Birds: Isabella County, Michigan
Checklists

                                                                                         
                                                                                                   Compiled by R.V. ("Dick") Dietrich

                                                                                  



This compilation is dedicated to the memory of
 

NICHOLAS L. CUTHBERT
(1914-1993)
,
  Professor of Biology, Central Michigan University,

a great friend, who fostered so many people's interest in Isabella County's birds.







Last update:  6 June 2017
Last update of Photo Archive:  7 June 2017

Notice:
 The content of this web page as of July 2013 -- i.e., without subsequent updates -- was available as a PDF file in CMU's CONDOR repository.  That version may be in CONDOR's  replacement:  CMU Libraries Digital Collections.  . . .  visit scholarly.cmich.edu." ]

HOWEVER,
this website will remain available AND will be continually updated:
           
    Additional and revised data will appear on the "Checklist." 
                       Photographs will also be added to the Photo Archive.  A list of the photographs that are added to the Archive since 31 July 2013 is directly below the Introduction to the Archive.
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Introduction

Two hundred seventynine (279) species of birds that have been recorded as occurring in Isabella County, Michigan are given on two lists: 
                1.  A.O.U. List on which common and scientific names are given according to the American Ornithologist's Union (A.O.U.) Check-list of North American Birds (7th edition) + 42nd, 43rd, 44th, & 45th Supplements, as published in The Auk 117: 847-858 (2000); 119:897-906 (2002); 120:923-932 (2003); 121:985-995 (2004)
                      2. Alphabetical List on which the common names are given in alphabetical order.

The lists have been compiled from publications (see references), reports of Spring and Christmas counts, and additional observations made by ornithologists and bird-watchers.  Most of  the additions have been verified photographically.

             Four birds that are included on the list, BUT NOT IN THE COUNT, follow:  The
Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) and the (Fawn) Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia[Fringilla] guttata), for which there are enigmatic observations;  the (Domestic) Canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica), apparently an escaped or released bird seen rather frequently with sparrows near downtown Shepherd during the early 2000s;  and a small flock of apparently feral Muscovy ducks (Carina moschata) that was in a wooded area of Vernon Township in 2008 (the "apparently feral" designation is based on the fact that inquiries of  occupants of nearby residences led to no indication of ownership of these birds). Other cage birds and domesticated fowl, are not included;  these latter birds, all of which have been or currently are kept within the county are other canaries and parakeets (as cage birds) and diverse chickens, farm ducks and geese, "exotic pheasants" and emus (as domesticated fowl).

An extensive Legend, with remarks indicating the intent of the symbols used for breeding records and the letters based on seasonal population information, follows the two lists.  Thoughts relating to problems and conundrums met during preparation of the tabulation, and explanations of how most of them were resolved follow that Legend.  Birds whose names are in bold-face red on the lists are illustrated by photographs, each of which was taken in Isabella County;  those photographs are included in a Photo Archive -- click  Photo Archive to see its contents.
!!!                            !!!                         !!!                     
Originally, the photo (etc.) that follow the names of the birds on the following lists to indicate those birds whose photographs are included in the accompanying Archive, served as direct links to the photograph(s) of the indicated species.  Some of those direct links have been corrupted.  Unfortunately, the program used to establish those links is no longer available to the compiler so the corrupted links have not been repaired.  Nonetheless, these links are useful:  To direct attention to them and facilitate their use and also the use of the links that follow the names of species whose photographs have been added since the corruption occurred, each of these links is marked with an asterisk (e.g., photo* );  when clicked, one gets to the top of the Archive;  from there, viewers can find the photo(s) of these birds by using a search engine -- i.e., the name of these birds can be used as the search-for term.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:  Susan Robinson generously gave permission to include her painting as the "frontispiece" for this web page.  Those responsible for making the chief sources of data readily available warrant special recognition:  The late Nicholas Cuthbert for his book, The Birds of Isabella County, Michigan;  William Theunissen and John Mitchell, who, respectively, prepared summary reports for the last several years' Chippewa Valley Audubon Club's Spring and Christmas counts for Isabella County;  and Stan Lilley, who has more recently  prepared and updated summary reports and provided suggestions for and comments about changes to improve the content of this website.  Elaine and Robert Connell reviewed the first draft of the first edition of this tabulation and subsequently provided information used to update occurrence data.  Emmett Mason converted my original typescript into the website format, and subsequently advised me as I revised and updated the presentationFrances Smith Dietrich(d), my wife, critiqued the text and format of the original tables and provided much additional help -- especially by accompanying me and being an extraordinarily astute "spotter" on literally hundreds of bird-seeking trips within the county (1969 - 2007). Ornithologists Francesca Cuthbert and Memuna Khan have been ready-accessible to provide information and opinions about diverse questions that have arisen as this document has evolved since the PDF file was prepared.   I gratefully acknowledge all of these contributions! -- Indeed, without them, this website could not have been prepared.           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      R.V.  Dietrich

-----------

A.O.U.  Listing

ANSERIFORMES

        ANATIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
 Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons  photo archive-No.1
Wo
o

o





Snow Goose, Chen caerulescens   photo*     photo4  
Wo  Tu    So
o
o
o
u
  KEY
& Ross's Goose, Chen rossii  photo*    photo2           To
o
o


o

     T - Sp &/or Fall transient
Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii

o




o
     R - resident
& !Canada Goose, Branta canadensis   photo  Rf    +Tc
R
R
R
R
       c - common
& !Mute Swan, Cygnus olor   photo
Ru
R
R
R
R
       f - frequent
Trumpeter Swan, Cygnus buccinator          To






o
        u - uncommon
& Tundra Swan, Cygnus columbianus
Wu   Tu
u
f
 
u
       o - occasional
& Muscovy Duck, Cairina moschata  [See Introduction.]
(Not on Michigan Check list -- updated 14 August 2915)











& !Wood Duck, Aix sponsa   photo Wo   Tf    So
o
f
u
f
 
& ±Gadwall, Anas strepera           Tu
 
u
 
o

& American Wigeon, Anas americana          Tu   So


u
o
u

& !American Black Duck, Anas rubripes   photo            Wu   Tu   Su
u
u
u
u
 
& !Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos    photo Rf    +Tc
R
R
R
R

& !Blue-winged Teal, Anas discors          Tf    Su
o
f
u
f
  Breeding Records
& Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata   photo
Wo   Tu   So
o
u
o
o
        !  - definite
& Northern Pintail, Anas acuta     photo*
Wo   Tu   So
o
u
o
u
        #  - probable
& !Green-winged Teal, Anas crecca Wo   Tu   So
o
u
o
u
        ±  - possible
& Canvasback, Aythya valisineria Wo   Tu
o
u


u

& Redhead, Aythya americana   photo Wo   Tu
o
u


u

& Ring-necked Duck, Aythya collaris    photo Tu
o
f


u

Greater Scaup, Aythya marila Wo   Tu   So
o
u
o



& Lesser Scaup, Aythya affinis Wo   Tf    So
o
f
o
f

White-winged Scoter, Melanitta fusca To






o

Long-tailed Duck, Clangula hyemalis Wo   To
o





o

& Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola Wo   Tf
o
f


f

& Common Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula   photo Wf    Tf    So
u
u
o
f

& !Hooded Merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus   photo Wo   Tu   So
o
f
o
u

& Common Merganser, Mergus merganser Wu   Tu
u
f


u

Red-breasted Merganser, Mergus serrator          Tu


u


o

Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis          Tu


u


o

GALLIFORMES

        ODONTOPHORIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Northern Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus Ru
R
R
R
R

        PHASIANIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  KEY
!Gray Partridge(widely called "Hungarian Partridge"), Perdix perdix (introduced; now absent) (Not on Michigan Check list -- updated 14 August 2915)









     T - Sp &/or Fall transient
     R - resident 
& !Ring-necked Pheasant, Phasianus colchicus    photo2
Rf
R
R
R
R
        c - common
& !Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus    photo2     Rf
R
R
R
R
       f - frequent
!Greater Prairie-Chicken, Tympanuchus cupido   (extirpated, last recorded 1981)









        u - uncommon
& !Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo   photo   photoA
Rc
R
R
R
R
       o - occasional       

GAVIFORMES

        GAVIIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

   Pacific Loon, Gavia pacifica   photo



o





& !Common Loon, Gavia immer   photo          Tu   So


u
o
o

 PODICIPEDIFORMES

        PODICIPEDIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Breeding Records 
& !Pied-billed Grebe, Podilymbus podiceps    photo
         Tf    Su
o
f
u
f
        !  - definite
& Horned Grebe, Podiceps auritus          Tu


u


o
        #  - probable
Red-necked Grebe, Podiceps grisegena       **Grebe, red-necked
         To


o




        ±  - possible
       

PELECANIFORMES

        PHALACROCORACIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& ±Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus          Tu   Su


u
u
u

CICONIIFORMES

        ARDEIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

!American Bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus    photo Wo   Tu   Su
o
u
u
o
  KEY
!Least Bittern, Ixobrychus exilis          To   So


o
o


     T - Sp &/or Fall transient
     R - resident
& !Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias   photo  photo2     photo3  Wo   Tf     Sf
o
f
f
f
       c - common 
& Great egret, Ardea alba   photo  photoA     photo3          To   So




o
o
      f - frequent
Little Blue Heron, Egretta caerulea  photo
         To


o




      u - uncommon
& Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis          To


o


o
       o - occasional  
& !Green Heron, Butorides virescens  photo    photo2   photo3   photo4            Tf     Sf


u
f
f

& ±Black-crowned Night-Heron, Nycticorax nycticorax          To   Su


o
u
o
 
& Yellow-crowned Night-Heron, Nyctanassa violacea
         To 







o

       THRESKIORNITHIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

Glossy Ibis, Plegadis falcinellus          To


o





FALCONIFORMES
        CATHARTIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

Black vulture, Coragyps atratus




o





& !Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura   photo  photo2 Wo    Tc  Sc
o
c
c
c

        ACCIPITRIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
& !Osprey, Pandion haliaetus          Tu   Su


u
u
u
     
& Mississippi Kite, Ictinia mississippiensis          To


o




  KEY
& !Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus  photo   photo1   photo2  photo3  photo4 Wo   To
o
f


o
     T - Sp &/or Fall transient  
& !Northern Harrier, Circus cyaneus Wu    Tf   Su
u
f
u
u
     R - resident 
& !Sharp-shinned Hawk, Accipiter striatus   photo Ru    +Tu
R
R
R
R
       c - common
& !Cooper's Hawk, Accipiter cooperii    photo Rf     +Tu
R
R
R
R
       f - frequent
& !Northern Goshawk, Accipiter gentilis    photo Wu    Tu  So
u
u
o
o
        u - uncommon
& !Red-shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus   photo    photo2 Wu    Tu  Su
u
u
u
o
       o - occasional 
& !Broad-winged Hawk, Buteo platypterus   photo 
          Tu  Su


u
u
u

& !Red-tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis   photo    photo2  photo3
   Hawk, red-tailed
Rf     +Tf
R
R
R
R

& Rough-legged Hawk, Buteo lagopus   photo    photo2
Wu    Tf   So
u
f
o
f

Golden Eagle, Aquila chrysaetos
                So





o

o

        FALCONIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
 Breeding Records
& !American Kestrel, Falco sparverius Rf     +Tf
R
R
R
R
        !  - definite
& Merlin, Falco columbarius    photo Wo    To
o
o


o
        #  - probable
& Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus Wo    Tu  So
o
u
o
u
        ±  - possible

GRUIFORMES

        RALLIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

Yellow Rail, Coturnicops noveboracensis          To


o





& #Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola   photo
         Tf    Su


f
u
u

& !Sora, Porzana carolina   photo          Tf     Sf


f
f
f

& !Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata   photo          To   So


o
u
o

& !American Coot, Fulica americana Wo   Tu   Su
o
f
u
u

        GRUIDAE     




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Sandhill Crane, Grus canadensis   photo   photo1     photo2  Wu   Tf   So
u
f
u
o

& Whooping Crane, Grus americana   photo
     (See also the photo at end of text that follows this list.)
(Not on Michigan Check list -- updated 14 August 2915)
         To   So



o

o




CHARADRIIFORMES

        CHARADRIIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

Black-bellied Plover, Pluvialis squatarola          Tu


u


o

American Golden-Plover, Pluvialis dominica     photo*
         To


o





& Semipalmated Plover, Charadrius semipalmatus  photo   photo2
         Tf    So


f
o
f

& !Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus     **Killdeer
Wo   Tc   Sc
o
c
c
c

        SCOLOPACIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
 Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
& Greater Yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca  photo2
         Tu   Su


f
u
u
    
& Lesser Yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes  photo2          Tf    Su


f
u
f
  KEY
Willet, Tringa semipalmata
         To



o




     T - Sp &/or Fall transient  
& Solitary Sandpiper, Tringa solitaria   photo     photo2          Tf    Su


f
u
f
      R - resident 
& !Spotted Sandpiper, Actitis macularius     photo      **Sandpiper, spotted
         Tf     Sf


f
f
f
      c - common
& !Upland Sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda   photo          Tu   Su


u
u
o
      f - frequent
Buff-breasted Sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis
         To






o
       u - uncommon
& Ruddy Turnstone, Arenaria interpres          Tu


u




      o - occasional
& Red Knot, Calidris canutus          To


o





& Sanderling, Calidris alba          Tu


u


o

& Semipalmated Sandpiper, Calidris pusilla          Tu   So


u
u
o

& Western Sandpiper, Calidris mauri         **Sandpiper, western          To   So



o
o


 
& Least Sandpiper, Calidris minutilla    photo*      photo3          Tu   Su


f
u
o
   Breeding Records
White-rumped Sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis          To


o




        !  - definite
& Baird''s Sandpiper, Calidris bairdii          To


o




        #  - probable
& Pectoral Sandpiper, Calidris melanotos          Tu   Su


u
u
u
        ±  - possible
& Dunlin, Calidris alpina    photo          Tu   So


u
o
u

& Stilt Sandpiper, Calidris himantopus    **Sandpiper, stilt            To   So


o
o



Ruff, Philomachus pugnax          To


o





& Short-billed Dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus          Tu   So


u
o
o

Long-billed Dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus          Tu   So


u
o
o

& #Wilson's Snipe, Gallinago delicata    photo Wo   Tf    Su
o
u
u
u

& !American Woodcock, Scolopax minor    photo Wo   Tf    Su
o

f
u
u

& Wilson's Phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor  photo   **Phalarope, Wilson's          Tu   So


u
o



Red-necked Phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus          To


o





  

        LARIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
   Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
 
& Bonaparte's Gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia   photo
         Tu


u




   
Franklin's Gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan    photo          Tu







o

&! Ring-billed Gull, Larus delawarensis
Rc   +Tc
R
R
R
R

& Herring Gull, Larus argentatus    photo
Wo   Tu   So
o
u
o
o

& Common Tern, Sterna hirundo          To   So


o
o
o
  KEY
Forster's Tern, Sterna forsteri          To


o




     T - Sp &/or Fall transient
Black Tern, Chlidonias niger          Tu   Su


o
u
o
       R - resident

COLUMBIFORMES

        COLUMBIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
        c - common
& !Rock Pigeon, Columba livia     **Pigeon, rock
Rc
R
R
R
R
       f - frequent
& !Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura  Rc    +Tf
R
R
R
R
        u - uncommon
!Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius
     (extinct, no records this century)










       o - occasional

PSITTACIFORMES

        ARINAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& Monk Parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus  
    (2 Summer observations – released/escaped birds!?!!)
(Not on Michigan Check list -- updated 14 August 2915)











CUCULIFORMES

        COCCYZINAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
   Breeding Records
& !Black-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus erythropthalmus    photo          Tu    Sf


u
f
u
        !  - definite
        #  - probable
& !Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus          Tu   Su


u
u
u
        ±  - possible

STRIGIFORMES

        TYTONIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

!Barn Owl, Tyto alba (extirpated)










      STRIGIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Eastern Screech Owl, Megascops asio Ru
R
R
R
R
  KEY
& !Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus   photo Ru
R
R
R
R
      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
& Snowy Owl, Bubo scandiacus  photo     photo2 Wo   To
u
o


o
      R - resident 
& !Barred Owl, Strix varia   photo     photo2 Ru
R
R
R
R
        c - common
& !Long-eared Owl, Asio otus Wu    Tu
u
u


u

       f - frequent
& !Short-eared Owl, Asio flammeus Wo    To
o
o


u

        u - uncommon
& !Northern Saw-whet Owl, Aegolius acadicus           To


o


o
       o - occasional 

CAPRIMULGIFORMES

        CAPRIMULGIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Common Nighthawk, Chordeiles minor          Tu    Sf


u
f
u

& #Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus          Tu   Su


u
u
o

APODIFORMES

        APODIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Chimney Swift, Chaetura pelagica          Tu   Sf


f
f
u

        TROCHILIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Archilochus colubris      photo  photo2  photo4   photo5           Tf   Sc


f
c
u

Rufous Hummingbird, Selasphorus rufus   photo








o

CORACIIFORMES

        ALCEDINIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Belted Kingfisher, Ceryle alcyon    photo2   photo3
Wu    Tf    Sf
u
f
f
f

PICIFORMES

         PICIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  KEY
& !Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus  photo
photo2       photo3   
Ru   +Tu
R
R
R
R
      T - Sp &/or Fall transient    
      R - resident 
!Red-bellied Woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus
Rf
R
R
R
R
        c - common
& #Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius   photo     photo2 Wo   Tu   So
o
f
o
u
       f - frequent
& !Downy Woodpecker, Picoides pubescens   Rf
R
R
R
R
        u - uncommon
& !Hairy Woodpecker, Picoides villosus Rf
R
R
R
R
       o - occasional 
& !Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus  Rf    +Tu
R
R
R
R

& !Pileated Woodpecker, Dryocopus pileatus     photo      photo2
Ru
R
R
R
R

PASSERIFORMES

        TYRANNIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
 
& Olive-sided Flycatcher, Contopus cooperi          To   So


o
o
o
    
& !Eastern Wood-Pewee, Contopus virens     photo2          Tf     Sf


f
f
f
     
& Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Empidonax flaviventris          Tu   Su


u
u



 
!Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens                 Su




u


   Breeding Records     
& #Alder Flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum          Tu   So


u
o
u
        !  - definite      
& #Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii          Tu   So


u
o
o
        #  - probable          
& !Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimus          Tf    Su


f
u
f
        ±  - possible
& !Eastern Phoebe, Sayornis phoebe   **Phoebe, eastern            Tf     Sf


c
f
f

& !Great Crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus    photo*
         Tf     Sf


f
f
u

!Western Kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis  
                So




o



& !Eastern Kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus    photo            Tc   Sc


c
c
o

!Gray Kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis
                So




o



        LANIIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Loggerhead Shrike, Lanius ludovicianus   photos Wo    Tu  Su
o
u
u
o


& Northern Shrike, Lanius excubitor   photo Wu    To
u
o


o

        VIREONIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  KEY
& White-eyed Vireo, Vireo griseus          To
o
o




      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
& !Yellow-throated Vireo, Vireo flavifrons   photo          Tu   Su


u
u


      R - resident 
& Blue-headed Vireo, Vireo solitarius            Tu


u


o
        c - common
& !Warbling Vireo, Vireo gilvus             Tf     Sf


f
f


       f - frequent
Philadelphia Vireo, Vireo philadelphicus          Tu


o


u
        u - uncommon
& !Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaceus  
         Tf     Sf


f
f
f
       o - occasional 

        CORVIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Breeding Records   
& !Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata  photo      photo2
Rc
R
R
R
R
        !  - definite
& !American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos    Rc
R
R
R
R
        #  - probable
Common Raven, Corvus corax Ru
R
R
R
R
        ±  - possible

        ALAUDIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Horned Lark, Eremophila alpestris   photo*     photo2 
Rf 

R
R
R
R

        HIRUNDINIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
   KEY
& !Purple Martin, Progne subis     photo2          Tu   Su


u
u


      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
& !Tree Swallow, Tachycineta bicolor
         Tc    S


c
c
u
      R - resident 
& !Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis            Tf     Sf


c
c


        c - common
& !Bank Swallow, Riparia riparia           Tf     Sf


c
c


       f - frequent
& !Cliff Swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota    photo          Tf     Sf


f
f


        u - uncommon
& !Barn Swallow, Hirundo rustica
         Tc   Sc


c
c


       o - occasional 

        PARIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Black-capped Chickadee, Poecile atricapillus  **Chickadee, black-capped  Rc
R
R
R
R

Boreal Chickadee, Poecile hudsonica Wo
o







& !Tufted Titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor    photo   **Titmouse, tufted    Rf
R
R
R
R

        SITTIDAE 




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Red-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis    Nuthatch, red-breasted Wf    Tu   So
f
u
u
u

& !White-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis   Rf
R
R
R
R

        CERTHIIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& #Brown Creeper, Certhia americana
Wu   Tu   So
u
u
o
u

        TROGLODYTIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& ±Carolina Wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus 
Wo   To   So
o
u
o
o
  Breeding Records   
& !House Wren, Troglodytes aedon   photo
         Tf     Sf


f
f
f
        !  - definite   
!Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes    photo
Wu   Tu   So
o
u
o
u
        #  - probable   
#Sedge Wren, Cistothorus platensis      photo2           Tu   Su


u
u
u
        ±  - possible   
!Marsh Wren, Cistothorus palustris       photo3           Tu   Su


u
u


   

        REGULIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa
Wu    Tf
u
u


f

& ±Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Regulus calendula       Wo    Tu
o
u


u

        SYLVIIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& #Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Polioptila caerulea   photo*          Tu   Su


u
u
u

        TURDIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
!Eastern Bluebird, Sialia sialis    photo2    Wu   Tf     Sf
u
f
f
f
        
& Townsend's Solitaire, Myadestes townsendi Wo   To
o
o


o
  KEY
& !Veery, Catharus fuscescens            Tu   Su


u
u
o
      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
& Gray-cheeked Thrush, Catharus minimus          To


o


o
      R - resident 
& Swainson's Thrush, Catharus ustulatus          Tu


u


u
        c - common
& #Hermit Thrush, Catharus guttatus     photo2 Wo   Tf    So
o
u
o
f
       f - frequent
& !Wood Thrush, Hylocichla mustelina           Tf    Su


f
u
o
        u - uncommon
& !American Robin, Turdus migratorius    photo3  Wf    Tc   Sc
f
c
c
c
        o - occasional 
& Varied Thrush, Ixoreus naevius Wo   To
o
o





        MIMIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Breeding Records
& !Gray Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis
Wo   Tf     Sf
o
f
f
f
        !  - definite
& !Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos   photo
Wo   To   So
o
o
o
o
        #  - probable
& !Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum    photo   photo2 Wo   Tf     Sf
o
f
f
f
        ±  - possible

        STURNIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris    photo2     Rc
R
R
R
R

        MOTACILLIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& American Pipit, Anthus rubescens     **Pipit, American          Tf


f


u

        BOMBYCILLIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& Bohemian Waxwing, Bombycilla garrulus   photo     photo2
Wo
o







& !Cedar Waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum  photo     Waxwing, cedar Rf
R
R
R
R

        PARULIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
& #Blue-winged Warbler, Vermivora pinus            Tf


f




  
!Golden-winged Warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera   photo          Tu   Su


u
u


  KEY
& ±Tennessee Warbler, Vermivora peregrina    photo          Tu   So


u
o


      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
& Orange-crowned Warbler, Vermivora celata          To


o


o
      R - resident 
& ±Nashville Warbler, Vermivora ruficapilla    photo  
         Tf    So


f
o
u
       c - common
& Northern Parula, Parula americana          To   So


o
o


       f - frequent
*& !Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia   photo          Tc    Sf


c
f


        u - uncommon   
& ±Chestnut-sided Warbler, Dendroica pensylvanica  
         Tu   Su


u
u
u
       o - occasional   
& ±Magnolia Warbler, Dendroica magnolia           Tu


u


u

& Cape May Warbler, Dendroica tigrina    photo*
         Tu   So


u
o
o

& Black-throated Blue Warbler, Dendroica caerulescens          Tu   So


u
o
u

& ±Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata   photo* Wo   Tf    So
o
f
o
f

& ±Black-throated green Warbler, Dendroica virens          Tf    Su


f
u
f

& ±Blackburnian Warbler, Dendroica fusca   photo*
         Tu


u


u

Yellow-throated Warbler, Dendroica dominica            To



o



o
  Breeding Records
& Pine Warbler, Dendroica pinus    photo          Tu


u




        !  - definite
& Prairie Warbler, Dendroica discolor                 So




o


        #  - probable
& Palm Warbler, Dendroica palmarum 
         Tu


u


u
        ±  - possible
Bay-breasted Warbler, Dendroica castanea             Tu   So


u
o
u

& Blackpoll Warbler, Dendroica striata 
         Tu   So


u
o
u

Cerulean Warbler, Dendroica cerulea          To


o





& ±Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta varia          Tf    Su


f
u
f

& !American Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla   photo*
         Tf    Su


f
u
f

& Prothonotary Warbler, Protonotaria citrea          To


o





& !Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla  
         Tc    Sf


f
f
f

& #Northern Waterthrush, Seiurus noveboracensis   photo*
         Tf    So


u
o
o

!Louisiana Waterthrush, Seiurus motacilla    photo
         To


o





& Connecticut Warbler, Oporornis agilis          To


o


o

±Mourning Warbler, Oporornis philadelphia          Tu   Su


u
u
o

& !Common Yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
         Tc    Sf


c
f
f

& Hooded Warbler, Wilsonia citrina          To   So


o
o



& Wilson's Warbler, Wilsonia pusilla 
         Tu   So


u
o



& !Canada Warbler, Wilsonia canadensis   photo*          Tu   So


u
o
o

& ±Yellow-breasted Chat, Icteria virens           To


o





        THRAUPIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Scarlet Tanager, Piranga olivacea   photo           Tu  Su


u
u
o

        EMBERIZIDAE





Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
& !Eastern Towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus      photo2 Wo   Tf    Su
o
f
u
f
 











  KEY
& !Chipping Sparrow, Spizella passerina  photo
   photo2
Wo   Tc    Sf
o
c
f
c
      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
& !Clay-colored Sparrow, Spizella pallida          Tu   Su


u
u


      R - resident 
& !Field Sparrow, Spizella pusilla  photo Wu   Tf     Sf
u
f
f
f
        c - common
& !Vesper Sparrow, Pooecetes gramineus Wo   Tf     Sf
o
f
f
f
       f - frequent
     Lark SparrowChondestes grammacus




o





& !Savannah Sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis  photo          Tf     Sf


c
f
f
        u - uncommon
& !Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum  photo              To   Su


u
u
o
       o - occasional 
& #Henslow's Sparrow, Ammodramus henslowii  photo     photo2
         Tu   Su


u
u
o

& Le Conte's Sparrow, Ammodramus leconteii          To


o




  Breeding Records
& Fox Sparrow, Passerella iliaca  photo
Wo   Tf    So
o
f
o
f
        !  - definite
& !Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia  photo
Wu   Tc   Sc
u
c
c
c
        #  - probable
& Lincoln's Sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii          Tu


u


o
        ±  - possible
& #Swamp Sparrow, Melospiza georgiana  photo Wo   Tu   Su
o
f
u
u

& ±White-throated Sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis  photo Wu   Tc
u
f
o
c

& Harris's Sparrow, Zonotrichia querula.          To


o





& White-crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys   photo          Tf    So


f
o
f

& American Tree Sparrow, Spizelloides arborea  photo Wf     Tf
f
f


f

& Dark-eyed Junco, Junco hyemalis Wf    Tf    So
f
f
o
f

& Lapland Longspur, Calcarius lapponicus    photo2 Wu   Tf
o
f


o

& Snow Bunting, Plectrophenax nivalis    photo      photo2
Wf    Tf
f
f


f

        CARDINALIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis      photo3
**Cardinal, northern (pairA)     **Cardinal, northern (pairB)
Rc
R
R
R
R

& !Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus  photo  photo2   photo3   photo4          Tf     Sf


c
f
u

Black-headed Grosbeak, Pheucticus melanocephalus Wo
o







& #Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea    **Bunting, indigo          Tf     Sf


f
f
o

& !Dickcissel, Spiza americana  photo  photo2           To   So


u

o



        ESTRILDIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

(Fawn) Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia[Fringilla] guttata  photo
(Summer observation – a released/escaped bird!!?!(Not on Michigan Check list -- updated 14 August 2915)
         











        ICTERIDAE




Wi

Sp

Su

Fa

& !Eastern Meadowlark, Sturnella magna   Wo    Tf    Sf
o
f
f
f
      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
& #Western Meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta          Tu    Su


u
u


      R - resident 
& ±Rusty Blackbird, Euphagus carolinus   photo
Wo   Tu
o
u
o
u
        c - common
& !Brewer's Blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus          Tu    So


u
o


       f - frequent
& !Common Grackle, Quiscalus quiscula      photo2   photo3  Wo   Tc    Sc
o
c
c
c
        u - uncommon
& !Brown-headed Cowbird, Molothrus ater
Wo    Tf    Sf
o
c
f
f
       o - occasional
& #Orchard Oriole, Icterus spurius    photo*          To    So


u
o



& Bullock's Oriole, Icterus bullockii            To


o





& !Baltimore Oriole, Icterus galbula       photo*    photo3           Tf     Sf


f
f



        FRINGILLIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
 
& Brambling, Fringilla montifringilla
(Not on Michigan Check list -- updated 14 August 2915)
         To


o




  Breeding Records   
& Pine Grosbeak, Pinicola enucleator Wo   To
o
o
o
o
         !  - definite     
& !Purple Finch, Carpodacus purpureus   photo  
Wu   Tc   So
u
f
o
u
        #  - probable
& !House Finch, Carpodacus mexicanus    photo    photo2  Rc
R
R
R
R
        ±  - possible
& Red Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra    photo 
Wo   Tu
o
u


o

    
& White-winged Crossbill, Loxia leucoptera   photo   photoA*    photo#3 Wo   Tu
o
u


u
    
& Common Redpoll, Carduelis flammea   photo     photo2      **Redpoll* Wu   To
u
o


o
    
& Hoary Redpoll, Carduelis hornemanni   photo Wo
o




o


& Pine Siskin, Carduelis pinus  photo* Wu   Tu   So
u
u
o
o


& !American Goldfinch, Carduelis tristis     photo2 Rc   +Tu
R
R
R
R

& (Domestic) canary, (Serinus canaria forma domestica)
       (several observations – released/escaped bird(s)!?!!(Not on Michigan Check list -- updated 14 August 2915)











& Evening Grosbeak, Coccothraustes vespertinus   photo*
Wu   Tu
o
u


u


        PASSERIDAE




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

& !House Sparrow, Passer domesticus Rc
R
R
R
R

[DD: 232 (three of which were "Released?" or ???) ]

| Photo Archive | Location Maps |
| Home |

Alphabetical  List

A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
bittern, American!  photo Wo   Tu   Su
o
u
u
o
                 
bittern, least!          Tu   So


o
o


  KEY
blackbird, Brewer's          Tu   So


u
o


      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
blackbird, red-winged!   Blackbird, red-winged (female)
**Blackbird, red-winged (male)
Wu   Tc   Sc
u
c
c
f
      R - resident 
blackbird, rusty±   photo Wo   Tu
o
u
o
u
        c - common
bluebird, eastern  photo2    Wu   Tf  Sf
u
f
f
f
       f - frequent
bobolink!          Tf     Sf


f
f


        u - uncommon
bobwhite, northern! Ru
R
R
R
R
       o - occasional 
brambling         To
(1 record)



o





bufflehead    – see duck, bufflehead










bunting, indigo#   **Bunting, indigo
         Tf     Sf


f
f
o

bunting, snow     photo*  photo2 Wf    Tf
f
f


f

C C C C C C C C C C C




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

canary (Domestic)











canvasback      – see duck, canvasback









  Breeding Records
cardinal, northern   photo3
**Cardinal, northern (pairA)  **Cardinal, northern (pairB)
Rc
R
R
R
R
        !  - definite
catbird, gray! Wo   Tf     Sf
o
f
f
f
        #  - probable
chat, yellow-breasted±          To


o




        ±  - possible
chickadee, boreal  Wo
(1record)

o







chickadee, black-capped!   **Chickadee, black-capped Rc
R
R
R
R

coot, American!  Wo   Tu    Su
o
f
u
u

cormorant, double-crested±          Tu    Su


u
u
u

cowbird, brown-headed!
Wo   Tf     Sf
o
f
f
f

crane, sandhill!   photo  photo2 Wu   Tf    So
u
f
u
o

crane, whooping     photo   (see also the photo below the text on this file)            To    So



o

o




creeper, brown#   Wo   Tu    So
u
f
o
u

crossbill, red     photo  Wo   Tu
o
u


o


crossbill, white-winged   photo   photoA*    photo#3 Wo   Tu
o
u


u

crow, American! 
Rc
R
R
R
R

cuckoo, black-billed!  photo
         Tu    Sf


u
f
u

cuckoo, yellow-billed!          Tu    Su


u
u
u

D D D D D D D D D D D




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
dickcissel!   photo   photo2           To   So


o

o



dove, mourning Rc   +Tc
R
R
R
R
  KEY
dove, rock     – see pigeon, rock










      T - Sp &/or Fall transient     
"DOWITCHERS"    [Long-billed &Short-billed -- not distinguished in most  records]          Tu   So


u
o
o
      R - resident 
duck, American black   photo  Wu   Tu   Su
u
u
u
u
        c - common
duck, bufflehead Wo   Tf
o
f


f
       f - frequent
duck, canvasback Wo   Tu
o
u


u
        u - uncommon
duck, common goldeneye  photo Wf    Tf    So
u
f
o
f
       o - occasional 
duck, gadwall ± Tu


u


o

"SCAUP DUCKS"
        [Greater & Lesser -- not distinguished in most records]
Wo   Tf/u So
o
f
o
f

duck, long-tailed Wo   To
o





o
  Breeding Records
duck, mallard!   photo Rf    +Tc
R
R
R
R
        !  - definite
merganser, common Wu    Tu
u
f


u
        #  - probable
merganser, hooded!  photo Wo    Tu  So
o
f
o
u
        ±  - possible
merganser, red-breasted Tu


u


o

duck, Muscovy











duck, northern pintail      photo* Wo   Tu   So
o
u
o
u

duck, northern shoveler    photo
Wo   Tu   So
o
u
o
o

duck, redhead   photo Wo   Tu
o
u


u

duck, ring-necked      photo          Tu
o
f


u

duck, scoter, white-winged          To
(1 record)







o

duck, ruddy          Tu


u


o

duck, teal (blue-winged)!          Tf    Su
o
f
u
f

duck, teal (green-winged)! Wo   Tu   So
o
u
o
u

duck, wigeon (American)          Tu   So


u
o
u

duck, wood!    photo Wo   Tf    So
o
f
u
f

dunlin  photo          Tu   So


u
o
u

E E E E E E E E E E E




Wi 
Sp
Su
Fa

eagle, bald!   photo    photo1  photo2  photo3  photo4 Wo   Tu
o
u


o

eagle, golden
                So





o



egret, cattle          To


o


o

egret, great  photo  photo2  photo3            To  So




o
o

F F F F F F F F F F F




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
falcon, American Kestrel!
Rf    +Tf
R
R
R
R

falcon, merlin   photo Wo   To
o
o


o
  KEY
falcon, peregrine Wo   Tu   So
o
u
o
u
      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
finch, house!    photo   photo2   Rc
R
R
R
R
      R - resident 
finch, purple!   photo 
Wu   Tc   So
u
f
o
u
        c - common
finch, zebra (fawn)   photo









       f - frequent
flicker, northern!
Rf    +Tu
R
R
R
R
        u - uncommon
flycatcher, Acadian!                 Su




u


       o - occasional 
flycatcher, alder#          Tu   So


u
o
u

flycatcher, great crested   photo*
         Tf     Sf


f
f
u

flycatcher, least!          Tf    Su


f
u
f

flycatcher, olive-sided          To   So



o
o
o

flycatcher, willow#          Tu   So


u
o
o

flycatcher, yellow-bellied          Tu   Su


u
u



G G G G G G G G G G




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

gadwall    – see duck, gadwall










gallinule, common  photo
         To   So


o
u
o

gnatcatcher, blue-gray#    photo*
         Tu   Su


u
u
u
  Breeding Records
goldeneye      – see duck, goldeneye









        !  - definite
goldfinch, American  photo2 Rc   +Tc
R
R
R
R
        #  - probable
goose, cackling








o
        ±  - possible
goose, Canada!    photo
Rf    +Tc
R
R
R
R
   
goose, greater white-fronted   photo archive-No.1 Wo
o
o





goose, Ross's   photo*  photo2
         To
o




o

goose, snow [ including blue phase]    photo  photo4  
Wo   Tu    So
o

o
o

u

grackle, common!  photo2   photo3  Wo   Tc   Sc
o
c
c
c

grebe, horned          Tu


u


o

grebe, pied-billed!   photo          Tf    Su
o
f
u
f

grebe, red-necked    **Grebe, red-necked                 So  (1 record) 



o





grosbeak, black-headed Wo
(2 records)

o







grosbeak, evening   photo*
Wu   Tu
o
u


u

grosbeak, pine Wo   To
o
o
o
o

grosbeak, rose-breasted!    photo    photo2   photo3  photo4          Tf     Sf


c
f
u

grouse, ruffed!    photo2   
Rf
R
R
R
R

gull, Bonaparte's  photo          Tu


u





gull, Franklin's   photo          Tu










gull, herring  photo Wo   Tu   So
o
u
o
o

gull, ring-billed  Rc    Tc
R
R
R
R

H H H H H H H H H H H




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
harrier, northern! Wu   Tu   Su
u
f
u
u

hawk, broad-winged!    photo           Tu   Su


u
u
u
  KEY
hawk, Cooper's!   photo Rf    +Tu
R
R
R
R
      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
hawk, northern goshawk!  photo Wu   Tu   So
u
u
o
o
      R - resident 
hawk, red-shouldered!  photo   photo2 Wu   Tu   Su
u
u
u
o
        c - common
hawk, red-tailed!   photo  photo2  photo3  Hawk, red-tailed Rf    +Tf
R
R
R
R
       f - frequent
hawk, rough-legged  photo  photo2 Wu   Tf    So
u
f
o
f
        u - uncommon
hawk, sharp-shinned  photo Ru   +Tu
R
R
R
R
       o - occasional 
heron, great blue photo   photo2   photo3  Wo   Tf     Sf
o
f
f
f

heron, green!     photo   photo2   photo3    photo4           Tf     Sf


f
f
f

heron, little blue  photo          To  



o





heron, black-crowned night    – see night heron, black-crowned










hummingbird, ruby-throated!  photo  photo2  photo4   photo5           Tc   Sc


f
c
u

hummingbird, rufous   photo







o

I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

ibis, glossy        To
(1 record)



o





J J J J J J J J J J J J J




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

jay, blue!    photo   photo2     Rc
R
R
R
R

junco, dark-eyed   Wf     Tf   So
f
f
o
f

K K K K K K K K K K K




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
kestrel      – see falcon, kestrel










killdeer   **Killdeer Wo   Tc   Sc
o
c
c
c
  KEY
kingbird, eastern!    photo              Tc   Sc


c
c
o
      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
kingbird, gray                 So




o


      R - resident 
kingbird, western!
                So




o


        c - common
kingfisher, belted!   photo2   photo3 Wu    Tf    Sf
u
f
f
f
       f - frequent
kinglet, golden-crowned    Wu    Tf
u
f


f
        u - uncommon
kinglet, ruby-crowned±  
Wo   Tu
o
u


u
       o - occasional 
kite, Mississippi          To
(1 record)



o






knot, red          To
(1 record)



o





L L L L L L L L L L L L




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

lark, horned!    photo*  photo2  Rf
R
R
R
R

longspur, Lapland  photo2 Wu    Tf
o
f


o

loon, common!  photo          Tu   So


u
o
o

loon, Pacific   photo



o





M M M M M M M M M




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

mallard      – see duck, mallard

R
R
R
R
  Breeding Records
martin, purple!      photo2           Tu  Su


u
u


        !  - definite
meadowlark, eastern Wo    Tf    Sf
o
f
f
f
        #  - probable
meadowlark, western#           Tu  Su


u
u


        ±  - possible  
mergansers – see duck, merganser ...










merlin – see falcon, merlin










mockingbird, northern!  photo Wo   To   So
o
o
o
o

N N N N N N N N N N N




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

nighthawk, common!          Tu    Sf


u
f
u

night-heron, black-crowned±          To   Su


o
u
o

night-Heron, yellow-crowned          To 










nuthatch, red-breasted!  Nuthatch, red-breasted Wf    Tu   So
f
u
u
u

nuthatch, white-breasted!  Rf
R
R
R
R

O O O O O O O O O O




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
 Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
oriole, Baltimore!       photo*  photo3           Tf     Sf


f
f



oriole, Bullock’s          To
(1 record)



o




  KEY
oriole, orchard    photo*          To   So


u
o


      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
osprey!          Tu   Su


u
u
u
      R - resident  
ovenbird      – see warbler, ovenbird









        c - common
owl, barn! (extirpated)









       f - frequent 
owl, barred!   photo   photo2 Rf
R
R
R
R
       u - uncommon 
owl, great horned!   photo Ru
R
R
R
R
       o - occasional 
owl, long-eared! Wu   Tu
u
u


u


owl, saw-whet (northern)! To


o


o

owl, screech- (eastern)! Ru
R
R
R
R

owl, short-eared! Wo   To
o
o


u


owl, snowy  photo   photo2  Wo   To
o
o


o

P P P P P P P P P P P




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

parakeet, monk (released/escaped!!?!)                So   
(2 records)










partridge, gray! (introduced/now absent)









  Breeding Records
parula      – see warbler, parula









        !  - definite
peregrine      – see falcon, peregrine









        #  - probable
pewee, eastern wood-!    photo2          Tf     Sf


f
f
f
        ±  - possible
phalarope, red-necked!          To


o





phalarope, Wilson's  photo    **Phalarope, Wilson's          Tu   So


u
o



pheasant, ring-necked!   photo2 Rf
R
R
R
R

phoebe, eastern!          **Phoebe, eastern          Tf     Sf


c

f
f

pigeon, passenger! (extinct)










pigeon, rock!     **Pigeon, rock 
Rc
R
R
R
R

pintail      – see duck, pintail










pipit, American     **Pipit, American          Tf


f


u

plover, black-bellied          Tu


u


o

plover, American golden     photo*          To


o





plover, semipalmated  photo   photo2
         Tf    So


f
o
f

prairie-chicken, greater! (extirpated)










Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

R R R R R R R R R R R




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
(rail), sora – see sora










rail, Virginia#  photo          Tf    Su


f
u
u
  KEY
rail, yellow          To
(1 record)



o




      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
      R - resident 

raven, common Ro
R
R
R
R
       c - common     
redhead      – see duck, redhead









       f - frequent
redpoll, common    photo   photo2     **Redpoll* Wu   To
u
o


o
        u - uncommon
redpoll, hoary  photo Wo
o




o

        o - occasional 
redstart      – see warbler, redstart









 
robin, American!   photo3
Wf    Tc   Sc
f
c
c
c

ruff          To
(1 record)



o





S S S S S S S S S S S




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

sanderling          Tu


u


o
  Breeding Records
sandpiper, Baird’s          To


o




        !  - definite
sandpiper, buff-breasted          To






o
       #  - probable
sandpiper, least      photo*      photo3          Tu   So


u
f
o
         ±  - possible
sandpiper, pectoral          Tu   Su


u
u
u

sandpiper, semipalmated          Tu   So


u
u
o

sandpiper, solitary    photo    photo2          Tf    Su


f
u
f

sandpiper, spotted!   photo   **Sandpiper, spotted          Tf     Sf


f
f
f

sandpiper, stilt  **Sandpiper, stilt          To   So



o
o



sandpiper, upland!  photo          Tu   Su


u
u
o

sandpiper, western  **Sandpiper, western          To   So



o
o



sandpiper, white-rumped          To
(2 records)



o





sapsucker, yellow-bellied# photo  photo2 Wo   Tu   So
o
u
o
u

scaup      – see duck, scaup ...










scoter      – see duck, scoter ...










shoveler      – see duck, shoveler










shrike, loggerhead!   photo Wo   Tu   Su
o
u
u
o


shrike, northern   photo
Wu   To
u
o


o

siskin, pine   photo*   Wu   Tu   So
u
u
o
o


snipe, Wilson’s#   photo Wo   Tf    Su
o
u
u
u

solitaire, Townsend's      – see thrush, Townsends’s solitare










sora!  photo          Tf     Sf


f
f
f

sparrow, chipping! photo   photo2 Wo   Tc   Sc
o
c
f
c

sparrow, clay-colored!          Tu   Su


u
u



sparrow, field!   photo Wu   Tf     Sf
u
f
f
f

sparrow, fox  photo
Wo   Tf    So

o
f
o
f

sparrow, grasshopper!  photo  
 


f
u
o

sparrow, Harris's          To
(1 record)



o




 Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
sparrow, Henslow's photo   photo2          Tu   Su


u
u
o

sparrow, house! Rc
R
R
R
R
  KEY
sparrow, lark  photo



o





sparrow, LeConte's          To
(1 record)



o




      T - Sp &/or Fall transient    
      R - resident 
sparrow, Lincoln's          Tu


u


o
        c - common
sparrow, Savannah!  photo          Tf     Sf


c
f
f
       f - frequent
sparrow, song!   photo
Wu   Tc   Sc
u
c
c
c
        u - uncommon
sparrow, swamp#  photo Wo   Tu   Su
o
f
u
u
       o - occasional
sparrow, tree (American)  photo Wf    Tf
f
f


f

sparrow, vesper! Wo   Tf     Sf
o
f
f
f

sparrow, white-crowned   photo          Tf    So


f
o
f
  Breeding Records
sparrow, white-throated±  photo Wu   Tc
u
c
o
c
        !  - definite
starling, European!    photo2  
Rc
R
R
R
R
        #  - probable
swallow, bank!
         Tf     Sf


f
f


        ±  - possible
swallow, barn          Tc   Sc


c
c



swallow, cliff!     photo          Tf     Sf


f
f



swallow, rough-winged (northern)!
         Tf     Sf


f
f



swallow, tree!
         Tc   Sc


c
c
u

swan, mute!   photo
Ru
R
R
R
R

swan, trumpeter          To






o

swan, tundra Wu   Tu
u
u


u


swift, chimney!          Tu   Su


f
f
u

T T T T T T T T T T T




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

tanager, scarlet!  photo          Tu   Su


u
u
o

teal      – see duck, teal ... 










tern, black          Tu   Su


o
u
o

tern, common          To   So


o
o
o

tern, Forster’s          To
(1 record)



o





thrasher, brown!     photo   photo2 Wo   Tf     Sf
o
f
f
f

thrush, gray-cheeked          To


o


o

thrush, hermit#   photo2 Wo   Tf    So
o
f
o
f

thrush, Swainson's          Tu


u


u

thrush, Townsends’s solitaire Wo   To
(2 records)

o
o


o
  Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
thrush, varied Wo   To
(2 records)

o
o




                  
thrush, veery!
         Tu   Su


f
u
o
  KEY
thrush, wood! 
         Tf    Su


f
u
o
      T - Sp &/or Fall transient
titmouse, tufted!  photo   Rf
R
R
R
R
      R - resident 
towhee, eastern!    photo2 Wo   Tf    Su
o
f
u
f
        c - common
Townsends’s solitaire       – see thrush, Townsends’s solitaire









       f - frequent
turkey, wild!    photo   photo2 Rc
R
R
R
R
        u - uncommon
turnstone, ruddy          Tu


u




       o - occasional 

U U U U U U U U U U U

V V V V V V V V V V V




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

veery      – see thrush, veery









  Breeding Records
vireo, blue-headed 
         Tu


u


o
        !  - definite
vireo, Philadelphia          Tu


o




        #  - probable
vireo, red-eyed!             Tf     Sf


f
f
f
        ±  - possible
vireo, warbling!             Tf     Sf


f
f



vireo, white-eyed          To
(1 record)



o





vireo, yellow-throated!    photo                    Tu   Su


u
u



vulture, black



o





vulture, turkey!   photo  photo2 Wo   Tc   Sc
o
c
c
c

W W W W W W W W W




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 

warbler, bay-breasted           Tu   So


u
o
u

warbler, black and white±          Tf    Su


f
u
f
 
warbler, blackburnian±     photo*          Tu


u


u
  
warbler, blackpoll          Tu   So


u
o
u
  
warbler, black-throated blue          Tu   So


u
o
u
 Legend - for details, see
        text at end of tables.
warbler, black-throated green±          Tf    Su


f
u
f
     
warbler, blue-winged#
         Tf


f





warbler,Canada!   photo*          Tu   So


u
o
o
  KEY
warbler, Cape May    photo*          Tu   So


u
o
o
      T - Sp &/or Fall transient 
warbler, cerulean          To


o




      R - resident
warbler, chestnut-sided±          Tu   Su


u
u
u
        c - common
warbler, Connecticut          To


o


o
       f - frequent
warbler, golden-winged!   photo          Tf    Su


u
u


        u - uncommon
warbler, hooded          To   So


o
o


       o - occasional 
warbler, magnolia±
         Tu


u


u

warbler, mourning±          Tu   Su


u
u
o

warbler, Nashville±  photo            Tu   So


f
o
u

warbler, orange-crowned          To
(2 records)



o


o
 

warbler, ovenbird! 
         Tc    Sf


c
f
f

warbler, palm           Tu


u


u

warbler, parula (northern)          To  So (3 records)


o
o




warbler, pine  photo          Tu


u





warbler, prairie                So   (2 records)




o




warbler, prothonotary         To
(3 records)



o






warbler, redstart (American)!   photo*
         Tf    Su


f
u
f
  Breeding Records
warbler, Tennessee±   photo          Tu   So


u
o


         !  - definite
warbler, Wilson's          Tu   So


u
o


         #  - probable
warbler, yellow!     photo
         Tc    Sf


c
f


         ±  - possible
warbler, yellow-rumped±   photo* Wo   Tf    So
o
f
o
f

warbler, yellow-throated          To



o


o

warbler, yellowthroat (common)          Tf     Sf


c
f
f

waterthrush, Louisiana!   photo          To


o




 
waterthrush, northern#    photo*          Tf    So


u

o
o

waxwing, Bohemian   photo   photo2
Wo
o






 
waxwing, cedarphoto     Waxwing, cedar Rf
R
R
R
R
      KEY
whip-poor-will#          Tu   Su


u
u
o
       T - Sp &/or Fall transient
wigeon      – see duck, wigeon









       R - resident
willet          To


o




        c - common
woodcock, American!   photo  Wo   Tf   Su
o

f
u
u
       f - frequent
woodpecker, downy!  Rf
R
R
R
R
        u - uncommon
woodpecker, hairy!   Rf
R
R
R
R
       o - occasional 
woodpecker, pileated!    photo    photo2
Ru
R
R
R
R

woodpecker, red-bellied Rf
R
R
R
R

woodpecker, red-headed!  photo     photo2     photo3   Ru    Tu
R
R
R
R
  
wren, Carolina ± 
Wo   To   So
o
u
o
o

wren, house!  photo            Tf     Sf


f
f
f

wren, marsh!   photo3
         Tu   Su


u
u



wren, sedge photo2
         Tu   Su


u
u
u

wren, winter photo Wu   Tu   So
o
u
o
u

X X X X X X X X X X X

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y




Wi 
Sp 
Su 
Fa 
  Breeding Records
yellowlegs, greater  photo2          Tu   Su


f
u
u
        !  - definite
yellowlegs, lesser   photo2           Tf    Su


f
u
f
        #  - probable
yellowthroat      – see warbler, yellowthroat ...









        ±  - possible

Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z


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Legend:  Meaning of symbols and letters

Breeding Records:

             !  - definite
            #  - probable
            ±  - possible

Seasonal populations (for single column frame of reference directly right of the birds' names):

        Seasons (for actual periods, see the following section)
                 S    -  Summer resident or visitor
                W    -  Winter resident or visitor
                 T    -  Spring and/or Fall transient
                 R    -  Year-around resident -- i.e., species that are present within the county throughout the year --
                           BUT, for some of the so designated
species, the birds that occur are not the same individuals.
                          
      Population (abundance)
                c  -   common
                f    -  fairly common in suitable habitat(s)
                u   -  uncommon, only irregularly present even in suitable habitat(s)
                o   -  occasional, only rarely present  -- i.e., to date, only one or a few records
                        of an individual, pair, ..., or  flock of the species has beeen recorded within the county..
     
  Seasonal populations (for the four-column setup):

       Seasons (for dates applicable to the seasonal designation given in this compilation, see the dates given  in bold italic type and the applicable discussion given under the following subheading Information and thoughts . . . )                        Wi   -   Winter
                Sp   -  Spring
                Su   -  Summer
                Fa   -  Fall
      
      Population (abundance)  --  same as noted under the preceding subheading.
              
Information and thoughts relating to the symbols and letters used on the lists

        Breeding records are historical.  The symbols used -- see Legend -- are correlated with the nomenclature used in Brewer, McPeek, & Adams (1991).  Each one indicates the highest level of breeding indications recorded for the county -- e.g., the presence of a #  before or after a species' name indicates that at least one recorded observation within the county indicates the probability that breeding has occurred.  That is to say, for some of the species, similar observations may have been recorded for additional places within the county, and for some species such additional observations may have been recorded that breeding only possibly occurred.  In any case, for the species so designated -- i.e., with a # -- no observations have been recorded where breeding is definitely known to have occurred.  Supporting data include information published in Cuthbert (1963) and also previously unpublished observations, several  that post-date both of these publications.

        Population designations are historical and subjective, and appear to be ever-changing.

The historical aspects have given rise to several conundrums and difficulties so far as presentation of the data.  Examples follow:

    1. Some previously recorded seasonal designations for the periods when birds were seen in Isabella County were apparently based on climatic conditions rather than on the widely accepted astronomically based designations -- e.g., birds reported for Christmas counts were noted as winter residents or visitors in some reports, even though many of those counts were made several days before the winter solstice.  The designations for the four seasons used in the tabulations given on this website  -- see Legend -- are the astronomically based  terminology whereby each season is considered to begin with an equinox or solstice, as follows:

                             Spring with the vernal equinox (March 20 or 21);
                             Summer with the summer solstice (June 20 or 21);
                             Fall with the Autumnal equinox (September 22 or 23);
                             Winter with the winter solstice (December 21-22).

This choice of usage admittedly leads to some entries that may be considered misleading.  Two examples are the "early-Spring migrants and incoming  non-winter residents"  -- e.g., the grackles, that arrive before March 20th or 21st, and the several "late-Summer migrants"  that leave after September 22nd or 23rd.  Consequently, under the terminology used on this list, birds with the early-Spring arrival dates are recorded as f (= frequent) under the Winter heading and birds that are late-Summer southward migrants are noted as f in the Fall column.  Consequently, in the future, it would seem well for someone to put the known data in a more useful format;   that, however, would require the availability of more data than is now available for many of these birds. The use of T (for Transient), which is used in the first column to the right of the birds' names to refer to Spring and/or Fall migrants, is given to direct attention to the birds with the just mentioned misleading designations.

    2. One aspect of the use of the T(ransient) indication warrants further consideration:  Several records suggest that many, if not all, individuals of most of the transient species migrate northward through the area during the Spring whereas only a few, if any, individuals of those same species migrate southward through the area during the Fall.  Although this generalization may be correct for at least a few birds -- e.g., Connecticut warblers (Oporornis agilis) are recorded  as migrating northward through the Midwest during the Spring and southward along the Atlantic Coast in the Fall -- I suspect that backtracking is prevalent for many transient species.  Indeed, my observations, granted limited in number and scope, lead me to believe that examples like the Connecticut warblers may be exceptions rather than the "rule."  Thus, I wonder if  the "many north in Spring, few south in Fall" generalization may be founded largely on judgements based on such things as the distinctive color patterns and consequent ease of identifying, for example, Spring warblers versus the often frustrating confusions involved in identifying Fall warblers.  In addition, and perhaps as a consequence of their (and other birds') Spring versus Fall appearances, annual Spring counts that are made by numerous observers in Isabella County (and elsewhere throughout much of North America) provide many records, whereas Fall counts are rare and consequently data about fall migrants are rare. Therefore, it may be that nearly the same number of birds of many of the transient species migrate through this county in both directions.  Indeed, considering summer breeding activities, it may be that southward Fall migrations involve more birds than the northward Spring migrations.   IF the just outlined scenario is correct, the "many ... Spring, few ... Fall" generalization is an unfortunate self-perpetuating fallacy!    In any case, these considerations led to the use of the single designation T,  in lieu of the two designations that would have been required to differentiate Spring and Fall migrants, in the first column directly right of the birds' names.  For the record, this frame of reference, which is my preference, was the only one used in the first edition of this list.   In any case, my hope is that its use may promote more Fall observations and compilation of those records for the county.
 
    3. Several year-long resident species have their numbers increased during migrations. Those species whose populations are increased by noteworthy percentages during migration or "irruptions," have dual designations in the single column entry that is directly right of the bird's name  --  e.g., RfTc for Canada  geese  (Branta canadensis), RcTc for American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis), and RfWc for common redpolls (Carduelis flammea) and horned larks (Eremophila alpestris) (see Legend).  These dual designations contrast with the indicators that consist of only  the upper case letter R plus a lower case letter (c, f, or u) used to indicate a resident-only bird's general abundance -- e.g., Rc for blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata). Also noteworthy is the fact that the letters in the one-column setup provide additional abundance information for the species designated as residents -- i.e., those birds with the letter R  -- in the four column setup.

      4. Several historical data have been updated to take into consideration relatively recent general as well as specific observations.  Three examples of differences in populations between the time Dr. Cuthbert published his book -- i.e., in 1963 -- and the last several years that have led to such updates follow:

            A. House finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) did not expand their range to Isabella County until the late 1960s;
            B. Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were only "Rare summer straggler[s]" when Cuthbert's book was published whereas several  are now rather common year-round residents;
            C. Greater Prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido), which were "local permanent resident[s]"  -- albeit "uncommon" -- have not been recorded as occurring within the county since the early 1980s.

      5. Incorrect identifications have undoubtedly been recorded, which means that a few of the tabulated birds may never have been in Isabella County.  Also, species not on the list may have been in the county, not seen or recognized, and consequently not recorded.  The less said about misidentifications, the better, methinks.  An illustrative anecdote (not relating to this county) should suffice to direct attention to such possible discrepancies:  During a visit to the Aransas Wildlife Refuge in Texas, near the base of an observation tower outfitted with telescopes etc., Frances and I were stopped by a couple who introduced themselves as officers of an Audubon Club (as I recall, somewhere in Illinois), who excitedly exclaimed how lucky they were to have just added a bird to their life lists:  They had "seen, with only our binoculars," a group of three whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the reeds just a few hundred feet left of the tower.  They then suggested that we hurry up to the platform because the birds would probably still be there so we also could see them.  We did hurry up the stairs to the platform, though we had seen several whooping cranes in the past;  and, a group of three white birds were indeed right where the couple told us to look:  Three great egrets (Ardea alba)!  [We also felt a bit sorry for the couple because a single whooping crane could be seen from the tower -- it was far in the distance but  could be seen by using one of the telescopes that was on the platform of the tower.]

     One of the positive aspects of dilemmas such as those just mentioned, at least so far as most records for Isabella County, Michigan, relates to Greater and Lesser scaups (Aythya marila and Aythya affinis) and Long-billed and Short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus and Limnodromus griseus).  Most have been recorded only as Scaups and Dowitchers, respectively.

The alluded to subjectivity reflects a lack of sufficient observations, a condition that, I fear, will prevail for several years in the future -- certainly until the results of a well coordinated, relatively long-term, county-wide effort, involving well trained observers becomes available.  Unfortunately, as of now, there seems to be no prospect for such an undertaking.  Perhaps this compilation will -- just as Nick Cuthbert’s book has during the last several years -- lead to the accumulation of more and better data. In any case, additional observations, both recorded and merely communicated to me, will be evaluated and may lead to modifications in the population indicators and the addition of species listed on this website.    >> REQUEST:  If anyone has additions for the lists or believes changes should be made in the given, please contact me.

As the preceding points indicate, the short explanations for the abundance designations given in the legend and used as bases for this compilation are, by their very nature (and intent!), less than well defined.   Also,  it seems only prudent to repeat that those designations are based largely on information given by Cuthbert (1963), subsequently supplemented with data from the other noted references, and, in part, modified in order to incorporate relatively recent general as well as specific observations.  In any case, I take full responsibility for the indications on this list.


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EPILOGUE:  Photographs taken of birds in Isabella County are exhibited in an Archive  -- click the following link >>Photo Archive <<  -- which is updated continually.  Each of those who have supplied photographs for the Archive is noted in the appropriate caption(s). --  >> REQUEST: Anyone who has photographs taken of birds within the county and would like to have their photographs considered for inclusion in this archive, please contact me.
              The following  photograph is given here to direct attention to the just mentioned archive as well as to record the visit of two young whooping cranes of the Wisconsin to Florida flock to Isabella County in 2004.


          Whooping crane (Grus americana) in Rolland Township, Isabella County (cropped photograph -- original has two females --  by Stan Lilley, 1 June 2004.)   The two yearling females that were in Isabella County from June 1 to July 12, 2004 are #303 & #312 of a flock of 16 whooping cranes involved in the Wisconsin-Florida migration project -- See, for example:  http://www.savingcranes.org./  [,http:// www.operationmigration.org/  and  http://whoopers.usgs.gov/ ).  One night, while on their way north to the Nacedah National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin during the spring of 2004, the birds were apparently "spooked" at a "rest stop" in Tennessee, and the flock so-to-speak scattered.  Subsequently, at least in part because of wind conditions in Indiana, eight of the cranes lost their way, and flew into southwestern Michigan, on the "wrong side" of Lake Michigan, which apparently acted as a barrier for most of them so far as their proceeding directly to their Wisconsin grounds.  For a while, the two females that came to western Isabella County were with a male (#316) south of Grand Rapids.  They continued northward after the male left them, perhaps accompanying sandhill cranes, a few of which were frequently seen with the pair while they were here.  In early July, the two left the county, and rejoined the male in Allegan County.  The history of their travels is known because one of the females has a satellite tracking device as well as the leg band that can be seen in Lilley's photograph. On 28 July 2004, at ~11:00 a.m. CDT, whooping cranes #303, #312 & #316 were detected approximately one half (1/2) mile north of the Necadah National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin.   In 2005, though we had hopes that these whooping cranes might revisit Isabella County, we were happy to learn that both of them had returned from their winter in Florida back to their Wisconsin grounds. For additional information about "our" whooping cranes, see, for example,  http://www.savingcranes.org./  [,]     http://www.operationmigration.org/  [and]  http://whoopers.usgs.gov/ .  

REFERENCES:

Cuthbert, N. L. 1963. The Birds of Isabella County, Michigan. Ann Arbor:Edwards Brothers.

Brewer, Richard, G.A. McPeek, and R.J. Adams, Jr. 1991. The Atlas of  Breeding Birds of Michigan.  East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Breeding Birds of Michigan. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Lilley, Stan. 2013. Whooping crane in Isabella County, Michigan (posted 23 April 2013)  https://www.facebook.com;photo.php?fbid=10200108478703144&set=pb.1485565139.-2207520000.1375299237.&type=3&theater (Lilley personal Facebook page).  >not seen by rvd, who is not on Facebook<

McNally, Myles. 2012. First rufous hummingbird in Isabella County (posted 08 November 2012). .  http://cvacmi.org/node/174    (Chippewa Valley Audubon Club website).  >accessed 14 Nov. 2012<

Michigan Bird Records Committee.  Previous Voting Rounds: Round 87.2.  February 2005.

Michigan Bird Redcords Committee.  2015.  Michigan Checklist (Updated 14 August 2015).  http://mibirdrecords.com/michigan-checklist/   (last accessed 2 December 2015),

Morden, J.A.  1893. Notes from Isabella Co., Mich. Oologist. 10:24-26.

Payne, R.B. 1986. A Distributional Checklist of the Birds of Michigan (revised from Univ. of Michigan Museum of Zoology Misc. Publ. no.164, 1983)   http://www.ummz.umich.edu/birds/michbirds/michigan.html

Powell, David J. 1982. Michigan Bird Survey, Winter 1981-82. Jack Pine Warbler.  60:90-94.

Slager, D.L. and Klicka, John.  2014.  A new genus for the American Tree Sparrow (Aves: Passeriformes: Passerellidae).  Magnolia Press  -- Zootaxa - ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition); http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3821.3.9
http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5640973D-C2B7-4D8F-BC5C-7460FBE59A0B 
(<accessed 17 October 2015>

Theunissen, William. No date. Chippewa Valley Audubon Club Mt. Pleasant, Michigan 1951–1992. Mt. Pleasant: private "printing" (mimeo).

Wood, N.A. 1951. The Birds of Michigan. Univeristy of Michigan Museum Zoology.  Misc. Publ. 75.


R.V ("Dick") Dietrich (b. 1924), a native of the St. Lawrence Valley, Northern New York, is a graduate of Colgate University (A.B.), and Yale University (M.S. & Ph.D -- Geology).  He is not an ornithologist;  his interest in birds, including "bird-watching," started in the late 1920s;  and, as a geologist who spent much time in the field here and there on all the continents except Antarctica, he has been fortunate to see and ID 1478 species (without ever going on a guided bird-watching tour!).   He has authored or coauthored many professional papers and books, some of which are textbooks (mineralogy and petrology), and also 14 web sites, most of which are available at http://stoneplus.cst.cmich.edu/Default.htm.  For additional informaton, click the following link: XXXX

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Updated: 6 June
2017
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