with several ducks (mostly mallards, a few pintails), a few Canda geese and 7 sandhill cranes -- were northeast of the intersection of Rte. 48 and Centerline Rd., Chippewa Co., ~2 miles north Mackinac Co. -- First seen by compiler 17 April 2015;  last seen by compiler 1 May 2015. ]







 c
 BL

Black Swan,  Cygnus atratus
The presence of one or more of these swans within the county has been recorded by photographs -- See photos | Photo Album |.  The general consensus is that the black swans recorded here and elsewhere in North America are escapees;  these swans,  especially in the past, were distributed rather widely in, for example, ponds near corporate office buildings. 
       Two sets of reports (
Shoberg, 2000;  and Doud, 2001) relate to the visit(s) of this species within the county:   On the basis of the recorded red beaks, the former reports of two of these swans in the LaCheneaux area during August of 2000 appear to be acceptable records.  The bird(?s?),  recorded as in the Mackinac Island-St. Ignace area in early January of 2001, is/are shown -- See photos | Photo Album |.. However, the length of time the swan(s) was/were within the areas is unknown;  considering the distance between the two locatons where photographs were taken,  the question remains as to whether these photographs are of only one or of two different individuals. ¶ It also seems noteworthy that during the January 2001 period, a photograph of  a black swan "on Lake Huron recently between Mackinaw City and Cheboygan" was featured on the front page of  the Cheboygan Daily Tribune[NOT on Michigan Checklist (MICkLst)]









GL








      Key:
   R - resident
  
c - common
   f - frequent
  
u - uncommon
   o - occasional




$Wood Duck, Aix sponsa  Forty to more than fifty were at a pond east of Simmons Rd., ~ 1 mile north of junction with St. Ignace Rd. each night during part of May, 2010 (p.c.,Vern Hunt). See photos | Photo Album |

  !


uR
   f
 IL


$Gadwall, Anas strepera  Two were observed, along with some American wigeons, in a bay along Boulevard Dr., on 28 Apr.2011;  three (two males and one female) in same general location, 31 May 2011;  20 plus were near the shore of Lake Huron east of Mackinac Co. Airport, St. Ignace, 21 Oct. 2013. See photos | Photo Album |.  
  ±


 u
   f
 BL

  Breeding record:
     ! - definite
    
# - probable
    
± - possible 
? [Eurasian Wigeon, Anas penelope] "Jerry Ziarno found a male EURASIAN WIGEON in a flock of American Wigeos & Redheads off Point Larbarbe (sec) on April 26th [2007].  Efforts to refind this bird have been unsuccessful." (UP:  April 30, 2007)






o?
 




$American Wigeon, Anas americana A few have been seen each spring each year since 2010 along shore of LakeHuron, near Mackinac Co. Airport and along Blvd., Moran Twp. -- e.g., four  males and one female were offshore from Boulevard Dr., daily from 14 to 19 April 2010.    See photos | Photo Album |.   
  #
 
 f
  u
 BL

   
$American Black Duck, Anas rubripes One seen at Steeles Creek July 5, and eight more on August 1, 1919 (VT3). See photos | Photo Album | and its caption.
  !
 o
 u
  u
 BL

      
$Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
 fR
cR
  R
 BL


$Blue-winged Teal, Anas discors A pair offshore from the Boulevard, southwest of St. Ignace- 28 April, 2013;  another pair was in reedy area near boat launch ramp in Cedarville 1 May 2013.  A few were in  water-surrounded bushes along Boulevard Dr., Moran Twp. for several days in early May 2015.  . . . The occurrence of this species appears to be increasing, at least during the spring, as of 2016.   See photos | Photo Album |.
  ! 


uR
  u
 IL


? [Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera] Accidental (MA).  Observed "along Lake Michigan shoreline near St. Ignace, Mackinac County, on 2 May 1977 (DNR)" (P:11). -- BUT, this species is NOT on the "Field Checklist of Birds of Michigan's Upper Peninsula" dated 15 Jan. 2010 (Hi). 






o?  




 
 
$Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata A complete skeleton (MMSU #2252), collected 1 October 1957 at an unidentified location within the county (FL).  One male on "bar" that extends into water from Boulevard Dr. - 10 Apr.2011;  pair -- male & female -- near-shore reed area south of junction of Densmore and Boulevard drives. - 17 Apr. 2012;  two pair at wastewater lagoon, Cedarville - 22 ... Apr. 2012.At least two were in offshore water-surrounded bushes along Boulevard Dr., Moran Twp for several days in early May 2015 ...See photos | Photo Album |.
 ±


 f
  u
CM

      Key:
   R - resident
  
c - common
   f - frequent
  
u - uncommon
   o - occasional

$Northern Pintail, Anas acuta Uncommon spring visitor to Straints and, for example, Lake Brevort.  Six were in ponded water just onshore from still ice-covered Lake Michigan south-southwest of the mouth of the Pointe aux Chenes River - 14 April 2015;  one with mallards near shore, east of Rte. 2 and northeastern end of St. Ignace airstrip - 9 January 2017.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  #
  o
 u
  u
 BL

 

 
$Green-winged Teal, Anas crecca Observations:  One near Hessel, 11 August 1920 (VT3)on Mackinac Island, June 1937 (P:10).   Four in off shore, near "bar" that extends into lake along Boulevard Dr., St. Ignace - 13 Apr.2011;  flock of 10-12 in bay near north end of Boulevard Dr. 31 March 2012. At least two were in offshore water-surrounded bushes along Boulevard Dr., Moran Twp. for several days in early May 2015   See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


 u
   f
 BL
  Breeding record:
     ! - definite
    
# - probable
    
± - possible 
$Canvasback, Aythya valisineria Among several fairly recent reports:  Two at Point LaBarbe 1 May 2007 (UP: May 7, 2007)  Seven observed at Pte. LaBarbe 7 Apr.2008 by Kirk Zulfelt (UP: May 2, 2008).  Two males and two females observed offshore from Boulevard Dr., daily 12-19 Apr.2010;  a pair was in the same area 18-25 Nov. 2011.  A single male was in same bay 2 Dec. 2011; five were there 26 March 2012; a pair was there late April, 2013. See photos | Photo Album |.







  u
GL

$Redhead, Aythya americana 
Perhaps the most numerous of the  migrant ducks of the Straits area;  more than 5,000 have been in the area at one time -- e.g., early spring of 2013 .  See photos | Photo Album |.
  ±
  o
  f
  c
GL


$Ring-necked Duck, Aythya collaris A pair, female and male, at Clark Twp. Waste Water Pond #3, near Cedarville 8 April 2012;  male at Brevprt Twp. wastewater pond, south of Dam Rd., 9 April 2012;  several were in Straits, in Aux Chenes River and in the Clark Twp. Waste Water Ponds, near Cedarville in late April and early May 2013. ... See photos | Photo Album |

  ! 


  f
  c
 BL


$Greater Scaup, Aythya marila Greater and Lesser Scaups, both frequently referred to as "bluebills" by hunters, are not distinguished in most records. See photos | Photo Album |.






  f
GL 

$Lesser Scaup, Aythya affinis See note on preceding species.  This one is widely thought to be the more ommon species within the county.  Frequently a pair or more are with large flocks of redheads -- e.g., 2 April 2017, off shore, northeast of  State St., south of junction with Business Rte. 75, in St. Ignace.
  ±


 u
  f
GL

Surf scoter, Melanitta perspicillata One reported by Kirk Zulfelt at  Pte. LaBarbe, 4 December [2009] (B:19Jan.'10).



  o


 o 
GL
 
$White-winged Scoter, Melanitta fusca One was seen by Vince Yurkuas on 24 June 1985 at an unpublished location in Mackinac [County] (T:915).   In addition, Michigan's DNR "has confirmed Type E Botulism in the white-winged scoter... (Mackinac County)." (SGFive seen by compiler and son off Arnold Transit Company freight dock in St. Ignace, 15 March 2010;  one seen at same location and another one off shore along Pte. LaBarbe Rd., 19 April 2013;  small group seen in norther Lake Huron, offshore from St. Ignace Airport, 16 October, 2016.   See photos      | Photo Album |. 


  o
 o
 o


GL


       Key:
   R - resident
  
c - common
   f - frequent
  
u - uncommon
   o - occasional

Black Scoter, Melanitta nigra "American Scoter, oidemia americana" among the Autumn birds of the Les Cheneaux Islands area. (VT3).






  o
GL

$Long-tailed Duck, Clangula hyemalis ***  Formerly named, and still widely called, "oldsquaw" and in a few reports as only "squaw."  "Oldsquaw  - a solitary male in summer plumage ... near Hessel August 11, 1920" (VT3).  Michigan's DNR "has confirmed Type E Botulism in the long-tailed duck (as probable)  ... (Mackinac County)." (SG)  Several later records, most off shore at St. Ignace;  in addition, one "on Milokia Lake [during first full week of November, 2005]"  (UP: November 9, 2005)  See photos | Photo Album |.



 f
 o
  f
GL


   Breeding record:
     
! - definite
     
# - probable
     
± - possible
$Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola "I observed one flock of eight July 3, 1890." (Wh)  Common migrant.
See photos | Photo Album |.



 u
  f
   f
BL


$Common Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula   A few of these ducks are often here during the winter, after the bays are frozen -- usually in water near the edge of the ice.
SSee photos | Photo Album |.

  !

 f
  f
   f
GL


$Barrow's Goldeneye, Bucephala islandica   
Listed as observed at "St. Ignace, Mackinac County" with NO reference or date (P:14).   One on southeastern Brevort Lake -- first recorded on the fternoon of 2 October;  later observed -- e.g., 5, 6, and 9 October, 2016.   See photos | Photo Album |.


 o?


 o



$Hooded Merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus
See photos | Photo Album |.
  !

 o
 f
   f
BL


$Common Merganser, Mergus merganser See photos | Photo Album |. Note about Common Goldeneye also obtains here.  More than 300 adult males, in "breeding plumage" were in southeastern Christensen Bay in ice-free Brevort Lake, 24 December 2015. 

  !

 f
 fR
  c
BL


$Red-breasted Merganser, Mergus serrator "Round Island ... A set of nine incubated eggs was taken ...July 4, 1891." (WhSee photos | Photo Album |.
  ! 
 u
 fR
  c
GL


$Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis One was killed on Mackinac Island 3 September 1890 (Wh). Female at Clark Twp. Waste Water Pond  #3, near Cedarville 23 May 2016.  See photo | Photo Album |.






  o



  
GALLIFORMES 

             NUMIDDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt

  LEGEND
$Helmeted Guineafowl,  Numida meleagris Not  included in total given in Introduction;  feral group (claimed by noone within area!) west of Moran, August 2010.  See photos | Photo Album |.   [NOT on Michigan Checklist (MICkLst)]







 
 
 




            ODONTOPHORIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt

  LEGEND
Northern Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus
extirpated (?)
Two on Mackinac Island, 24 July 1890.  "Mr. Early [landowner on island] states that they were once common on his farm , but were exterminated by hunters." (Wh)  Although, as noted to the left, the species has been considered "extirpated" so far as Mackinac Co. for several years, one was seen, heard, and photographed in St. Ignace in early April, 2012! -- Thus the (?) -- See photo | Photo Album |.







 o



        
             PHASIANIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt

  LEGEND 
$+Gray Partridge, Perdix perdix 
   (introduced; now absent
)
Widely called Hungarian partridge.   This  species is NOT on the "Field Checklist of Birds of Michigan's Upper Peninsula" dated 15 Jan.2010 (Hi).  Frances, my wife, and our "kids" and one of their spouses saw a couple of these on Drummond Island, Chippewa Co., Summer of 1997.  [NOT on Michigan Checklist (MICkLst)]










 
$Ring-necked Pheasant, Phasianus colchicus "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)  This species, native to Asia and introduced into the United States as a game bird, is rare within the county.  Pheasants recently seen seem likely to represent those known to have been hatched from eggs obtained from, for example, the Rudyard Co-op --  e.g., in 2007, Cheryl Amacher, who lives on Charles Moran Rd. west of M123, hatched 10-12 eggs, later released the pheasants, and subsequently saw one of the hens regularly thereafter (she thinks that the others probably became food for predators such as coyotes and hawks).  However, see dates on photos and note the fact that a male and female were together south the Brevort Lake Rd (H37) east of Black Point Rd.during the mating season, June, 2011.  See photos | Photo Album |  A dark melanistic or mutant individual was foraging in a field east of Pleasant Ave. and  north of Linck Rd., Garfield Twp. on 6 May 2014;  this bird -- See photo  in Appendix A. "Remarkables" group near end of  the photo album.
 #
 u
 u
 u
BO

      Key:
   R - resident
  
c - common
   f - frequent
  
u - uncommon
   o - occasional

   Breeding record:

     
! - definite
     
# - probable
     
± - possible
$Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus    Referred to as partridge in some reports. One with chicks viewed on southeast side of Rte H40, ~2.2 miles west of Chippewa County line, 28 June 2012.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
 R
 R
 R
MH


Spruce Grouse, Falcipennis canadensis Special Concern  
See photo | Photo Album |.  photograph are in "Wish List" group.

  !
 R
 R
 R
SC


$Sharp-tailed Grouse, Tympanuchus  phasianellus Special Concern  Recent examples:  "3 ... at Point (sic) LaBarbe on 20th [December, 2005] (UP: January 24, 2006) a flock of 20-plus birds was east of  Simmons Rd., ca. 1 mile north of St. Ignace Rd., January, 2010;   8 were north of Lovegrove Rd. east of Rte.123, April, 2011. See photos | Photo Album |.
  #
 R
 R
 R
UO

 

Greater Prairie-Chicken, Tympanuchus cupido   (extirpated) Last recorded in state in 1981 (G:81).










 
$Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo   See photos | Photo Album |.
  #
 uR
uR
 R
MH



GAVIFORMESf

            GAVIIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
   LEGEND
Red-throated Loon, Gavia stellata
“Rare transient and winter visitant ... In most instances only a single individual ..., usually along the Great Lakes shores." (Wd:17)  "Observed on Mackinac Island or in the surrounding waters of the Straits... during the past 15 years." (MSHP) 
[ Among reports from adjacent counties, "Christofferson reported 1 at Blaney, Schoolcraft Count, on October 23 and 24, 1933."  (Wd:17) ]



o?



o?

GL
     Key:
 R - resident
 
c - common
 f - frequent
 
u - uncommon
Pacific Loon, Gavia pacifica
Off shore from Cloverland Electric ... , St. Ignace  2 December 2013 (Be)







o?


 o - occasional
$Common Loon, Gavia immer Threatened   Michigan's DNR "has confirmed Type E Botulism in the  common ... (Mackinac County)." (SGSee photos | Photo Album |.
Observed almost every summer -- i.e., mid-August to mid-September -- on the three inland lakes that have boat access -- e.g., a pair on Thompson Lake late July, 2015;  also in Lake Huron off-shore from the family cottage, which is on the east side of the island. (Vj)   Frequently heard, less often seen, near shores of Lake Huron (e.g., near Hessel) and Lake Michigan (e.g., at Gros Cap);  seen in Brevort lake (e.g., 26 June 2010 and 14 October 2016).  See photos | Photo Album |.

  !


uR
  f
BL


PODICIPEDIFORMES

            PODICIPEDIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt

   LEGEND
$Pied-billed Grebe, Podilymbus podiceps   *** The most common grebe of the area.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


 fR
 f
BL


$Horned Grebe, Podiceps auritus Two offshore from Boulevard Dr., St. Ignace - 20 Oct. 2009.  One  in Lake Michigan, offshore from South State St., St. Ignace - 21 Oct. 2011 and two in Lake Brevort - 22 Oct. 2011.  Two offshore down-town dock area, St. Ignace - 17 Oct. 2012 and five in Lake Brevort - 4 Nov. 2012. Three offshore south State St., St. Ignace  5-7 May 2013;  seven in Christensen Bay of Lake Brevort 19-22 October 2014. ... See photos | Photo Album |.   



 o
 u
 f
GL

   Breeding record:
      ! - definite
      #  - probable
     
±  - possible
$Red-necked Grebe, Podiceps grisegena


A single breeding record, in a marsh near Cedarville, dates to June 1976 (Ch).  Michigan's DNR "has confirmed Type E Botulism in the red-necked grebe ... (Mackinac County)." (SG)  And, "observed on Mackinac Island or in the surrounding waters of the Straits... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)  "at Pt. (sic) LaBarbe on 23rd [April, 2006]."  (UP: April 25, 2006)  Three in Straits, off Dock #3, St. Ignace- 14 April 2012.  See photos | Photo Album |. 
  !


 o
 f



Western Grebe,  Aechmophorus occidentalis
"Word-of-mouth" reports of sightings of this bird within the Straits area have existed over several years.  An occurrence in mid January, 2013 has been verified by a number of dependable observers.



 o








SULIFORMES

            PHALACROCORACIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt

   LEGEND
$Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus 
Green Island (Lake Michigan) is recorded as the "home to ... 600 Double-crested Cormorant pairs ...." (NA)  Juvenile double-crested cormorant was observed diving, ... and swallowing a rather large fish  in the "slip," where the public boat ramp is, east of Waterfont Park and Dock #3 Rd. -- 30 December 2016 (Kurt R. Dietrich & rvd).  See photos | Photo Album |.      
  !
 o
cR
 c
GL


?[Neotropic Cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus] One on dock along north of Michigan Rte H57 (Brevort Lake Rd.) T.41N.-R.5W. of Brevort Township 7 September 2013.  See photo  | Photo Album |.




 o






PELECANIFORMES

            PELECANIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt

    LEGEND
$American White Pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
One is recorded as flying over the I-75/M-123 interchange north of St. Ignace, 26 September 2005 (Au).   "A flock of 15-20 ... on South Manistique Lake on June 8th [2008]"  (UP: June 10, 2008). "26 ... reported [and photographed] ...in the outer Prentis Bay" 29 May 2012 (SM).  Five in flight above Boulevard Dr, St. Ignace, and the adjacent offshore area 10 June 2012 -- See photos | Photo Album |.   Later:  Six in flight above shoreline of Lake Michigan at Gros Cap (15 May 2014);  12 on lake side of a motel northeast of St. Ignace business section (23 June 2015) (p.c., Bob Brown);  "Small flock..., maybe 20 flyover on Highway 2, near Epoufette, heading south toward the lake."  23 June 2016.  (p.c., Judi Mouser)




 o 
 o




            ARDEIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$American Bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus
Special Concern  "Several were observed ... and one specimen taken by T.G. White [on Mackinac Island]." (WhMore recent occurrences include those  photographically recorded -- e.g.,  See photos | Photo Album | -- and one in swamp area beside Boulevard Drive, 26 July 2015one (a different one) in same area 10 August 2015.
  !


uR
 u
CM

 
Least Bittern, Ixobrychus exilis Threatened   Although noted as  "an abundant bird in all suitable places in the state" (Ba:133), the nearest records that I have found, other than the indication of the probable breeding, is for Cheboygan county (Wd:38 & Pe:38).  
  #


 o


CM


$Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias 
See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
 o
 fR
  f
  IL

    Key:
$Great Egret , Ardea alba
"Brian Johnson reported 5 GREAT EGRETS at Pt. Aux Chenne on the 26th [August, 2006]  (UP: August 26, 2006). Two observed at Pte. LaBarbe 7 Apr.2008 by Kirk Zulfelt (UP:  May 2, 2008).  One in reeds offshore Boulevard Dr. 11 June 2012.  Two  in swamp southwest of  western junction of Densmore Dr. and Boulevard Dr. 17 June 2014; one to three in same general area mid May through early June, 2015;  one in same general area--e.g., 6, 11 & 25 July 2015. The occurrence -- i.e., the number  -- of this species appears to be increasing, at least during the spring, as of 2016 --  See photos | Photo Album |.    "I found a pair nesting on Green Island a handful of years ago. ...  at the time it was the northernmost breeding record in the state.  We went back after the eggs hatched and got some good photos."  (F.Cuthbert, p.c., 2015) --   added  BR >









  !



 f
 u


 R - resident
 
c - common
 f - frequent
 
u - uncommon
 o - occasional
? [Snowy Egret, Egretta thula?]
Widespread hearsay has this bird within the county a few summers ago. The presence of one at two fairly nearby locations west of St. Ignace is given on the Mich-listers web site for May 2004 (Ci). [A photograph that was so labeled  and  sent to the compiler was of a Great egret!! ]







  o?



? [Tricolored Heron , Egretta tricolor] Casual (MA).  One was reported by Matt & Cyndi Johnstone at Pte. LaBarbe on 3 July 2006 (UP: July 12, 2006).




o?





Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis
One was reported to Rarebirds.com as along a shoreline, near St. Ignace, 21 Aug. 2006.  Five were on lawns in the Graham Point area of Southeastern St. Ignace, 1 November2016 (p.c., Sally Herbon and Janie Perry). See photos | Photo Album |.




 o
 o



$Green Heron, Butorides virescens   "Observed on Mackinac Island or in the surrounding waters of the Straits... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)  The species is listed on the checklist of the Hiawatha National Forest (n.d.).  A friend, who is an experienced, objective "bird-watcher" indicates that one or more of these herons has been in the swampy area south of Poupard Bay, off Gros Cap Rd., Moran Twp. each of the last several years.  See photos | Photo Album |.
       
The
  #  breeding entry given here for this bird, added in August 2014, is based on observations of adult herons within an area in the county in early July, the fact that eggs of this species hatch in 19-21 days, and the presence of a juvenile bird in the same area in early August.                                               added  BR>











  #



 u 


AS






  Breeding record:
    
! - definite
   
# - probable
    
± - possible
$Black-crowned Night-Heron, Nycticorax nycticorax Special Concern    In the past, the following information was said to obtain:  St. Helena Island "supports a moderately large colony of nesting Black-crowned Night Herons."  Bear Island is the "home to a moderately large colony."  [and]  Green Island (Lake Michigan) is the "home to a small number of nesting Black-crowned Night-Herons." (NA)   "9 ..at Pt. (sic) LaBarbe on 23rd [April, 2006]."  (UP: April 25, 2006)  Four (or more) arrived several  nights (each night?) at about sunset at the St. Ignace Marina during much of May and June in 2012 -- see especially the one photographed on  11 May 2012.  At launching ramp south of Dock 3, St. Ignace -- several evenings, near sundown, late May and early June 2015 & 2016. See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


uR
 u
  IL




ACCIPITRIFORMES

            CATHARTIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
Black Vulture, Coragyps altratus
Single one above Boulevard, Moran Twp., 10 & 13 June 2012.   One north of Engadine, after the passing of a major southern front with high winds, 200?  (Linda Boisclair, p.c.). 







 o




$Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura 
"Late" winter/"early" spring pair at Allenville, 18 March 2012.  See photos | Photo Album |.
         The photo by Cheeseman, which is in the photo album,  indicates that an
is more likely correct in the BR column.  

  #
 
<see

  o

cR
 c
 IH


            PANDIONIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Osprey, Pandion haliaetus Special Concern   fairly common in Les Cheneaux area of Lake Huron.   See photos | Photo Album |.
  !



 fR
 u 
BL


            ACCIPITRIDAE


                                 Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
? [Mississippi Kite,  Icinia mississippiensis]
"4 May 1990 in Mackinac County" (G)







o?
 o

$Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus  [Special Concern <<removed from list 2007?!]  Habitat: widespread near Lakes Huron & Micigan.  Currently (in 2000s and into early 2010s) is becoming more abundant both as a resident and as a migrant (e.g., a group of 12 was at Gros Cap in mid-November, 2011);  thrityfive (35) were in the trees bordering the abandoned sandpit east -- i.e., across Rte.2 -- of the Harold "Jim" Nyquist Roadside Park on Rte. 2, near Gros Cap during in the early evening of 2 November 2014;  more than fifty (50) were there the next morning.  See also the note re the 2015 spring migration in Golden Eagle entry.See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
 R
cR
 R
BL

          Key:
   R - resident
  
c - common
   f - frequent
  
u - uncommon
   o - occasional

     
$Northern Harrier, Circus cyaneus Special Concern   Formerly widely referred to as "marsh hawk."  "Two very late for the UP ... December 8th" reported by Gerald Vork and Steve Baker (B:19 Jan.'10).  See photos | Photo Album |.
  #
 o
 fR
  f
WD


$Sharp-shinned Hawk, Accipiter striatus
An adult male was atop a suet-holding crook at Gros Cap 5 April 2014;  an immature individual was on the ground at the same locality 6 May 2014.   See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
 o
uR
 u

SC

 
$Cooper's Hawk, Accipiter cooperii   Formerly widely referred to as "chicken hawk."  However, this former desig nation was also sometimes given sharp-shinned and even red-tailed hawks. 
  !
 u
uR


MH

   Breeding record: 
$Northern Goshawk, Accipiter gentilis
Special Concern     "In 1889 two pairs ... could be seen on any clear day [from Mackinac Island]."  (Wh)   One at Evergreen Shores, Spring, 2015.

  !
 u
 o
 o
MH

      ! - definite
     
# - probable 
$Red-shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus 
Threatened    "A pair lived on the [Mackinac] island in 1890." (Wh)  Two recent observations were near Moran -- 9 September 2010 & 6 September 2012.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


 u
 u
MH

       ± - possible
$Broad-winged Hawk, Buteo platypterus  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
 o
 fR
  f

MH


$Swainson's Hawk, Buteo swainsoni One (UMMZ) collected [near Hessel] 13 October 1908 by Clarence Law (Z&VT:13).  See photos | Photo Album |.


 o


 o



$Red-tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis  A hawk that my experience and current additional checking in/of several articles and photographs would be identified as a Harlan' Hawk (i.e., the   subspecies  B. j. harlaniwas at Gros Cap on 7 December 2016. 
See photos | Photo Album |.

  !
uR
 fR
 R
WD


$Ferruginous Hawk, Buteo regalis A hawk, which on the basis ofmy experience and checking in/of several articles and photographs (see note with the photos) was identified as a Ferruginous Hawk (dark or intermediate morph), was south of Brevort Lake Road, just west of  the Apple Lane Junction - 21 & 22 February 2017.   See photos | Photo Album |.


  o







$Rough-legged Hawk, Buteo lagopus 
Recorded on Mackinac Island (Wh). Fairly common in sporadic "meadow areas" -- perhaps as residents.  See photos | Photo Album |.
 ±
  f

 

  f




$Golden Eagle, Aquila chrysaetos
A tracked golden eagle of northern Quebec "migrated along Hudson Bay, then moved through Ontario to cross the Great Lakes by the Strait of Mackinac..." (Br)   "Brian Zwiebel reported an immature GOLDEN EAGLE on a deer kill along I-75 north of St. Ignace on February 5th [2007]." (UP: February 13, 2007)   One was seen east of Engadine by two experienced observers, 9 July 2011.  Two reports indicate that at least 224 of these eagles, 113 bald eagles and eight species of hawks passed through Macinac City (south of the Straits in Michigan's  lower peninsula) during the Spring of 2015 (The St. Ignace News, March 26 and April 2 editions).    See photos | Photo Album |.


 o


  o
 o





GRUIFORMES

            RALLIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
? [Yellow Rail, Coturnicops noveboracensis] Threatened   Although I have been told this species has been heard in the swamp area east of Hessel, I have found no record of its being observed within the county. The species is recorded for adjacent Chippewa and Schoolcraft counties. 




o? 


CM


     Key:
  R - resident
Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola 
***   One with downy young on marshy shore of mill-pond of Hessel 3 August 1919 (VT3).  Also, it is reported "as breeding at Nimmons Bay [-- no so-named bay within area -- perhaps Mismer Bay?  --], near Hessel (2 nests with eggs found June 22, 1934, by F.C. Gillett)." (Wd:150)   So, a !   seems to be correct BR  >    See photos | Photo Album |.

 
 ±

<see



  u
 u
CM

  c - common
  f - frequent
  u- uncommon
 
o - occasional


Sora, Porzana carolina
"Common summer resident in marshes [on Mackinac Island]" (Wh) Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj).  In marshy area east side of St. Martin Bay 9 June 2016 (KD, p.c.).   

  #


 fR
  f
CM


$American Coot, Fulica americana Sporadic in n marshy areas along north shore of Lakes Huron and Michigan
See photo | Photo Album |.

  ±


 uR
  f
 BL


 
            GRUIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Sandhill Crane, Grus canadensis   See photos | Photo Album |. -- see especially the Sequence in the Main tabulated group. "Avian history reveals that cranes are ancient birds. The Sandhill Crane we see today was present some 9 million years ago, and its ancestors date back 40 to 60 million years." (G:96

  ! 


 fR
 c
UO



CHARADRIIFORMES

            RECURVIROSTRIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 

S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
? [Black-necked Stilt, Himantopus mexicanus]
Casual (MA).   Pair said to have been killed and mounted [in late 1800s] from "the shore near St. Ignace." oral report to Barrows (1912, p. 170). However, N.A.Wood (1951) "excluded [this species] from [his Michigan checklist] ... for lack of positive evidence" BUT included it on his "Hypothetical List." So?? In any case, it is NOT on the "Field Checklist of Birds of Michigan's Upper Peninsula" that is dated 15 January 2010 (Hi). 






o? 


   Key:
 R-resident
 
c - common
  f - frequent
 
u- uncommon
  o - occasional
American Avocet, Recurvirostra americana
In "bridge view" area west of the U.P. end of the Mackinac Bridge, 31 May 2003 (Bo). Note that pre 1951 observations of this bird within Michigan were  "excluded from [his Michigan checklist] ... for lack of positive evidence."  BUT it is included on his "Hypothetical List" (Wd) and it is on the Audoubon Checklist for Michigan (NA). In addition to these inconsistent   "observations" and conclusions (albeit some are tentative), a specimen, number 214980, from "Mackinac Island, on 20 September 1968" is recorded  (P:21).






 o? 





   Breeding record:
     
! - definite
     
# - probable
     
± - possible

 
            CHARADRIIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Black-bellied Plover, Pluvialis squatarola Noted as in eastern Mackinac County from August 18 through October in 1929  (Wd:168) [to me, this report is a bit garbled!]. Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj).  Three west of Hessel, late May, 2011 --See photos | Photo Album |.






 o
WB


 
$American Golden-Plover, Pluvialis dominica


Recorded as one of the Autumn birds of the Les Cheneaux Islands (W5).   Five American golden plovers were on shore, Boulevard Dr., Moran Twp. 25 September 2013  See photos | Photo Album |.






 u
WB
   Key:
 
R - resident
 
c - common
$Semipalmated Plover, Charadrius semipalmatus Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj).  One with Dunlin along Boulevard, Moran Twp. 18 May 2015;  single bird(s) along Boulevard Dr. 10 & 25 August 2015.  See photos | Photo Album |.  




  u

 o

WB

  f - frequent
Piping Plover, Charadrius melodus Endangered    "Between 2002 and 2006, [the Pointe Aux Chenes beachfront] supported between 3 and 8 pairs [of these plovers]." (NA)  also during Summer of  2009 (St/Sj).  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


uR


WB

  u - uncommon
  o - occasional
$Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
See photos | Photo Album |.
  !



cR
 c
UO



            SCOLOPACIDAE                  
                                                                                                                                                            


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 

S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Spotted Sandpiper, Actitis macularius
"Very common summer resident [on Mackinac Island, where it] feeds on stone spiders." (Wh)  At Clark Twp. Waste Water Ponds, near Cedarville -- e.g.,  May 2012 - 2015;   in Lake Michigan wash along Boulevard Dr., Moran Twp., summer, 2015.   See photos | Photo Album |.
  !



cR

  f
LK

$Solitary Sandpiper, Tringa solitaria  On Mackinac Island (Wh);  "observed on ... [the] Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP).  Three at Clark Twp. Waste Water Pondsf, near Cedarville  9 May 2012;  one or more there May/June 2013-15;  one in Lake Michigan wash along Boulevard Dr., Moran Twp., 4-7 July 2015;  five, 12 July 2015.  A virtually black (melanistic??) one at Clark Twp. Waste Water Pond, near Cedarville -- 15 May 2016See photos | Photo Album |.




 u
  f



$Greater Yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
"Several flocks" observed in Les Cheneaux Islands area, August 1918    (VT4).  Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj).  Small flocks in ponded water on fields in Allenville area, late April  and early May, 2010,   2013 & 2014;  five  in  Lake Michigan wash, along Boulevard, 12 July 2015.   See photos | Photo Album |.




 o
 f


      
Willet,  Tringa semipalmata On Mackinac Island (Wh).






 o


      Key:
$Lesser Yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes 

Flocks seen during August 1918 and 1920 in Les Cheneaux Islands area (VT4).  Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj).  Same area, with greater yellowlegs during fall migration, 2012;  with greater yellowlegs east of Allenville, 2 May 201;   one along Boulevard, Moran Twp., 31 July 2014;  six in  Lake Michigan wash, along Boulevard, 4 July 2015; two, same locality, 10 July 2015;  three,12 July 2015See photos | Photo Album |.




 u
  f


  R - resident
 
c - common
  f - frequent
 
u - uncommon
 
o - occasional
Upland Sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda
 Formerly widely called "upland plover."        

  #


uR
 o
UO


$Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus 


Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj);  along shore in St. Ignace, 20 April 2012 -- seen by Matt Hunt (p.c., Vern Hunt, 24 Apr. 2012);  in Sand Bay beside Boulevard Dr. 3 - 5 Oct. 2012.  A flock of 70-plus (count verified by photographs) along the shoreline off Graham St., St. Ignace City, 23 May 2013. See photos | Photo Album |.




 u
 o
WB
   Breeding record:
     
! - definite
     
# - probable
     
± - possible
Marbled Godwit,  Limosa fedoa
Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj).




 u


WB
 
Ruddy Turnstone, Arenaria interpres


Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj).  A single turnstone was with the 70-plus whimbrels (see above) offshore from Graham St., St.. Ignace City, 23 May 2013.  See photos | Photo Album |.




 o


WB

    
$Red Knot, Calidris canutus "I saw two pinkish-breasted individuals on the shore of the small pond at Green Island [25 June 1954]." (Pe).   Six tentatively identified on shore near Boulevard Dr., Moran Twp. 19 September 2012.





 o


WB

$Stilt Sandpiper, Calidris himantopus  Specimens have been collected near Cheboygan (Wd:196-197&Pe:56-57).  A pair were photographed in pond west of Apple Lane, Brevort Twp. 29 April 2016.        






 o



Sanderling, Calidris alba Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj).




 o

o?


  
$Dunlin, Calidris alpina "I watched one individual, with grayish back and small, dark splotches on the underparts ... at Green Island [25 June 1954]." (Pe)  Also, near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj).  One was seen on Mackinac Island on December 16, 2011 (PJ) --  However, the photographer of  the photo shown in that article told me that the bird was actually near shore in St. Ignace City (p.c., Steve Baker).   See photos | Photo Album |.






 o
WB
     Key:
  R - resident
 
c - common
  f - frequent
 
u - uncommon
 
o - occasional
$Baird's Sandpiper, Calidris bairdii "The highest number claimed is 60 on 29 May 1958..." (G:110







 u



$Least Sandpiper, Calidris minutilla 
***    "Rather rare migrant on Round Island" (Wh).  Recorded near Hessel in September 1918 (VT4).  Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj).  Seven  in Lake Michigan "wash" by Boulevard Dr. Moran Twp. 7 July 2015;  others, usually only 1-3 at any time,  in same area mid-late July 2015.  See photos | Photo Album |.




 o
 o



$White-rumped Sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis
Two - in muddy flat along Boulevard Dr., Moran Twp. mid July 2015; four, same location, 4 August 2015. .





 u





? [Buff-breasted Sandpiper, Calidris subruficollis] Per county list on eBird (www.ebird.org):  "Buff-breasted Sandpiper [in county]  see  http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist?subID=S9139721.  However, requests for details  (p.c. to, Marshall Iliff, eBird Project Leader, 12 April 2012) received no response.










   Breeding record:
    
! - definite
    
# - probable
    
± - possible
$Pectoral Sandpiper, Calidris melanotos Seen rather frequently during August of 1919 and 1920 in Les Cheneaux Islands area (VT3).   One with five American golden plovers on shore, Boulevard Dr., Moran Twp. 25 September 2013;  one with two yellowlegs at same locality 11 July 2015,   See photos | Photo Album |.




  f
 f



&Semipalmated Sandpiper, Calidris pusilla Specimen collected on Mackinac Island 4 September 1889 (Wh). Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj).  Small (~6) flock in Lake Michigan "wash" along Boulevard, Moran Twp.  mid-July  2015.   See photos | Photo Album |.






 o


   
$Western Sandpiper, Calidris mauri
One near lake shore along Boulevard Dr., Moran Twp. 30 July through 1 August 2014;  four in Lake Michigan wash along Boulevard Dr. 4 July 2015; two, 22 July 2015, etc.  See photos | Photo Album |.




 u





$Short-billed Dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 -- but, the Short-billed designation is questioned. (St/Sj).  Three at Clarke Twp. waterwaste disposal ponds 10 May 2012;  16 at same location 15 May 2016 See photos | Photo Album |.




 o

 o



? [Long-billed Dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus] See above entry, second comment and the photographs. --  Possibly one, in particular, or even more of those shown is/are long-billed ....







 o



$Wilson's Snipe, Gallinago delicata   
"Rare migrant. I flushed one in a meadow [on Mackinac Island] September 17, 1889." (Wh)  Also, Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj); east of Allenville late April 2013;  lakeside of Boulevard Dr. late July & early August 2014;  mid-July 2015.   See photos | Photo Album |.
  #


 uR
  f
 LS

  Key:
  R - resident
 
c - common
   f - frequent
$American Woodcock, Scolopax minor "Often flushed from the middle of shaded roads towards evening [on Mackinac Island]." (Wh)   See photos | Photo Album |.
  ! 


 fR
  f

UO

   u - uncommon
  
o - occasional
$Wilson's Phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor

Four (one "spinning") in pond north of Rte.2, east of Brevort Lake Rd. 2 October 2013.  See photos | Photo Album |.






  o




            STERCORARIIDAE


                              Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
Parasitic Jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus "Adult observed perched on rock off LaFayette Point [Bois Blanc Island], June 20, 1942 by O.M. Root and T. Nelson." (Z&VT:23)




 o






            LARIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
  LEGEND
? [Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla] "'Rare accidental Visitor' (Gibbs' Birds of Michigan); 'rare at Mackinac Island' (S.E. White)" (Co:219-220).  "Frequent in winter on Lake Huron, common around Straits of Mackinac" (A2).  However, N.A. Wood (1951) "excluded [this species] from [his Michigan checklist] ... for lack of positive evidence," BUT he includes it on his "Hypothetical List."



 o?


 o?



$Bonaparte's Gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia 
"Dr. M.Gibbs is reported to have seen a flock on Mackinac Island."  (Co:221)  Christofferson saw one, June 3, 1936 at Gould City (Wd:212).  "Observed on Mackinac Island or in the surrounding waters of the Straits... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)  Five offshore from the Old State Ferry dock, St. Ignace, 30 April 2013;  two in Mismer Bay west of Hessel, 1 May 2013. ~ 25 in Straits area, east of the southern end of State St., St. Ignace City, 9 May 2016See photos | Photo Album |.




 o
 u


     Key:
   R - resident
   
c - common 
   
f - frequent
  
u - uncommon
  
o - occasional    
Little Gull, Hydrocoloeus minutus

A "small black-headed gull in St. Ignace [believed to be] an adult Little Gull ... on the water ... with two Bonaparts (sic) Gulls which were at least 25% larger . The smaller gull lacked the white eye liner of the Bonies, had obvious white wing tips at rest, appeared to have a shorter and thicker neck, and showed a slightly more extensive black hood.  [It was] observed from the Cloverland Electric facility [St. Ignace.] ... fuzzy photos[*] ... show the size difference at least."  (p.c. Steve Baker, 21 April 2016)   See photos | Photo Album |.






 o



? [Franklin's Gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan] Per county list on eBird (www.ebird.org):  "Franklin's Gull takes me here: http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist?subID=S6574292. When I check the review status, I see it has not been reviewed, so I have asked the observer for more details."  (p.c., Marshall Iliff, eBird Project Leader, 12 April 2012)  My request for details received no response.







 o?



$Ring-billed Gull, Larus delawarensis   Green Island (Lake Michigan) is recorded as the "home to ... many nesting  ... Ring-billed Gulls."  [and]  Little Hog Island "supports Michigan's 5th largest Ring-billed Gull breeding colony."  (NA)  See the third paragraph in the following entry.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !

oR
cR
 c
BL





$Herring Gull, Larus argentatus 
Michigan's DNR "has confirmed Type E Botulism in the herring gull ... (Mackinac County)." (SG)     See also the remarks about hybridization with Greater Black-backed Gull in the notes for that species. (NA)
      Green Island (Lake Michigan) is recorded as the "home to ... many nesting Herring ... Gulls." 
-- It seems likely that the "home to..." statement was based on information then known but only subsequently published by Cuthbert and Wires (C&W). Information from that report is given in the second paragraph of text between the photographs of the Herring and Ring-billed gulls in the Photo Album.  See photos | Photo Album |.

  !

uR
 fR
 c
GL

  Breeding record:
   
! - definite
   
# - probable
   
± - possible
    
$Iceland Gull, Larus glaucoides
"Observed in winter in Straits of Mackinac (Pettingill, 1974 [not seen])." (P:28) -- Apparently the date was 8 Feb.[1974?] and the observer was  Michael Kielb.



 o







$Glaucous Gull, Larus hyperboreus
Three seen 4 March 1945 near St. Ignace by G.A. Ammann (Z&VT:24).  One on shore side of State St., near junction with East Elliott Ave. 31 Dec. 2011. One off-shore at Gros Cap  19 Dec. 2016.   See photos | Photo Album |.


 o




GL

$Great Black-backed Gull, Larus marinus



"Observed on Mackinac Island or in the surrounding waters of the Straits... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)   BR indication for this bird is based on Granlund et al. (1995, p.126).  One  is recorded as "in the [Herring] gull colony at Pt. Labarbe. [and] This is a known area for Great Black-backs for nesting, including hybridizing with Herring Gulls." (UP: March 27, 2009)  Small flock off shore (ice!) 7 March 2013.   See photo | Photo Album |.
  #


 o
 o





$Caspian Tern, Hydroprogne caspia
 Threatened     "I repeatedly took this tern, and should call it common [at Mackinac Island]." (Wh)   On inland lakes, commonly with smaller terns, during recent summers. (Vj)     See photos | Photo Album |.
  #


 uR


GL

$Black Tern, Chlidonias niger Special Concern   Rather common during summers along causeway from mainland to Hill Island 2010-2014 but not after the environmental change in 2015.   See photos | Photo Album |.
   !


 uR
 u  

GL


    Key:
$Common Tern, Sterna hirundo Threatened     Epoufette Island shoal is recorded as the "Home to a moderately large colony of nesting Common terns."   The Sand Products "man-made breakwall extending into Lake Michigan at Brevoort (sic) [is recorded as the] Home to a large ...nesting colony." [and]  The "rock- covered dock [at the St. Ignace Coast Guard Station has a] nesting colony.". (NA)  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


 fR


GL

  R - resident
 
c - common 
 
f - frequent
 
u - uncommon
 
o - occasional 
$Forster's Tern, Sterna forsteri In my experience, the "f" (=frequent) seems to be an overstatement!

  !


 fR


GL


? [Royal Tern, Thalasseus maxima]
"I examined several specimens.  Rather more rare than S. tshegrava [=Caspian Tern]." (Wh)   However, N.A. Wood (1951) "excluded [this species] from [his Michigan checklist] ... for lack of positive evidence." And, it is not on the Audoubon Checklist for Michigan birds (NA).













COLUMBIFORMES

            COLUMBIDAE 


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
     LEGEND 
$Rock Pigeon, Columba livia Three "flocks"  that seem noteworthy in 2009-2010:  1. one in St. Ignace;   2.one, most pigeons of which are white, just west of Garnet, Hundson Twp.;  [and]  3.a small flock with diverse patterns on their backs and wings, along Duke's Road west of Moran. -- See photos | Photo Album |.
  ±
cR
cR
cR
Sev-
eral

  Breeding record:
     
! - definite
     
# - probable
     
± - possible
Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius
     (extinct, no records this century)
Mackinac Island observations:  "A large flock was seen ...August 30, 1889 ... About a hundred were observed Sept. 10 and on Sept. 12 ... None were observed in 1890 or 1891." (Wh)  [The last confirmed record of this bird in Michigan was 1896 (G:149) / 1898 (NA).]











? [White-winged Dove, Zenaida asiaica] Casual (MA).  One reported to have been at the feeders of Barb & Jeff Brockway at Milakokia Lake, 7 September 2008 (UP: September 11, 2008).






 


    
$Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura  See photos | Photo Album |.
  #
uR
fR
fR

UO

 

CUCULIFORMES


            CUCULIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
     LEGEND
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus Observed on Mackinac Island 6 July 1889 (Wh).  See photo | Photo Album |.
 #


uR
 u
AS

$Black-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
"One specimen taken July 13, 1889.  Not uncommon summer resident in 1890 and 1891 [on Mackinac Island]." (Wh)   A nest with 2 young near Hessel,...on June 23, 1919 (VT3).  Along Wartella Rd., Brevort Twp. June 2010.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  ! 


 fR
 u
MH


 


STRIGIFORMES

            STRIGIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
   LEGEND 
$Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus Specimen (UMMZ)  from St. Ignace, dated 1 March 1919 (Wd:233)"Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)  Photos verify three occurrences: 23 February 2007, Pte.LaBarbe, Moran Twp.  -- See photos | Photo Album |.  24 January 2014, Old Portage Rd., near St. Ignace.

  !

uR
uR
uR
MF

     Key:
 
R - resident 
 
c - common   
  
f - frequent  
 
u - uncommon
$Snowy Owl, Bubo scandiacus One was recorded in the county on July 4, 1987 (G:145). One was on the "Big Mac" bridge (Mackinac County side) on 20 November 2012.  The winter of 2014-2015 featured a much larger than usual number of Snowy Owls in Mackinac and adjoining Chippewa counties:   See photos | Photo Album |.


  o
 o
 o
 IH

  o - occasional




 

$+Northern Hawk Owl, Surnia ulula The record for the presence of this owl within Mackinac Co. is less than clear, but it seems likely that the bird has at least now and then occurred.  I have seen it a few miles north of the county line in Chippewa Co.  AND south of the Straits, in Cheboygan Co. but not within Mackinac Co.   See photos | Photo Album |. in the "Wish List" group.








CF
Breeding record:
    !
  - definite

   
#  - probable
   
±  - possible
$Barred Owl, Strix varia
"Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)  For three more recently recorded observations, See photos [Photo Album].
  !
uR
uR
 

MF


$Great Gray Owl,  Strix nebulosa "A specimen in the Agricultural College [now MSU] collection, taken at St. Ignace ... in January, 1894" (Ba:310).  Four others were collected:  1.Milakokia Lake - 27 October 1946 [preserved by H. Moilanen];  2. a female at county line near Rudyard - 18 November 1950;  3.one near Gould City - 25 Feb.1951 (Z&VT:29);  4."GRPM 29211 from [an undesignated locality,] Mackinac County on 9 May 1967" (P:33).  Two later recorded occurrences are: "1 on 16 June [1982] near Trout Lake, Mackinac Co." (P0:156)  [and] one "present all summer on Bois Blanc Island ...." (P2:108)   Others are recorded in newspapers etc  One that four of us observed for several minutes was on the north side of Rte.134 about two miles east of  Thruway 75, 7 Apr.1992 (unfortunately none of us had a camera!).   See photos | Photo Album |. in the "Wish List" group.

  #

 o


 o
CF







Long-eared Owl, Asio otus Threatened   "An individual was captured on a freighter on northern
Lake Huron on July 30, 1921 (banded by Christofferson the following day)." (Wd:237
"Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)





 
 o

 

MF


      
Short-eared Owl, Asio flammeus Endangered  "near Lovegrove Road and M-234 on the 8th [November 2005]." (UP: November 9, 2005)   "along M-123 east of Moran on April 17th [2008]"  (UP: April 24, 2008)    See photos | Photo Album |.
  ±
 o
 u
 u

MH


 
 
  Key:
Boreal Owl, Aegolius funereus
A "Boreal Owl (Richardson's Owl). Aegolius funereus richardsoni ...", now a UMMZ specimen, was collected by Mrs. H. Van Farowe at Carp Lake, 4 Feb.1958 (Z&VT:30).  Another one is also said to have been on Mackinac Island during the winter of 2004-2005. One was along Boulevard Dr., 20 Feb.2012.  See photos | Photo Album |.


 o






  R - resident 
  
c - common   
  
f - frequent  
  
u - uncommon
  
o - occasional
Northern Saw-whet Owl, Aegolius acadicus Observed on Mackinac Island (Wh).  "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)   Five were "tagged" (banded?) by E. Pike at St.Ignace on 8 October 2010. (Booker)   See photos | Photo Album |.


 o


  f
SC

 Breeding record:
   !
  - definite

  
#  - probable
  
±  - possible       


CAPRIMULGIFORMES

            CAPRIMULGIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Common Nighthawk, Chordeiles minor "Rare summer resident but common migrant at Mackinac Island, where it becomes common in August." (WhSee photo | Photo Album |. -- It seems likely that this photograph was taken in Chippewa Co. -- i.e., not within Mackinac Co.  
  #


uR
 u
 IH


Eastern Whip-poor-will, Antrostomus vociferus "Reported...from Mackinac Island" (Co:279).   Said to be  "singing" almost every night during recent summers, BUT not in 2012(!), within the area north of the intersecion of Worth and School House roads, north of Brevort village (Mary Ann First, p.c., 2012).  Frequently heard on Bois Blanc Island during  the 1930s (per Jim Vosper, the elder, who then lived on the island);  more recently, rare -- possibly because of racoon predation;  one heard and seen on Vosper property on east side of the island August 1987-89. (Vj) 

  #


 u


MF



APODIFORMES

            APODIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
Chimney Swift, Chaetura pelagica "Common summer resident.  Last  seen aug. 29-Sept.2. [~1890?]."  (Wh)

  #


 u


UR


            TROCHILIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Archilochus colubris  Latest in fall one seen at Gros Cap -- 8 November 2014.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


cR
  c

 IH

? [Rufous Hummingbird, Selasphorus rufus]
"Spotted on Mackinac Island ... earlier this summer [2010]"  BUT, no name of spotter, date of the sighting or photograph is given. (Nn)





  o







CORACIIFORMES

            ALCEDINIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
   LEGEND
$Belted Kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon 
Habitat: also along streams and near-shore areas of Great Lakes -- e.g., along Brevort River north of the Dam Rd. and near the shore of Lake Michigan along Gros Cap Rd. and  the docks on Lake Huron near Hessel.  See photos | Photo Album |.  
  !
  o
cR
  f
WL



PICIFORMES

            PICIDAE  


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
   LEGEND
$Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus   "I shot two immature birds Sept. 11 and 14 [on Mackinac Island]" (Wh).  J. Van Tyne (1923: 23) saw several full-grown young (near Hessel) on August 6, 1920, and Christofferson saw 8 adults (near Gould City) on June 3, 1936 (Wd:257). "in Gould City on the 9th [October, 2005].  (UP: October 12, 2005)  One observed by John Watts along US-2, west of St. Ignace 6 July 2006 (UP: July 12, 2006).  One adult near intersection of Wartella and Brevort Lake roads - 14 May 2012;  adult along Boulevard Dr., Moran Twp. 13 May 2016. See photos | Photo Album |. 
  #


 o
 o
MH


  
Key:
  R - resident
 
c - common 
  
f - frequent
  u -uncommon
  o -occasional   
$Red-bellied Woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus
 

One at feeder on north side of Worth Rd., ~ .2 mi east of School House Rd., Brevort - 4 January 2012..   One at Gros Cap, 9 May and again November & December, 2016.  See photos | Photo Album |.  

  ± 

  o
 u
 u


 
$Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius   "St. Ignace, June 20 [1932]"  (Wi:179);  photos in Archive record a few other more recent dates.  See photos [Photo Album].

  !
oR
uR
oR
MH

      
$Downy Woodpecker, Picoides pubescens   During the winter and early spring of 2014-2015, a pair of much smaller than typical downys frequently visited feeders at Gros Cap.  Their small size was the subject of conversation by four long-time observers of the species.  These birds were shorter (bill to end of tail) than the black-capped chickadees that often shared the peanut butter feeder with them.   See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
cR
cR
cR
MF


 
$Hairy Woodpecker, Picoides villosus    See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
cR
cR
cR
MF


$+Black-backed Woodpecker, Picoides arcticus
Special Concern   Recorded as "Arctic three toed woodpecker" and noted as "most abundant of the woodpeckers" among the Autumn birds of the Les Cheneaux Islands (W5).  "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)   "Kevin Walsh reported a BLACK-BACKED WOODPECKER along US-2 in between M-117 and Gould City on the 26th [November, 2006]."  (UP: December 3, 2006)  On Mackinac Island 9 February 2015   See photos | Photo Album |.


  o
 o


SC


  Breeding record:
    !
  - definite

   
#  - probable
   
±  - possible
$Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus   See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
  o 
 fR
  c
UO


$Pileated Woodpecker, Dryocopus pileatus 
  Formely called "log-cock."   See photos | Photo Album |.

  !
uR
uR
uR
MH



FALCONIFORMES 


            FALCONIDAE  


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
  LEGEND
$American Kestrel, Falco sparverius  Formerly widely referred to as "sparrow hawk."  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
 o
cR
 f
UO

   Key:
$Merlin, Falco columbarius Threatened   "Mackinac County (8.5 miles S of Gould City)." (P:17);  "observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP);  near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj).  O or more has been observed near St. Ignace -- e.g., along Boulevard Drive, Moran Twp. -- in 2010 -2014.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  ±
 u

 fR
 u
SC

   R-resident
  
c - common 
    
f - frequent
    u - uncommon
    o - occasional
$Gyrfalcon, Falco rusticolus

At an unidentified location "in Mackinac County." (P:18).   "Visible on Green Island from Pt. (sic) LaBarbe Road [20 Jan. 2005]. (Wh).  See photos | Photo Album |.


 o


 o



$Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus Endangered   "On Mackinac Island, in 1939, ...a nest, with the adults and 1 or more juveniles near by, on July 19" (Wd:127);  "an adult ... at Pt. (sic) LaBarbe on the 30th [November 2005]. (UP: December 6, 2005).  It also  seems noteworthy that a nest with eggs is currently (May, 2010) on the southern pier, albeit not in Mackinac Co., of the "Big Mac" bridge (p.c., Joe Visnaw). One immature in near-shore ponded area along Boulevard Dr., Moran Twp.  25 August 2016;  one across the Blvd. from the same location 24 April 2017.   See photos | Photo Album |.

  !


 u
 u
CL

 Breeding record:
  !
  - definite

 
#  - probable
 
±  - possible

PASSERIFORMES

            TYRANNIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND 
$Olive-sided Flycatcher, Contopus cooperi Specimen taken -- Mackinac Island, August 15, 1890 (Wh). "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)  One on Boulevard Dr. 23 May 2013;  two near same locality 19 May 2015.    See photos
| Photo Album |.

  ±


uR
  f
SC



$Eastern Wood-pewee, Contopus virens   "St. Ignace, June 20 [1932]"  (Wi:183)  "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP) 

  ! 


 fR
  f
MH

    
$Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Empidonax flaviventris "Rare migrant; [specimens] taken Aug. 14 and 30, 1890 [on Mackinac island]." (Wh)  "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)    One near launching site near mouth of Carp River into Lake Huron - 11 August 2015.

  #


uR
  f
WL

 
Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens 
Although N.A.Wood (1951, p.272) notes that "There is no verified specimen from north of Saginaw County, though various workers have listed sight records from the north.", among the sight records he mentions is one by himself in Cheboygan County and one by S.E. White on Mackinac Island in 1893. In addition, he notes (ibid.) that "White reported that he collected 'many specimens' on Mackinac Island, but these were not examined by a qualified ornithologist."     Also, "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP) 








AS
    Key:
   R - resident
  
c - common 
    
f - frequent
   u -uncommon
   o - occasional 
 

$Alder Flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum ***  This  species is listed as "Accidental" on the "Field Checklist of Birds of Michigan's Upper Peninsula" dated 15 Jan. 2010 (Hi).  "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)
See photos | Photo Album |.

  !


 fR


WL

  Breeding record:
   !
  - definite

  
#  - probable
   
± - possible
 
$Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii
"At Engadine in Mackinac County (UMMZ)" (P:36). "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)




  o


AS


Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimus        

  !


uR


MF


$Eastern Phoebe, Sayornis phoebe   See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


cR
 c
MH

 
? [Vermillion Flycatcher, Pyrocephalus rubinus]
Accidental (MA).  Indicated as a hypothetical sighting;  recorded as follows:  "One sight record: Mackinac Island, October 8, 1944, adult observed and described in detail by Walter P. Hill (letter, October 10, 1944, in UMMZ)."  (Z&VT:35).







 o?




Ash-throated Flycatcher, Myiarchus cinerascens Accidental (MA).  Near Naubinway on 22 October 2005 "Seen in migration along US-2. It was photographed, but not [later] relocated." (Mrb:27 October 2005)






  



$Great Crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus   One at junction of Simmonds and St. Ignace roads, St. Ignace Twp., 13 June 2015; one west of Pt. Brulee Rd, ~1½ south of Rte.134,Clark Twp., 9 June 2016.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


 fR
  f
MH


$Western Kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis
Beside Boulevard Drive, Moran Twp. 31 May 2015. See photos | Photo Album |.






 o



$Eastern Kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus See photos | Photo Album |.     
  !


cR
  f
UO


            LANIIDAE


                               Notes/References

BR
Wi 
Su 
S/F
Hbt
   LEGEND
Loggerhead Shrike, Lanius ludovicianus
    (extirpated !? )
Endangered    Casual (MA).  White (1905) recorded "migrant shrike, Lanius ludovicianus migrans [and noted] several observed" among the Autumn birds of the Les Cheneaux Islands area.  One also was recorded at "St. Ignace, June 20.[year?]." (Wi:189)











$Northern Shrike, Lanius excubitor One:     at Gros Cap early November, 2009;  along Boulevard Dr.- 18 Oct. 2011;   in Allenville area, winter of  2012-2013;  northwest of Rte. 123-Brevort Lake Rd. intersection, 1 April 2016;  in vicinity of Brevort  Cemetery, Brevort Lake Rd., 19-22 Feb. 2017.   ...  See photos | Photo Album |.


 u


 o
 IH


            VIREONIDAE


                               Notes/References

BR

Wi

Su

S/F

Hbt

    LEGEND
   GENERAL NOTE: > > >>      Each of the vireos is recorded as having been  "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)











    Key:
Yellow-throated Vireo, Vireo flavifrons One specimen taken on Mackinac Island, 1891 (Wh).        
  ± 


uR


UO

   R - resident 
Blue-headed Vireo, Vireo solitarius ***   Formerly "solitary vireo," a designation still frequently applied.  A specimen taken by T.G. White, August 1891 (Wh).     
  #


uR
  f
MH

    c - common
   
f - frequent
Warbling Vireo, Vireo gilvus  Often heard but seldom seen.       

  ! 


uR


MH

    u - uncommon
Philadelphia Vireo, Vireo philadelphicus Three specimens taken on Mackinac Island (Wh).       







  f
MH

    o - occasional
$Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaceus 
***   "Abundant summer resident in maple woods and bushes [on Mackinac Island]" (Wh).  Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj). Several just east of Hessel in 2009.    See photos | Photo Album |.
  ! 


 fR
  f
MH

 

            CORVIDAE


                               Notes/References

BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Gray Jay, Perisoreus canadensis
Formerly "Canadian (or Canada) jay," name(s) still frequently used.   Noted as -"a rather common and conspicuous species found mainly along the Indian trails and deer runs" in Les Cheneaux Islands area (W5).  "In Somersby Swamp [8 November 2005]." (UP: November 9, 2005)   "GRAY JAYS were reported along M-123 north of Moran on the 4th [November, 2006]. (UP: November 9, 2006)
  #
  u



  u
SC

  Breeding record:
    !  - definite
    #  - probable
   
±  - possible
$Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata 
See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
oR
cR
  f
 IH

$American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos    See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
cR
cR
cR
 IH

 
$Common Raven, Corvus corax See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
cR
cR
cR
 IH


            ALAUDIDAE


                               Notes/References

BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
   LEGEND
$Horned Lark, Eremophila alpestris  
"The Indians shoot numbers of them for food under the name of 'Yellowthroat.'" (Wh)   Most of the horned larks that are present in the late Fall and early Winter are likely migrants from the north. 
See photos | Photo Album |.

 

 o

cR
 c
UO


            HIRUNDINIDAE


                                 Notes/References

BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
Purple Martin, Progne subis  Information supporting the indicated breeding and presence (see >) not found.     

  !


uR
 u
UR

   Key: 
$Tree Swallow, Tachycineta bicolor  
"A single, early-bird tree swallow was near east shore of Brevort Lake -- i.e., along H57 -- 13 April '12 (the "uncommon  year")..."  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


cR
  f
UO

  R - resident
   c - common
  
f - frequent 
$Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis    See photos | Photo Album |.     
  !


 fR
  f
 R

   u - uncommon
   o - occasional
Bank Swallow, Riparia riparia "St. Ignace, June 20 [1932]"  (Wi:183)     
  !


?R
 u
gvl
pits


$Cliff Swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota    Migrating flock of ~ 20 in area beside City Garage, east of Dock #3 Rd., St. Ignace 29 May 2016.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


uR
 u
bldgs

  
$Barn Swallow, Hirundo rustica
See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


cR
  f
UO


            PARIDAE


                                Notes/References

BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Black-capped Chickadee, Poecile atricapillus   [My choice if "state bird"  is changed] See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
cR
cR
cR
IH


$+Boreal Chickadee, Poecile hudsonica Formerly called "Hudson's Bay ... " or "Hudsonian chickadee" and currnetly widely referred to as "brown-capped chickadee"   --  Described as "Found abundantly in the Upper Peninsula and around Mackinac" (A1), and as the "most abundant winter bird and very tame, in fact more so than atripcapillus" for a location in Les Cheneaux Islands after a heavy snowfall in late November of 1906 (W7). --  On the basis of more recent observations, it seems that this bird's distribution has undergone a marked change within the last century or so.  This seems to be true, despite the fact that it has been  “recorded in summer in Mackinac [among other U.P. counties]." (Z&VT:37



 u




SC




  Breeding record:
    !  - definite
   #  - probable
   
±  - possible
Tufted Titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)  Recorded along Pte. LaBarbe, Moran Twp. 6 May 2004. (apparently recorded by L.Dombroski, ...) <<-- to be completed; reference not yet seen.  [A nearby record:  One was photographed by Laura Carey near Levering, Emmet County, 22 February 2014.]












            SITTIDAE  


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Red-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis    A really "bedraggled" one 5-7 July 2015, at feeders, Gros Cap, Moran Twp.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !

cR
uR
uR
PF


$White-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis   See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
 R
 R
 R
MH


            CERTHIIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Brown Creeper, Certhia americana *** See photos | Photo Album |.
  #
uR
uR
 uR
MF


            TROGLODYTIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$House Wren, Troglodytes aedon
See photo [Photo Album].        
  !


 fR
  f
MH


Winter Wren, Troglodytes hiemalis
***  "Very common summer resident [Mackinac Island]" (Wh). See photo | Photo Album |.
  #
 
 fR
 u
SC


$Sedge Wren, Cistothorus platensis          

  ±


uR


SM


Marsh Wren, Cistothorus palustris   Special Concern    A specimen (UMMZ) was taken near Hessel, Mackinac County, by A. D. Tinker on September 4, 1930 (Wd:324).
  !


uR
 u
CM

   

            POLIOPTILIDAE


                                Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$+Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Polioptila caerulea "Shot one and saw another in mixed woods [on Mackinac Island] Sept. 22, 1889." (Wh)  "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)   See photo | Photo Album |.
  ±


 u
 u
MH



            REGULIDAE 


                                 Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$+Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa
***  "Common summer resident [on Mackinac Island]" (Wh).  See photos [Photo Album].

  #
 u
 fR
  f
MF


$Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Regulus calendula   ***   "I found a nest [on Mackinac Island] with four nearly fledged young July 20, 1889." (Wh)  "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)  1889 record indicates , !  to be the correct  BR entry, >


  #
<



uR
 u
MF



             MUSCICAPIDAE    


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
Northern Wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe    Accidental [vagrant] (MA)  One at St. Ignace 19 September 1980(We).




 
 o





            TURDIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
   LEGEND
$Eastern Bluebird, Sialia sialis   Two or three of them were present in St. Ignace in early February, 2012. See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
 o
 fR
  f
UO

      
$Mountain Bluebird,  Sialia currucoides
Female recorded  -- found and photographed by Steve Baker -- near Pickford 17 November 2010 by Baker  (Haas -- the County name misspelled as Mackinaw, and the bird may have been in Chippewa County.)   See photos | Photo Album |.  Male was observed at Gros Cap 8 August 2014. 




 o

 o




Townsend's Solitaire, Myadestes townsendi Not recorded, or included in total given in the Introduction;  it is noted here because it seems likely to have been in the county because the species has been spotted, albeit not often, in the general area..












Veery, Catharus fuscescens "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)   See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


 fR
 o
MF



 
  Key:
$Gray-cheeked Thrush, Catharus minimus ***  "One specimen August 23, 1891 [from Mackinac Island]" (Wh). "One between Cedarville and Hessel ... on 14 June 1977" (P:43). 





 u
 u
CF
  R - resident
   c - common
$Swainson's Thrush, Catharus ustulatus ***  Formerly "olive-backed thrush," a designation that is still used rather widely.  White(1893) records some interesting observations about its song.  "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)   One dead because of its collision with a window of the St. Ignace Methodist Church - 29 May 2011.

  #


 u
 u
SC

   f - frequent 
   u - uncommon
  
o -occasional
$Hermit Thrush, Catharus guttatus ***   "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
 o
 fR
  f
SC


Wood Thrush, Hylocichla mustelina ***   "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)    
  #


 fR
 u
MH


$American Robin, Turdus migratorius  Early northward migrants arrive in mid-March;  late southward migrants, late October (e.g., 2013).  A few are seen each winter -- e.g., a single one at Hessel  during the last REALLY severe winter, 25 Feb. 2014;  two near southern junction of Gros Cap Rd. and Rte. 2, 29 Jan.2915 (Krista Brown, p.c.).
         2017 appears to be the year of  "Early-Arriving Robins":   A flock of  35-50 were along Boulevard Dr..20 January 2017; subsequently, single individuals and small groups (ranging from pairs to a dozen) observed in several places in the area from Evergreen Shores, through St. Ignace, to Gros Cap.  See photos | Photo Album |.

  !
 o
cR
 c
 IH

  Breeding record:
   
!  - definite
   
#  -probable
   
±  - possible
Varied Thrush, Ixoreus naevius Not recorded, or included in total given in Introduction; it is included here because it seems to be a likely vagrant because it has been spotted, albeit not often, within the general area..











            MIMIDAE      


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Gray Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis
Gros Cap --e.g., early July 2013 (K.R. Dietrich, p.c.);  at Barb Brockway's feeders on Milakokia Lake [19-30 December 2014 (email to UPBirders via birdnet)] - See photo | Photo Album |.   Recorded by Steve Baker as in St. Ignace during the 2014 end- of-the-year bird count.
  !
 o
 fR
  f
UO


$Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum "A few ... near the town and in the hedge-rows [on a farm on Mackinac Island" (Wh). Several records  of individual birds in 2010 - 2013 in St. Ignace and southern Moran Twp.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  #


 fR
  f
UO

$Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos 
"Walter P. Hill observed 1 on Mackinac Island between May 6 and 8, 1925." (Wd:325)   Pettingill and an ornithology class observed one in Brevort on on July 11, 1957. (Pe)   More recent sightings include the following that have been "published":   In "bridge view" area west of the U.P. end of the Mackinac Bridge, 31 May 2003. (Bo);  "singing ... in Nabinway (sic) on June 2nd [2006]. (UP: June 6, 2006);   "Late May just west of Cut River." (UP: June 10, 2008). NOT published signtings by compiler:  1. 6 May 2013 --   See photo | Photo Album |. and caption;  2. 24 May 2013 -- south of Rte.134, near eastern edge of Cedarville3. 21 May 2014 -- southern part of Evergreen Shores.
  #




 o


     Key:
   R - resident
   
c - common 
   
f - frequent
    u - uncommon
    o - occasional 
 

            STURNIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris 
See photos [Photo Album].
  !
uR
cR
cR
 IH

            MOTACILLIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$American Pipit, Anthus rubescens   ***  Flocks of 15 to more than 50 individuals are relatively common during spring and fall migration periods -- e.g., during the last few days of September, 2012, several hundred pipits were seen in such flocks in diverse environments within the county. Examples include the following:  The beach area on Lake Michigan east of  Brevort;  the forest along Hog Island Rd., north of Rte. 2; in meadows and pastures along Krause Rd., Garfield Twp.;  on lawns in suburban areas along Pte. LaBarbe and Gros Cap roads, northeast of St. Ignace;  [and]  in parking areas within St. Ignace.  See photos | Photo Album |.






  c



    Key:
  R - resident
  
c - common 
   
f - frequent
   u -uncommon
   o - occasional 

            BOMBYCILLIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Bohemian Waxwing, Bombycilla garrulus 
Among several records:  Rather common during winters of 2008-2009 & 2009-2010.  A flock of more than 100 was in trees and on ground on Gros Cap Rd. 3 November 2012;  a flock of more than 200 was in trees and on ground along Boulevard Dr. 6 November 2012.  Small flock south of Duke's Rd.,0.3 mi. east of Black Pointe Rd. 6 March 2016.  Flock of more than 200 at Evergreen shores, 24 January 2017.  See photos | Photo Album |.


 u


 u
 IH

$Cedar Waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum   Small, typically <20, flocks appear to be wandering here and there in the county throughout the year.  Pairs, apparently mating, occur sporadically -- e.g., along the Boulevard.  See photos | Photo Album |.   A large flock -- by count more than 75 --  in the Gros Cap area  29 May 2014.
  !
 R
 R
 R
 IH

  Breeding record:
   
!  - definite
   
#  -probable
   
±  - possible

            CALCARIIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Lapland Longspur, Calcarius lapponicus ***  Reported from Mackinac Island (Co:298). Several with horned larks in a mixed flock on the shoreward side of Boulevard Drive 1 October 2012.  Seven in launching area east of Meridian Rd., Cedarville 19 October 2013.  See photos | Photo Album |.


 u
 u
 u

UO

$Snow Bunting, Plectrophenax nivalis
***  White(1905), using the name "snowflake," notes that "always in large flocks" they occur among the Autumn birds of the Les Cheneaux Island.  A pair in breeding plumage were west of Rte.H57 south of St. Andrew Ln. 2 & 3 April 2013.  Two small "early" flocks along H40 in Hendricks Twp. 22 October 2014.  See photos | Photo Album |.


  f


  f
UO

 
            PARULIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND


                         GENERAL NOTE: > > >>
     The warblers names that are followed by three asterisks (***)
in this column
are among the birds that wererecorded by Barrows (1912) as killed at Spectacle Reef Lighthouse, which is in Lake Huron, east of Bois Blanc Island and south of Clark Township in eastern Mackinac County -- see Introduction.  
     All but the Blue-winged Warbler is reported to have been "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)
     During the spring -- especially May -- of 2014 nearly all warblers were apparently more common and present in larger numbers than bird-watchers had seen in the past. 














     Key:
  R - resident
  
c - common 
   
f - frequent
   u -uncommon
   o - occasional
Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla  ***    "Common in the maple woods [on Mackinac Island]" (Wh).  Near Pte. Aux Chenes, Summer 2009 (St/Sj). See photos | Photo Album |. 
  !


fR
 f
MH

Northern Waterthrush, Parkesia noveboracensis ***   A nest with young ready to leave was found near Hessel, on June 23, 1920 (VT3)  Note discrepancy: This record ( a ! ) vs. BR entry, >
  #
<





uR


 u


WL

  Breeding record:
  
!  - definite
  
#  -probable
Golden-winged Warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera   O.S. Pettingill, Jr., collected a specimen near Garnet, on August 30, 1943 (Wd:373).  See also the last sentence in the following Note.      *** Brewster's warbler hybrid also ID'd  within Co. -- e.g., October 2015
  #


uR
 u


   ±  - possible
$Blue-winged Warbler, Vermivora cyanoptera One recorded on Mackinac Island, July 1, 1889 (Wh).  One north side of Epoufette Rd. 11 September 2015.  (A  "Brewster's Warbler"  (hybrid!) was in the same small flock.)
    *** Brewster's warbler hybrid also ID'd  within Co. -- e.g., October 2015





 o
 o



$Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta varia ***    "Not a common summer resident but an abundant migrant [on Mackinac Island]"(Wh).   "at Pt. (sic) LaBarbe on the 23rd [April, 2006]." (UP: April 25, 2006)    at Gros Cap, seen intermittently during summer of 2012.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


uR
  f
IH

$Tennessee Warbler,  Oreothlypis peregrina   ***  "Common migrant [on Mackinac Island]" (Wh).  See photos | Photo Album |.
  ±


uR
  f
MF


$Orange-crowned Warbler, Oreothlypis celata
included on "Check list of the Birds of Mackinac Island.     See photos | Photo Album |.











$Nashville Warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapilla  
***   "Rare summer resident and common migrant [on Mackinac Island]" (Wh);  also on  mainland, especially abundant in spring of 2014 -- e.g., early to mid May. See photos | Photo Album |.            

  ! 


uR

  f
MF


$Connecticut Warbler, Oporornis agilis ***    "I took two specimens [on Mackinac Island], ... one Aug. 30, 1889, the other Aug 30, 1890." (Wh)  Female with food in her bill  was observed near Hessel, 19 July 1919, but neither nest nor young were found (VT3).    
  #


uR
 u
SC

$Mourning Warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia ***   "T.G. White shot several of this species in the latter part of August, 1890." (Wh).   One (plus?) along Boulevard Dr.  23 May 2013.

  !


uR
 u
MF

      Key:
$Common Yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
***    "Not a common summer resident [on Mackinac Island]" (Wh).
  !


 fR
  f
WL
    R - resident
$American Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla ***    "The most characteristic bird of the island [Mackinac].  It occurs in such amazing abundance that it seems as if every tree contained one of these birds." (WhAbundant in Gros Cap area, summer of 2013.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


 fR
  f
MH
    c - common 
     
f - frequent
    u - uncommon
? [Kirtland's Warbler, Setophaga kirtlandii] ***  See pertinent statements in Introduction. 










    o - occasional
$Cape May Warbler, Setophaga tigrina  ***  "Not uncommon migrant [on Mackinac Island]" (Wh).  Observed singing "along the Hiawatha Trail a mile east of the intersection with US-2" 6 July 2006. (UP: July 12, 2006)   See photos | Photo Album |. 
  ±


uR
 o
SC

Northern Parula, Setophaga americana ***   "Abundant migrant [on Mackinac Island]" (Wh).   See photos | Photo Album |.
  ! 


uR
 u
MF

 
$Magnolia Warbler, Setophaga magnolia ***   "Found abundantly ... I detected seven distinct songs [each of which he describes] of this species, no one of which is even a variation of the other." (Wh)      

  !


 fR
 u
SC


Bay-breasted Warbler, Setophaga castanea ***   "Rare summer resident and abundant migrant [at Mackinac Island]." (Wh).  "S.E. White writes me that he shot immature specimens at Mackinac island as late as July." (Co:321)    
  ±


uR
 u
SC

$+Blackburnian Warbler, Setophaga fusca ***   "In 1890 and 1891 it was a rather common summer resident among the evergreens [on Mackinac Island]." (Wh)    See photos | Photo Album |.      
  !


 fR
 c
MF

$Yellow Warbler, Setophaga petechia   ***   "Our most common resident warbler" (Co:318).  My observations indicate that it may well be  most common summer resident, but I suspect that at least during some periods more yellowrump warblers than yellow warblers are within the county.  See photos | Photo Album |.   
  !


cR
  f
MF
  Breeding record:
   
!  - definite
   
#  - probable
   
±  - possible
$Chestnut-sided Warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica ***   "Rare summer resident and common migrant [on Mackinac Island]" (Wh).  See photos | Photo Album |.     
  !


uR
  f
MF

$Blackpoll Warbler, Setophaga striata "Rare summer resident and abundant migrant [on Mackinac Island]"(Wh).




oR
 u



$Black-throated Blue Warbler, Setophaga caerulescens ***   "In summer it inhabits the maple woods, but in migration it frequents the evergreens [on Mackinac Island]." (Wh)  One at Gros Cap 23 September 2012.  See photos | Photo Album |.           
  #


uR
 u



$Palm Warbler, Setophaga palmarum "Common migrant; arrives late [at Mackinac Island]." (Wh)  My observations (2010-2013) indicate that the "Yellow" (i.e., Eastern) variety is common, at least in and in the vicinity of St. Ignace.
See photos | Photo Album |.







  f



$Pine Warbler, Setophaga pinus Apparently irregular summer resident and migrant in 1889 and 1890 on Mackinac Island (Wh).  At Gros Cap 23 April 2014.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


uR
 u
PF

$Yellow-rumped Warbler, Setophaga coronata ***    Recorded as "Myrtle warbler" in many reports.   "In 1889, one female was shot July 13 [on Mackinac Island]." (Wh).   See note for yellow warbler.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


cR
 c
MF


Prairie Warbler, Setophaga discolor Endangered   ***  "Common migrant ... I took many specimens [on Mackinac Island]." (Wh) 






 o



$Black-throated green Warbler, Setophaga virens ***  "'breeds ...abundantly at Mackinac Island' (S.E. White)" -- apparently a personal communication (Co:322)   See photos | Photo Album |.   
  !


 fR
  f
MF

    Key:
   R - resident
Canada Warbler, Cardellina canadensis
"In 1890 and 1891 a very common summer resident and common migrant [on Mackinac Island] ... The young birds left the nests July 2-8." (Wh) 
      Note the apparent discrepancy indicated by this record (a !) vs. BR entry (i.e., #), which is based on Brewer et al. (1991).


 #
 
<



uR
 o
SC

   c - common 
    
f - frequent
    u - uncommon
    o - occasional   
$Wilson's Warbler, Cardellina pusilla ***   "very abundant migrant" (Wh).    

  ±


uR
 u
MF


            EMBERIZIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$Eastern Towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus "One pair was observed [on Mackinac Island] during the summer of 1890, but none were seen the other years."  (Wh)   More recently, "observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)  One on ground beneath shrubs at N1007 Gros Cap Rd., Moran Twp. 4 Jan. 2012. Two along Dam Rd., Brevord Twp. 19 Oct. 2015;  one along Cheeseman Rd, just east of Rte.2, Moran Twp. 20 Oct 2015.    See photos | Photo Album |.
  #
 o
 u
 u
BF

     Key:   

  R - resident
  
c - common
  
f - frequent    
$Chipping Sparrow, Spizella passerina
 
Late spring "straggling" tree sparrows seem rather frequently to have been  misidentified as chipping sparrows. See photos | Photo Album |..
  !


cR
  f
MF

   u - uncommon
  
o - occasional
$Clay-colored Sparrow, Spizella pallida Two at the tip of Pte. LaBarbe 12 May 2006  (Mrb2:May 18, 2006);   two at Gros Cap 6 Sep. 2012.   See photos | Photo Album |.
  ± 


uR
 u
BO


$Field Sparrow, Spizella pusilla
***  One photographed at Gros Cap, 4 May 2013. See photo [Photo Album].
  !


 fR
  f
UO


Vesper Sparrow, Pooecetes gramineus One recorded at "St. Ignace, June 20 [1932]"  (Wi:196).  "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)

  #


 fR
  f
UO


? [Lark Sparrow, Chondestes grammacus]
 per county list on eBird (www.ebird.org)" Sparrow -- http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist?subID=S5714335 -- This one has a note from Adam Byrne "accepted by BRC", so I recommend you follow up with the Records Committee for documentation. If it does not meet your standards, please let me know."  (p.c., Marshall Iliff, eBird Project Leader, 12 April 2012). -- My response, a request for more data, received no reply.










  Breeding record:
   
!  - definite
   
#  - probable
   
±  - possible
$Savannah Sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis
***  See photos | Photo Album |.      
  !


 fR
  f
UO

 
Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarumo  per county list on eBird (www.ebird.org)"Grasshopper Sparrow -- http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist?subID=S9139685 -- I asked for details." (p.c., Marshall Iliff, eBird Project Leader, 12 April 2012). -- Requests for elaboration have received no response.       












$LeConte's Sparrow, Ammodramus leconteii "Pullup Lake, Mackinac County," [no date] (P:55).  Two were observed by Gerald Vork at Pte. LaBarbe, 2 October 2009 (UP:October 15, 2009).  Two were south of  County Line Rd, ~ two miles west of Pickford, September, 2012.

  ±


uR
 u
UO


$Fox Sparrow, Passerella iliaca 
***   "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)  "[2-3] Observed "along the Hiawatha Trail a mile east of the intersection with US-2" 6 July 2006. (UP: July 12, 2006)   One at Gros Cap: 13 -17 April 2013; See photo | Photo Album |.




uR
 u

BO
  Breeding record:
   
!  - definite
  
#  - probable
   
± - possible
$Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia
***  See photos [Photo Album].
  !
 o
cR
 c
 IH


$Lincoln's Sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii ***   One at Gros Cap 2 May 2013; eight north of Lake Brevort Rd., southwest of Moran 13 September 2014;  two at Gros cap, 23 August 2015.  See photos | Photo Album |.          

  #


uR
 u
WD


$Swamp Sparrow, Melospiza georgiana   ***   One recorded at "St. Ignace, June 20 [1932]"  (Wi:196).  One on Boulevard Dr. 2 July 2012.

  !


uR
 u
WL


$White-throated Sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis   ***  See photos | Photo Album |..
  !
 u
 fR
  f
DB


$White-crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys
*** Fairly common migrant with a few historal records as follows:  "Rare migrant [on Mackinac Island]" (Wh). "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP) "2 ... Naubinway [November 30, 2005?].  (UP: December 6, 2005)  The southward migration during the fall of 2014 was noteworthy because of the much larger than usual number of these birds.  See photos | Photo Album |.




 o 
  f
BO
     Key:
   R - resident
  
c - common 
   
f - frequent
   u - uncommon
   o - occasional
$American Tree Sparrow, Spizelloides arborea 
"Rare in eastern portion of Upper Peninsula" (Z&VT:60).  "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)    See photos | Photo Album |.  This change of position, which may not end up being AOU placement, is  guess based on Slager & Klicka (2014).



  f
 u
 f
 IH

$Dark-eyed Junco, Junco hyemalis  Single bird, first of fall, at N1007 Gros Cap Rd., 8 Oct. 2012;  typically goes through in small flocks. During late April, 2013 & 2014, a well above normal number of flocks of juncos were in the area;  at least some of those flocks included a few juncos sometimes referred to as pink-sided and/or Oregon juncos -- see photo in For the Record tabulated group..  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
  f
 o
  c
MF



            CARDINALIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
   LEGEND
$Summer Tanager, Piranga rubra One, a juvenile(?), was at a feeder near the end of East Martin Lake Rd., Moran Twp., in late May/early June, 2011 (H. Krieshe, p.c., 2012).   [See also the Western Tanager record date.]  See photos | Photo Album |.  


  o


  o



$Scarlet Tanager, Piranga olivacea "A female was shot ...Aug. 3, 1889 [on Mackinac Island].  ... A male was observed July 17, 1891." (Wh)  The year of the Scarlet tanager? -- several "more than usual!" during third full week of May, 2011; several were also present in May of 2014!  Orange variant at Gros Cap 26 May 2015.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  #


uR
 o
MH
  Breeding record:
   
!  - definite
  
#  - probable
  
±  - possible
$Western Tanager, Piranga ludoviciana A female was at feeder at N1007 Gros Cap Rd., 23 May 2011.  -- An interesting coincidence, but unlikely(?) connection: The disastrous Joplin (MO) tornado was on 22 May 2011.






  o



$Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis  See photos | Photo Album |.
 #
  R
 R
 R
BO

$Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus   "A young male was shot July 24, 1890 [on Mackinac Island]." (Wh)   "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)     See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


 fR
  f
MH


Blue Grosbeak, Passerina caerulea
Twelve on feeder on straits side of  Huron St., St. Ignace -- 19 May 1996 (Kathleen Schacht, p.c., 2011).







  o


      Key:
   R - resident
$Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea   "In 1889 and 1891 a common summer resident. ... In 1890 only a few were observed [on Mackinac Island]." (Wh)   "Observed on Mackinac Island ... during the past 15 years." (MSHP)           See photos | Photo Album |.     

  !


 fR
  f
MF


    c - common 
     
f - frequent
    u - uncommon
    o - occasional
Dickcissel, Spiza americana   One seen 30 May 1956 at Engadine (by Mr. & Mrs. E.G. Boyes) and one seen in western part of county 17 June 1958 by K. Christofferson (Z&VT:55). Female observed feeding young along the Hiawatha Trail a mile east of the intersection with Rte.2 - 6 July 2006 (UP: July 12, 2006).
Note the apparent discrepancy:  This record ( a ! )  vs. BR entry, > 

 


 
# 
<see



 o





            ICTERIDAE    


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
   LEGEND 
$Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus  See photos | Photo Album |. 
  !


 fR
  f
UO

     
$Red-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
See photos [Photo Album].See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


cR
  f
WL

     Key:
$Eastern Meadowlark, Sturnella magna
The eastern and western meadowlarks can be distinguished relatively easily by listening to their "songs."   See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


 fR
  f
UO

  R - resident
  
c - common 
$Western Meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta Special Concern   One observed in Bevort on July 11, 1957 by Pettingill and an ornithology class. (Pe)    See photos | Photo Album |.




 o


UO
   f - frequent
   
u - uncommon
Yellow-headed Blackbird, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
One on lawn southeast of the junction of Kovar Rd. with Pleasant Ave., ~4.5 miles northnortheast of Engadine, May-June of 2009 or 2010 (recorded photographically by Linda Booisclair --See photo in "for the record" tabulated group | Photo Album |.






 o


   o - occasional
$Rusty Blackbird, Euphagus carolinus
Three along Boulevard Dr. 8 Oct. 2012, ...  See photos | Photo Album |.
 ±


 u
  f
AS


$Brewer's Blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus Female -- along Pte. LaBarbe Rd.,  ~ half way from junctions with Rte. 2,  4 July 2013.      

  !


uR
 u
UO

 
$Common Grackle, Quiscalus quiscula  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


cR
 c
 IH

  Breeding record:
$Brown-headed cowbird, Molothrus ater
See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


 fR
  f
 IH

    !  - definite
Orchard Oriole, Icterus spurius  
"at ... feeders at Milakokia Lake in Gould City." (UP: May 18, 2008)
  See photo | Photo Album |.

  ±


 o
 o
MH
    #  - probable
   
±  - possible
$Baltimore Oriole, Icterus galbula   Especially common during spring migration.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !


 fR
  f
MH


 

            FRINGILLIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR
Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
    LEGEND
$+Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch, Leucosticte tephrocotis Accidental (MA).  Not recorded, or included in total given in Introduction; mentioned here because Frances, my wife, and I saw a small flock 7 March 1988,  along Rte.123  a few fmiles north of  the county line in adjacent Chippewa County,.  Also, this  species is listed as "Accidental" on the "Field Checklist of Birds of Michigan's Upper Peninsula" dated 15 Jan. 2010 (Hi).   Therefore, it seems that this bird should be kept in mind while  "bird-watching" within the county. 


 







 




$Pine Grosbeak, Pinicola enucleator Among numerous records are the following:  Two flocks were observed in January 2010:   About 25 birds were in a maple tree beside Rte H57, near the southeastern part of Lake Brevort on Jan. 4th, and about 10 were on Chas. Moran Rd., about 1.5 miles west of Moran on the 11th.  Also, several flocks were near the northern side of Lake Brevort and along Gros Cap Rd. 6-10 Dec. 2010.  Small flocks were rather common and widespread in late December 2011 and early January 2012 -- e.g., along Cheeseman Rd.,  ~one mile north of  Rte. 2;  north of Worth Rd., ca. 0.1 mi east of School House Rd.; [and]  along Prospect St., Saint Ignace.   See photos | Photo Album |.


 u


 o
 IH

  
$House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus   "The house finch population was introduced to the eastern portion of the U.S. when a flock of caged house finches from California (known as "Hollywood Finches") were sold to people on Long Island, New York, in the 1940's. When laws changed and it became illegal to sell and own American songbirds, these captive finches were released. Their descendants now occupy most of the eastern U.S." (My) "The first house finch reported nesting in Michigan [was] in 1981." (Brewer et al, 1991)   Probable breeding indication is based on presence of a juvenile at Gros Cap 9 August 2014.

 #
 
 o
  u
UR
    Key:
   R - resident
  
c - common 
    
f - frequent
   u - uncommon
   o - occasional
$Purple Finch, Haemorhous purpureus Although usually uncommon in the summer, several were present  in, for example, the Ozark area and a few were at Gros Cap in mid July, 2014.  See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
  f
 u
  f
MF

$Red Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra "Common summer resident.  Probably breeds early, as old and young were gathered into large flocks when we reached the island during the last week in June." (Wh)   "Many small flocks observed" in the Les Cheneaux Islands (W5).  Observed "along the Hiawatha Trail a mile east of the intersection with US-2" 6 July 2006. (UP: July 12, 2006). 
<see
 o
 o
 o
MF

    
$White-winged Crossbill, Loxia leucoptera
Specimen taken on Mackinac Island 9 July 1890 (Wh).  An especially large irruption occurred during the Winter of 2008-2009. A small flock was in road and in pines beside Worth Rd.,  ~1.5 miles west of Rte.129  14 Jan. 2012.   See photos | Photo Album |.


 o


o
MF

    
$Common Redpoll, Acanthis flammea 
*** A single bird was at feeders on Gros Cap Rd. 4 Nov. 2012;  this "scout" was followed the following day by a flock of ~ 20 birds, several  of which, resembled those illustrated as "Greenland(?) ..." (See (Sib), p.532-533). -- Notice, for example, their yellowish brown areas and relatively large black throat areas.  See photos | Photo Album |.
          Two of the possibly "Greater"/"Greenland" subspecies [see Pittaway,2014.& (Sib)] that were photographed at Gros Cap 5 Nov 2012 are shown in the second pair of photos.  ¶  Several observations appear to support the possibililty that the late winter and spring of 2015 witnessed a well above normal number of common redpolls.
           Later:  Apparently Common, Hoary, and Lesser REDPOLLS are all of the same genus.  So:  1. Even though several that have been IDd as Hoary in the past,  and the few IDd as "Lesser!?" (e.g., particularly those one or two seen in flocks of predominantlhy pine siskins at Gros Cap) in January 2016) are only worthy of note, if even that. This, of course, means that the next entry is superfluous, except "for whatever it may be worth from an historical standpoint."  It has not yetNOT YET been deleted from the total of species reported, etc. in the county.     



  c


 f


    
$Hoary Redpoll,Acanthis homemanni Several with larger number of common redpolls during winters of 2008-2009 and 2011-2012. See photos | Photo Album |.


 o








$Pine Siskin, Spinus pinus

 



                                                          > Note underlined text.
 
A flock of 50-plus was at the feeders, on the railing of a stoop, and in the  yard of a resident on Boulevard Dr., St.Ignace 2 Jan. 2012 and flocks of 25 or more were common in area around St. Ignace in January, February and March of 2012. A bird with features that suggest that it is an American goldfinch-pine siskin hybrid was with a small flock of (~40) pine siskins at feeders on Gros Cap Rd.--16 October 2012.  I have wondered if this bird was an Eurasian Siskin (Spinus spinus)!!!   A single siskin was at Gros Cap during summer of 2016 -- e.g., July 8.    See photos | Photo Album |.
  !
  c
 u
 u
MF

  Breeding record:
   
!  - definite
  
#  - probable
  
±  - possible
$American Goldfinch, Spinus tristis 
See photos | Photo Album |.  A bird with features that suggest it is an American goldfinch-pine siskin hybrid was with a small flock (~40) of pine siskins at feeders on Gros Cap Rd.--16 October 2012. (perhaps a

  !
 c
cR
 c
MF


$Evening Grosbeak, Coccothraustes vespertinus 
Occurrence within Mackinac County is best described as intermittent AND sporadic.  Examples seen by compiler:  Small flock north of Worth Rd. east of   School House Rd.junction -- last few days of December 2011 and early January 2012;  single adult male at Gros Cap feeders -- 5 Nov. 2012;  flock of ~25 east of 27 Mile Rd., ~0.2 mi south of Chippewa Co. line -- 21 Jan. 2017.   See photos | Photo Album |.

  !
 u
 o
 u




            PASSERIDAE


                               Notes/References
BR

Wi 

Su 
S/F
Hbt
   LEGEND
$House Sparrow, Passer domesticus Widely referred to as "English sparrow."
      
According to a "Mr. Conklin, of the Central Park [New York City] Museum ...   In 1864, ... the Commissioners of Central Park set free 50 pairs of English sparrows and they had multiplied amazingly." (AAS)  
       So far as Mackinac County, S.E. White (1893) reports that
"Not one was to be found on the island [Mackinac] in 1889 when I first arrived, but within a few weeks about twenty came over with the boat from Mackinaw City.  These have increased and now they are quite common." 
Since the compiler has been spending much of his time within the county -- i.e., since October 2009 -- these sparrows appear to uncommon within the county.  One noteworthy exception:  Son Kurt, a fine bird-identifier, and I saw a small  flock  south of Town(County)line Rd., ~1 mi west of 5-Mile Rd., Marquette Twp. 7 August 2015 and a single male south of Taylor Rd.~½ mi. west of Rte. 129 (Marquette Twp.) 9 June 2016. . 


  !
 uR
 uR
 uR
UR


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------------

SELECTED SOURCES

          Before listing the cited references it seems worth while to list some web sites that I have found particularly valuable so far as answering questions about birds. Three of them are:

Cornell (university) Lab of Ornithology. continually updated. All about birds. 
                                http://www.allaboutbirds.org/NetCommunity/Page.aspx?pid=1189

.........................................................eBird. http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. continually  updated. Migratory bird program
http://ebird.org/content/ebird/

       The following cited references are "selected" in that several publications, the data of which are largely overlapping, could be cited along with or instead of some of those those that are listed.  The selections have been made chiefly on the basis of their being readily available in my library, on the internet, etc.
          Many of the data upon which this checklist is based are recorded in Barrows (1912), Brewer et al. (1991), Granlund et al. (1994), and/or N.A. Wood (1951)
.  This is mentioned because I was unable to find or, for some other reason, did not check all the original records -- i.e., some of the information given on the A.O.U. list of this compilation is based on  secondary sources that I have not seen.  Consequently, anyone who needs original information about any of the listed species should go directly to the original reports for information attributed to these kinds references in this compilation. 
           The letters or combination of one or more letters and/or numbers enclosed in parentheses -- e.g., (Wd) and (VT3) -- that precede some of the references are the space-saving indicators used within the NOTES column in the A.O.U. list.  Those that refer to publications with a large number of pages include the source page, following a colon (:) -- e.g., (Wd:373).


(AAS)     "American Acclimatization Society."  New York Times,  November 15, 1877. p.2.

(A1)         Archer. 1877.  The Fauna of Michigan (Birds). Forest & Stream VIII:261. (Data included in this article are attributed to G.A. Stockwell in some publications.)       

(A2)        Archer. 1877.  The Fauna of Michigan (Birds). Forest & Stream VIII:380. (Data included in this article are attributed to G.A. Stockwell in some publications.)   

(Au)         Audubon Society of Kalamazoo. 2005.  Michigan Statewide bird report for Thursday, September 29.  Rarebirds.com rare Bird Alert Listing.   http://www.rarebirds.com/listing/516/  (accessed 24 December 2009).

(Ba)          Barrows, W.B., 1912. Michigan bird life: A list of all the bird species known to occur in the the state together with an outline of their classification and an account of the life history of each species, with special reference to its relation to agriculture.  Special bulletin of the department of zoology and physiology of the Michigan Agricultural College.  Lansing:Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co.(State Printers). 822p.

(Be)          Bell, D. M.,  2013, Checklist:  http://ebird.org/view/checklist?subId=S15834405

(B)            Birdingonthe.Net. 2010. "Recent postings from Michigan listers"  http://birdingonthe.net/mailinglists/MCHL.html  (accessed 21 January 2010).

    Booker, Ted. 2010. Researcher tags five owls at St. Ignace.  The St. Ignace News.  131(No.28):1 & 11.

(Bo)          Borneman, Dave. 2003. American avocet and northern mockingbird in U.P., just west of Mackinac Bridge.   http://lists.envirolink.org/pipermail/mich-listers/2003-June/000175.html  (accessed 29 December 2009)

    Brewer, Richard, G.A. McPeek, and R.J. Adams, Jr. 1991.
The atlas of breeding birds of Michigan.  East Lansing:Michigan State University Press. 594p.  [Most breeding (BR) designations on A.O.U. list are from this book.]

(Br)          Brodeur, Serge,  Robert Décarie, D.M. Bird and Mark Fuller. 1996. Complete migration cycle of golden eagles breeding in northern Quebec. The Condor  98: 293-299. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Condor/files/issues/v098n02/p0293-p0299.pdf  (accessed 3 January 2010).

(Ch)
        Chamberlain, M.L. 1977. Observations on the Red-necked Grebe nesting in MichiganWilson Bulletin  89:33-46http://www.jstor.org/stable/4160867  (accessed 8 January 2010).      

(Ci)
         Ciske, Paul.  2004.  Snowy egret - yes - Mackinac County.  http://lists.envirolink.org/pipermail/mich-listers/2004-May/000946.html

(Co)
        Cook, A.J.  1894.  Birds of Michigan.  State Agricultural College Bulletins (Thirty-second Annual report of the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture of the State of Michigan from July 1, 1892, to June 30, 1893). No 94 (Zoological Department)  Lansing:Robert Smith & Co., State Printers and Binders.  p.192-357.  Book digitized by Google    http://books.google.com/books? id=sTXiAAAAMAAJ&pg... (accessed 4 January 2010).

(C&W)    Cuthbert, F.J. and L.R. Wires, February 2013. THE FOURTH DECADAL U.S. GREAT LAKES COLONIAL WATERBIRD SURVEY (2007-2010). Final Report submitted to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  (Not seen;  information cited from F.J. Cuthbert, p.c.[email])

    Doud, Jeanette. 2001.  Mackinac Island (column). The St. Ignace News. 121(no.38):7 - January 4   and  121(no.40):9  January 18.                    

(FL)          FLMNH (Florida Museum of Natural History).  n.d.  Birds master database.  www.flmnh.ufl.edu/.../birds... (accessed 12 January 2010)

(G)            Granlund, James, G.A. McPeek, R.J. Adams, P.C. Chu, Jack Reinoehl, Charles Nelson, Richard Shinkel, Michael Kielb, Stephen Allen and Andrea Trautman. 1994. The birds of Michigan. (editor, G.A. McPeek). Bloomington:Indiana University Press. 358p.  (The information cited as from this book are, for the most part, secondary, most of which are unattributed.)

(Haas)      Haas, Skye. 2010. Mountain Bluebird- MACKINAW County 11/17. Birdingonthe.Net: Recent Postings from Michigan Listers. (email on web site:                   http://birdingonthe.net/mailinglists/MCHL.html#1290047236 )
 
    Hiawatha National Forest. n.d. Breeding birds of eastern upper Michigan, a field checklist. Brochure (leaflet, no pagination).  [Most habitat (Hbt) designations on the A.O.U list are from this publication.]

(Hi)           Hickman, Scott,  Adam Byrne, Greg Cleary, Zach Gayk, Skye Haas, Joe Kaplan and Caleb Putnam. n.d. [post 15 January 2010 / text]. Field checklist of birds of Michigan's Upper peninsula. (distributed as attachment to an email).

(Ke)          Kelley, A.H. 1965.  Michigan bird survey, spring, 1965.  Jack-Pine Warbler  43:157.

(MSHP)  "Chec[check mark]list of the birds of Mackinac Island."  n.d. [marketed as current, 2010].  Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Mackinac State Historic Parks (Mackinac).  6p.

(M)           Martin, Patricia. 2010.  Nature notes. Town Crier (Mackinac Island), July 10-16, 2010: 21.
    
    Merriam, C.H. 1885.  Kirtland's Warbler from the Straits of Mackinac.
The Auk  2:376. [This note added the *** indications to the Notes for two birds -- the Wood Thrush and the Ovenbird.  It also gives some background information relating to the collection and identification of at least some, perhaps many/most/all, of the birds killed as the result of collisions with Spectacle Reef Lighthouse.]

(MA)        Michigan Audoubon. 2009.  Official checklist of Michigan birds (Updated 8 November 2009).  http://michiganaudubon.org/research/records_committee/michigan_checklist.html  (accessed 23 January 2010). 
          [Pertinent definitions, which are used in the A.O.U list of this compilation are: 
                  "
Casual: Species that have been recorded more than three times, but fewer than 30 times, in the last 10 years,
                                and were recorded in fewer than nine of the last 10 years.
                  "Accidental: Species that have been recorded three or fewer times in the last 10 years."]

(MICkLst)   Michigan Bird Redcords Committee.  2015.  Michigan Checklist (Updated 14 August 2015).  http://mibirdrecords.com/michigan-checklist/   (last accessed 2 December 2015),

(MB)        Michiganbirds.org.  2008.  "Bird Species of Concern in Michigan."   http://www.michiganbirds.org/mnfi_birds/  (accessed 27 December 2009).

(Mrb)         Michigan RBA.-- 27 October 2005.  http://lists.envirolink.org/pipermail/mich-listers/2005-October/002326.html  (accessed 4 January 2010).  

(Mrb2)       Michigan (Statewide) RBA -- 18 May 2006.   http://www.virtualbirder.com/vbirder/realbirds/rbas/MIST060518.html  (accessed 14 January 2010).

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(NA)