This Addenda includes items that appeared to require elaboration and/or modification of the last edition of the hard-copy book plus additional items (mostly uses) to which my attention has been directed. The additions are preceded by the date, month and year, of each addition to this web site -- e.g., Added-10/2002.
This web page will
additions are anticipated because history indicates readers will
continue to send me
information that will warrant recording.
information is given in the
order in which it relates to the content of the indicated chapters
(etc.) of "Stones:
..." (2nd edition).
See Table 3.1, page 58 (1st edition, Table III, p.49): -- Readers' comments and questions indicate that this chart (see below) should have had more explanatory notes in order to make it more useful. Before considering that information, however, it seems prudent to note that most professional petrologists use a nomenclature scheme for igneous rocks that includes several more rocks and charts - see, for example, Dietrich and Skinner (1979). Nonetheless, anyone who properly uses this chart will be able to assign names to most phaneritic igneous rocks that agree with the names based on the more extensive "professional" nomenclature system. Consequently, this chart is a useful, rather easily applied alternative to the "professional" system.
Information, in addition to that given in "Stones
that should help anyone who tries to use this chart follows:
The relatively darker and lighter areas -- i.e., the darker area left of and the lighter area including and right of the plagioclase feldspar area -- indicate typical percentages of dark and light colored minerals in the rocks listed under the phanerites heading. Along this line, however, note that within the plagioclase feldspar field, especially below the Ab50An50 -composition boundary, the plagioclases are typically dark gray (or bluish gray); this is indicated on the chart by the presence of fairly numerous dark dots and splotches.
The symbols within the mineral fields indicate their typical cleavages or fracture patterns -- biotite – thin elastic plates; hornblende – two cleavages at about 55 and 125 degrees to each other; pyroxene – two cleavages at approximately right angles (i.e.,90 degrees to each other); [and] quartz and olivine – conchoidal fracture. Despite the fact that both have two cleavages at or near 90 degrees to each other, no patterns are given in the alkali feldspars and the plagioclase feldspar fields. These feldspars are most easily distinguished from each other with the aid of a hand-lens. So viewed, some cleavage surfaces of plagioclase can be seen to exhibit parallel, extremely straight "lines" (which are the expression of polysynthetic twinning) whereas of the alkali feldspars only those that are perthitic exhibit lines, and those lines, although commonly subparallel, are better described as interdigitated. The overall pattern used for the plagioclase feldspar field on the chart was chosen to remind users of the parallel "lines."
This rock would be a granodiorite.
In "Stones: ...",
it is stated that
"This chapter records ... present-day uses of stones ...
ways stones are currently used just as they may be picked up."
and that "persisting primitive uses, such as flailing
clothes on stones to help launder them are not included." I have
been taken to task for those statements: First of all, several
readers have reminded me that boulders (other than small ones) are
seldom picked up; secondly, a few readers have chastised me as
anti-third world countries (which I strongly deny) because of my
disregard of uses I labeled as "primitive". In any case,
several such uses of boulders and of what I consider persisting
primitive uses were included in the book and additional ones are given
in this addendum.
In addition, at the end of this chapter of described uses, I included the following: "Do you know of other uses of stones? If you do, I would greatly appreciate your writing to me about them." Apparently in response to that question and request, several readers, including Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling, sent comments about some of the described uses and directed my attention to uses not mentioned. Consequently, a few changes and the addition of more than two dozen uses appear in the second edition, and some more were given in the original Addenda on this web site. Several more have been added later (as dated), and it seems likely that others will continue to be added in the future.
Rather than directing attention to the pages where these changes and additions would be made, they are given only under the same six broad subheadings used in the book - i.e., weights, sports, health, rituals, tools and construction, and other (formerly designated "miscellaneous") uses – plus two additional subheadings, both of which should have been used previously, objets d'art and man-made "stones".
Unfortunately, some of the cited references and attributions are less complete than I think they should be; this is so because some of the information was sent to me as clippings from unidentified newspapers, magazines and catalogs by people who did not identify themselves, thus precluding my contacting them to request clarification and/or elaboration, and searches David Ginsburg and I have made have led to the sources.
Feldman (1994) illustrates a group of seven stones, found at an archeological site in Syria, that are identified in the caption as "an early set of weights" used during the Stone age.
Stones are used to hold down leaves placed as "lids" on top of fermented breadfruit stored in stone-lined pits in Tahiti.
In the small town of Bjorke in the fjord
country east of the Lofoten Islands of western Norway, residents
resisted removal of the town's only phone booth, first by surrounding
it with tractors and their bodies and later by hauling in four huge
boulders and chaining them to the booth. -- This, according to an Associated
Press Worldstream dated May 23rd 1997; and, see a
follow-up AP release dated June 30, 1997. Having lived in Norway for
two years, I had the urge to put this item under either the Sports or Rituals subheading.
-- I strongly suspect that at least some of the
people involved found their reactive efforts quite the sport and others
a necessary ritual.
Added-9/2004. Some people may think it would be more appropriate to
put this addition under either the Tools and Construction
or the Other uses
suheading -- so be it -- cross references are given under each.
Roughly cylindrical rock cribs, most of which are 15 to 24 inches
in diameter and two to three feet high are used widely -- e.g., in
southeastern Oregon -- as stable anchors for fences. Because of
their weight, tension can be applied to wire (typically three levels of
barbed wire) that is held in place by metal or rarely wood posts
between these cribs. These cribs are needed because most of the
intervening posts are in very thin mantle or directly on bedrock, which
means they provide little if any stability. The stones in most of
the cribs consist of locally derived, large cobble- or small
boulder-sized rubble and/or rounded stones.
Added-10/2002. F. Jerdone Coleman-McGhee, Guinness World Recordholder (38 skips) and author of "The Secrets of Stone Skipping," includes several interesting bits of information about stone skipping on the NASSA ( i.e., North American Stone Skipping Association) web site www.yeeha.net/nassa.html. His words -- in part paraphrased, in part quoted, and not in the order given on the web site -- follow: Shakespeare and Homer wrote about stone skipping. . . . Eskimos skip rocks on ice and Bedouins, on smooth sand . . . . In England, stone skipping is known as, "ducks and drakes"; in France, as "ricochet"; in Ireland, as "stone skiffing"; in Denmark as, "smutting"; . . . [indeed,] "every language I [Coleman-McGhee] have accessed has a unique word or term for skipping stones, from Hindi to Russian to Chinese." . . . Key formulas for how a stone skips are "classified" by both the American and the British governments. . . . [and, last -- but not least -- I (RVD) feel the need to include this one because our daughter has three shops on Mackinac Island and our son-in-law is manager of the Arnold Transit Company that ferries people back and forth between the island and both the lower and upper peninsulas of Michigan] "The granddaddy of all skip-offs is held every Fourth of July on Michigan's Mackinac Island."
Added- 3/2003 A paper by Lydéric Bocquet (2003) in an analysis
of stone skipping considers a group of variables etc. with the
stated purpose “to propose a simplified description of the bouncing
process of a stone on water, in order to estimate the maximum number of
bounces performed by the stone.” Although his group of variables
seems to lack probably important components, I suspect that anyone
interested in stone skipping may want at least to scan this article.
Two illustrations in the Detroit Free Press (December 13, 1997, page 11B) show a massage therapist in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan using stones in his treatments. In one of the photographs, the therapist has placed "rocks [quite obviously well-rounded cobbles] treated with hot lavender oil" on a client's head, chest, abdomen, and hips. In the other, a client's foot is shown with thumb-plus sized pebbles between her adjacent toes, and the caption indicates that this treatment is touted as beneficial in that such "toe treatment helps [the client] 'connect with nature.'" This latter use will, I feel sure, come as a surprise to historians familiar with reports that during the Spanish Inquisition putting hot stones between one's toes was a mode of torture.
A somewhat similar group of treatments using basaltic cobbles and boulders in "hot-stone massage" is described and illustrated in People magazine (pages 147-148, November 1, 1999 issue). Eleven different procedures that involve the rubbing of superheated stones, presumably selected to "fit specific muscle contours to massage the body from scalp to feet," on people's oiled skins are noted as available at Carla Ciuffo's New York City spa. One of the treatments, termed "Hot Stone Reflexology," is said to "'open blocked energy pathways' by massaging pressure points on the feet." It also is noted in the piece that "hot-stone therapy . . . [was] used thousands of years ago by the Chinese to treat rheumatism and by Native Americans in sweat lodges . . . [and it] really works".
Kits for creating desk- and table-top replicas of Zen Rock gardens are marketed as aids for maintaining the well-being of people's mental health. The kits consist of frames, two to six stones of diverse sizes and shapes, sand and a miniature rake. Possible results are described and illustrated to show that one can make units that resemble, and presumably exert influences similar those associated with, true Zen gardens -- i.e., "create oases of serenity" and thus "appeal . . . to both the meditative and creative" instincts of those who place the stones and rake the surrounding sand into the regular patterns, and also to those who observe and contemplate the results.
An interesting pair of stones - one with
angular projections from its surface (designated as male), the other
smooth (designated as female) - called "miraculous Boji Stones," have
been marketed along with statements to the effect that they have a
balanced energy that will alleviate pain by anyone who holds them.
"Printed background and instructions for healing" are, of course,
Added-6/2004. Relatively porous stones -- e.g., those of
volcanic tuffs -- are marketed as "Essential Stones" (the name
apparently chosen because of the use of essence as applied to perfumes etc.)
to absorb aromatic oils that upon evaporating add fragrance to ones
environment. The marketed stones are sometimes colored "to match their
aromatherapy qualities" -- e.g., blue for "goodnight
sleeptight" stones (see www.calmingtouch.co.uk). Also, diversely
engraved cobbles called "Aroma Stones" are maketed along with the
following descriptive text: "In Ancient Cultures stones were
highly valued, carrying great symbolism and life-giving potency.
Given as wishes for friendship, goodwill and well-being, they often
changed hands many times. Aromatic oils, cherished
cross-culturally, combine with stone to make a gift that has been
valued for millennia. Place one or two drops of essential oil in the
symbol and set on windowsill in sunlight or under a lamp. You can
also warm the stone first and then apply oil to release scent."
Added-10/2004. This use, which I just forgot to
mention in the book, is added as the result of a review of photographs
I took in Guatemala several years ago: Natives in the
northern part of the country are shown drying their just washed clothes
by spreading them out on boulders along the streams in which they
laundered them. I suspect the drying process was rather rapid --
I know from personal experience that the surfaces of those boulders
were rather hot even under the mid-morning sun. I suspect, indeed
feel sure, that this use of
stones is relatively widespread here and there the around the world.
Considering the old saw
"Cleanliness is next to Godliness," perhaps some people will think this
addition should be under the Rituals
subheading; and, others may think
it should be under the Other
uses catch-all subheading. So be it.
Added-10/2005. This use seems to fit not only in this category but also possibly into Rituals, Objets d'art?!? and Other uses. As illustrated in the 17 October 2005 issue of "Time" (p.60-61 & 63) stones are used to demarcate the "Exercise" maze at Dr. Andrew Weil's home near Tucson, Arizona.
Added-11/2006. Stones of diverse compositions,
which are engraved with crosses, are widely marketed as, for example,
"Cross Worry Stones." And, stones with engraved words such as believe, charity, dream, family, friends, harmony, hope, inspire, love, peace, and trust, are marketed as
See page 96 (1st edition, p.81): According to a feature article in USA Weekend, the original Plymouth Rock was much larger than the one now exhibited near the shore at Plymouth, Massachusetts. Among other things, it is said the original boulder split in half in 1774; the halves were put back together and "1620" was chiseled into its top in 1880; it has come apart again and been stuck back together since 1880; pieces have been sold as paperweights and cuff links; pebbles and shards have fallen away; and tides have worn it smooth to give it its present appearance.
Small pebbles constitute the moving parts of rainsticks, which are used in ceremonies to bring rain to the desert regions of, for example, western Chile. Such sticks are also sold the world over; the market seems to depend upon the fact that whenever the "sticks" are tipped over, the sound they emit (as advertisements state) closely resembles "the pitter-patter of a few rain drops and then the swoosh of a downpour . . . [and thus is of a] soothing, percussive nature." These characteristic sounds are produced by the pebbles' tumbling down through the inside of their so-to-speak cactus skeleton container. In essence, the "skeletons" are branches of Quiso cacti with their thorns pounded into the branches' hollow centers. To make the rainsticks, small pebbles are put into these "skeletons" with their inwardly protruding thorns, and then the ends of the branches are then sealed. - Voilà, the rainstick is ready for the above-described sound effects. See also, the "Added-10/2005." about stones in maracas under the Other Uses subheading.
Believers in Santeria ("saint worship") have an initiation ceremony during which "on the floor are vessels made of china and wood containing smooth stones in which the spirits of the gods reside" (italics are mine) - See Ostling (1992). Especially in the recent past, the number of these believers was increasing rather rapidly, especially in certain Latin and African-American communities in parts of Florida and California,
Somewhat along this line, Specter (1994) reports that the Nenets, a nomadic tribe of reindeer herders of the Siberian Arctic, also believe that stones - for them, "stones with unusual shapes [-] are remnants of the gods who have guarded them for millennia."
The use given in this paragraph is difficult to categorize; perhaps it fits better in, for example, the Other uses group. In any case, a photograph by Pauline Lubens that accompanies an article by Crumm (1993) shows a colorfully painted, softball-size boulder held by a young teenaged Palestinian, who calls it his intifada stone. The article, about the lad, records his involvement in activities, such as stone throwing in support of the movement to establish an independent Palestinian state.
Another example of stone throwing, though certainly not as a ritual, is given by Rauber (1994), in a report of his trip through northern Ireland: He writes that he saw a "rusty notice on the pole, warning in both English and Irish that 'Persons throwing stones at the telegraph will be prosecuted.'"
Added-10/2002. Rituals+!?!? -- Two sharply contrasting news items also
relate to throwing stones -- throwing stones as a capital crime versus
throwing stones as the punishment for a crime: The first, as reported
in the Detroit Free Press in 1989, chronicles the sentencing of
ten South African blacks to hang for throwing stones at a black
policeman's home: the rationale was that their stone throwing caused
the policeman to leave his home, which, in turn, led to his being
assaulted and murdered by four other men. The second was the thrust of
a feature article in a recent issue of Time magazine: Robinson
(2002) describes inter alia procedures used when, for example,
women who have committed adultery are stoned to death, whereas their
male co-adulterers receive lesser (if any) sentences, in certain
countries under Islamic laws.
Added-1/2009. The following from the Oxford English Dictionary (2nd
edition 1989, Copyright © Oxford University Press 2008) seem appropriate additions to the above entry:
"1968 New Society 29 Aug. 304/1 It is now frequent for British newspapers to record that during
some riot or disturbance the crowd has thrown ‘‘rocks’’ (= ‘‘stones’’). 1969 West Australian 5
July 1/1 Several policemen fell to the ground after they were hit with rocks. 1976 Billings
(Montana) Gaz. 17 June 1-F/5 Ambulance services were suspended when mobs hurled rocks at
the vehicles, injuring drivers. 1979 Observer 16 Sept. 1/1 The Belfast house of Mr Gerry Fitt,
Social Democratic and Labour MP for East Belfast, was besieged by about 200 youths armed
with rocks yesterday."
Added-10/2002. Boulders have been used for gravestones for pets as well as for people (the latter is already noted in "Stones: ..." -- second edition, p.96).
Added-12/2002. Basaltic boulders constitute the outer walls of the ahu
(altar) atop the highest point of Kaho`olawe, the relatively
small island southwest of Maui, Hawaii. This uninhabited island, which
has "become a symbol of the Hawaiians' struggle to reclaim their
culture . . . [has been set aside by the state] for the
preservation and practice of Hawaiian culture: prayers, chants,
and offerings, as well as the restoration of altars . . ."
Added-12/2003. An illustration of a well rounded stone -- captioned "A rock that each member of the group caresses symbolizes strength and survival" -- highlights a cover story in the magazine section of the Detroit Free Press about chronic shoplifters who are trying to mend their ways by associating themselves with CASA (Cleptomaniacs and Shoplifters Anonymous). Shine (2003) chronicles a meeting: The participants gather around a table on which there is a basket of dollar donations and a bowl of small "rocks" and discuss their felt needs and past shoplifting activities; at the end of the meeting, just "before they adjourn, David [a long-term shoplifter] picks a smooth rock from the bowl. He silently hands it to each person in the group. Each caresses it and gives it back. David then gives it to Janet, who is attending her first meeting. He tells her the rock was once a mountain, but was worn down by the hardships of wind and rain. It endured to come out as a strong survivor. She is told to think of the group whenever she holds the rock. With it in her hand, she is told, it will make it more difficult --- both physically and emotionally -- to shoplift ..."
Added-1/2004. To pay their respects, Norwegian school children placed cobblestones on the tarp placed on the body of Keiko -- the orca of “Free Willy” fame -- after he died December 12 (2003) in Taknes Fjord, in western Norway. (Frances, my wife, and I, who got to “look Keiko right in the eye” while he was housed in his specially made tank at the Oregon Coast Aquarium in New Port, Oregon, were among those who have kept track of Keiko’s “comings and goings” and were sadened at his demise.) For summaries of Keiko’s life story, see the web sites new-brunswick.net/new-brunswick/whales/willi1.html and asia.news.yalhoo.com.
Added-4/2008. In statements about Chimp cultures and
chimps throwing rocks, Roach (2008, p. 137) notes: "Mahale males
tend to throw rocks into water as part of their displays."
These "rocks," being loose, are of course stones.
Added-11/2011. In "Time" (178(No.60):11) it is recorded that Omar
Hamawi, a Syrian activist stated: "[We] are ready to defend the
city [Hama] with stones."
Added-6/2012. The Seris, an idigenous group, most of
whom live near the east coast of the Gulf of Calilfornia in western
Sonora, Mexico, put stones atop the sand and ash that was placed to
cover the afterbirth of their babies (see photo in Rymer, 2012, p.
87). Consequently, Seris born before hospitals became their
common birth places "know the exact spot where" when asked a questions
such as "Where are you from?". (ibid.)
Tools and Construction
Added-6/2004. To answer the question here (as it has been answered before diring telephone converstions and by email): It was just an oversight that I failed to mention the "Stone age" as such.
Feldman (1994) illustrates stones that exhibit grooves thought to indicate their use "to straighten the wooden shafts of arrows."
Added-1/2003. Especially in the past, some manos -- i.e., the hand-held "pestles" used for grinding corn and other grains on metates -- were stones fashioned only by weathering and erosion. That is to say, they were cobbles -- undoubtedly hand-picked because of their sizes and shapes -- rather than stones fashioned by man for such use.
Peach (1993), reporting on a lecture by John Halsey to members of the Michigan Mineralogical Society includes the following: "Prehistoric miners would find outcrops of the red metal [copper,] and with the help of hammer stones pounded on the soft metal until they could work up enough of a ridge of the metal to peel it off."
A monument that consists of thirteen large oblate spheroidal concretions is in the town of Arad in the Negev district of Israel (Sass and Kolodny, 1972). A colored photograph of this monument, which is more than three meters high, is given in Dietrich (1999).
Stones are used to build walls for "Lazybeds," a designation applied in Scotland to small beds of plants atop rocks and on steep hillsides, where the slopes are too steep to hold the supporting soil in place. Without such so-to-speak retaining walls, these soils, many of which are largely beach sand plus or minus interlayered seaweed tend to be lost because of down-slope erosion.
Added-10/2002. Information about this use is already included in "Stones: . . ." (2nd edition, p.102, fourth full paragraph) and was also mentioned in the original addenda. As an update, attention is directed to the following three articles: "Get ready to Rock: Landscaping with stones . . ." by Nancy Szerlag (1997) is well worth scanning by anyone even thinking about such making such use of stones; "Why on Earth do so many people collect big rocks?" by Zachary (1995) may be of interest to entrepreneurs with pupillary dollar signs; [and] "If rocks were worth money, a hilltop farmer could get rich quick" by Granstrom (1995) is a tongue-in-cheek piece about such practices.
Added-11/2002. An illustration and descriptive note in National
Geographic (1996) records the use of "centuries-old structures, called
cleits, . . . once used by local people [on the recently
abandoned Scottish archipelago of St. Kilda] to dry and store seabirds
killed in summer for winter food supplies." The cleits, as ilustrated,
appear to be relatively small sod-covered stone huts.
Added-6/2004. A photograph in "Kids discover" (volume 14, issue 6)
shows an example of large stones used for a clapper bridge. The
following description is included in the caption to that photograph:
"England's Tarr Steps Bridge is a clapper bridge... (this designation
is) is from the Latin word claperius, meaning 'pile of stones.'
The bridge ... (consists) of 17 huge slabs of granite with no
binding material between them. How the stones got there is
a mystery..." Photographs of this footbridge -- which crosses
River Barle near Winsford, Somerset, England -- are also shown on
a number of web sites (e.g.,
www.beenthere-donethat.org.uk/tarrsteps). Additional so-to-speak
stepping stones, per se, occur in several places. A
photograph of another example of stones placed for crossing a stream is
Added-9/2004. See also the 9/2004 addition under the Weights
use of round stones to crack argan nut shells in Morocco is illustrated
and described in an article by Morse (2004) -- e.g., "It takes
15 to 20 hours--depending on skill--to crack enough nuts to produce a
liter of oil"; the oil is described as a "rich and tasty
hazelnut-like oil"; [and] the trees that bear the nuts are
said to "serve as an ecological bulwark against the further expansion
of the Sahara in Morocco."
Added- 5/2006. Difficult to categorize, this addition
seems to fit best, though not all that well here: The often used designation
"stepping stone(s)" seems to me to most appropriate (could it ever be
better applied?) for the photograph by Bill Hatcher in the article
about the Grand Canyon of the Colorado "Below the Rim" -- see Roberts
Beach stones from, for example, north Atlantic beaches - apparently those of New Hampshire and of islands off the Maine coast -- have been hollowed out and marketed for use as flower vases and candle "sticks."
A beehive-shaped mass consisting of several scores of boulders picked up on his property is one of the highlights of a number of stone "piled" items, made by Maxey Tibbetts of Boothbay, Maine, and termed art forms in Yankee's Home Companion" (issue not given on clipping),
Since early 1993, Edna Hesthal of Santa Barbara, California and Tadao Okazaki of Hobara, Fukushima, Japan have corresponded with me a number of times and have sent me line diagrams, photographs, and copies of a couple articles to inform me about Suiseki. Called "viewing stones" by Hesthal, the definition for Suiseki given in a Japanese dictionary, as translated by Okazaki, is "A stone or a piece of rock for aesthetic appreciation. Usually displayed on a water-filled tray or a stand; [an] 'ornamental Stone'." Several of these stones, photographs of which were sent to me by Hesthal, resemble such things as panoramic landscapes (e.g., a mesa and a mountain area with active glaciers) and parts of or complete animals (e.g., the head of a seahorse and a bear). Anyone who is not familiar with Suiseki, and is interested in seeing published photographs of examples of the stones (and rocks), should look at the cover photos on volume 20, number 2 (Summer, 1986) of Bonsai: Journal of the American Bonsai Society, and on volume XXVII, Number 1 (January-February, 1989) of the Bonsai Clubs International. Many of the ornamental stones shown in the photographs are, by the way, good examples of stones for which the now rather widely used term mimetolith was introduced (Titamgim, 1989).
The book Stone by Goldsworthy (1994) illustrates some interesting combinations of boulders and other natural and man-made things such as leaves and flowers and scrap iron that I feel rather confident many people would accept as creative art.
The use of cobblestones for paper weights -- treated briefly in "Stones ..." (page 82; 1st edition, page 72) - has really "taken off" in the marketplace. Over the last few years, I have added clippings from catalogs that indicate these stones can be classified, at least roughly, into three main categories: 1) those into which words (etc.) have been engraved, etched, or sandblasted, 2) those that have been painted, and 3) others. Stones of the first group bear such words as Attitudes, Believe, Create, Dream, Hope, Imagine, Laugh, Love, Peace, Question, Think, Trust, and Wonder; and phrases such as My other rock is a diamond, Nothing is etched in stone, and You crack me up (on a stone exhibiting rather obvious cracks); also of this group are stones with personal monographs (one can get her or his own inscribed), national emblems, outlines of animals etc., and home addresses (commonly sand-blasted into relatively large boulders put in, for example, front yards). Stones of the second group include paintings of, for example, Native American fetishes. Stones of the third group, "others," comprises a really "mixed bag": Among those for which I have clippings are stones that include illustrations on their surfaces and brief descriptions -- e.g., a so-called Ichi stone, which bears an engraved Japanese symbol (presumably depicting a harmony of peace and tranquility) that is highlighted by gold leaf; a small stream-eroded cobble that has been polished, and "wrapped and tied with flowered rice paper in the sogetsu tradition"; several extremely colorful ones described as "Japanesque . . . [and noted as having their intricate patterns consisting of] handmade washi papers . . . coated with countless layers of lacquer"; etc., etc.
Several diversely conceived desk- and table-top fountains, some used as humidifiers, that are in the marketplace, have well-rounded stream and/or beach stones -- typically small pebbles -- among their components.
Although not a direct use of stones, it seems noteworthy that several painters and sculptors, both in the past and currently, could be added to those mentioned in both "Stones: ..." and by Dietrich (1989) as using stones as their subjects and/or components. Perhaps you know one or more of these artists.
Added-10/2002. A note on a "Page-A-Day Notes" (8:345) sent to me anonymously states "The earliest known mosaics date from the eighth century B.C. and are made of pebbles."
Added-11/2002. According to information given on www.aisekikai.com about Suiseki "The first known writings of viewing stones are by the poet Lo-tien from China during the years 773-846. Later, Japanese paintings and block prints of the 12th through the 15th centuries depict many . . . suiseki. ... [and] "Over the following years, the Japanese formalized the art of suiseki by naming various rock forms and creating precise ways to display them. [In addition] Stones of great beauty were cherished and placed in a Tokonoma (viewing alcove) to be contemplated. [because] It was thought viewing of suiseki helped stimulate the person, purify one's soul and uplift one's spirit." Attention is directed to the illustrations on that site and also to the Added-10/2002 paragraph and illustrations in this Addenda for CHAPTER 5.
See also Added-10/2002. items numbers 1 and 2 under the Man-made "stones" subheading.
Added-1/2003. "Scholar's stones" which range from from relatively
sizeable boulders to small cobbles, from intricately weathered and
eroded stones to relatively common stream- and beach- eroded stones,
from mimetoliths to diversely shaped stones (i.e., "chunks"), .
. . have recently gained popularity on the market, especially among
the New Age set. Indeed, individual stones have sold at prices ranging
from $50.00 to $50,000.00. Some interior decorators are said to be
including such stones in their proposed decors. One aspect of people's
wanting these stones is that they are said to inspire great thoughts.
One recent purchaser is recorded as saying of his rock, which he keeps
next to his bed, "It makes me think about life cycles and continuity of
life." (Barnes, 2002)
Added-6/2004. The "Balancing stones of English Bay" have been
considered by some visitors to have "become one of the better-known
sights of Vancouver [British Columbia, Canada] ... They looked quite
'impossible', and our first thought was that they were some kind of
modern sculpture, with the stones being either glued together, or held
in place by something like steel rods." Actually, they were
merely balanced in place, several quite remarkably(!!) -- see the
photographs on www.asahi-net.or.jp/ ... / canada_balancing. html.
Added-8/2003. Small boulders hung in open spaces are the foci of large sheet metal pieces handcrafted into such forms as Celtic crosses and roughly star-shaped masses that have been rusted. The pieces are marketed for use as, for example, garden accents.
Added-6/2004. Natural pebbles of diverse minerals and rocks are
used as pendants. Although many of them have holes made through
them so they can be hung on ropes, thongs, or chains, others are
placed as is to become the foci of wire wrap pendants --
see, for example, Figure B in the TEXTITES entry in the Gemrocks file.
Added-10/2005. Natural water worn stream boulders
engraved with such things as addresses are marketed widely, including
in mail-order catalogs.
Added-10/2005. Andy Goldsworthy's use of boulders and rubble in his creative art is described by Lubow (2005). Special attention is directed to the fine accompanying photograph of Goldsworthy and his use of irregular pieces of rubble, which appear to be slaty argillite in his "slate arch in Scaur Glen, Scotland."
Added-12/2005. Jamie J. Rice, an illustrator of Tucson,
Arizona, says (p.c., 3 Dec. '05) the following about his stone-based
depictions ("PEBZ") that appear on
t-shirts and greeting cards: "I enjoy finding human
characteristics in natural formations like ... stones. When
grouped together, smooth pebbles .... or river stones look to me like
characters , some long, fat, skinny and flat." (See
Added-5/2007. "Garden-size stone cairns" that consist
of six or more small cobbles and large
pebbles are marketed for indoor or outdoor
display. The stones of these "cairns" are drilled -- the
top and bottom ones only part way through -- and "piled" atop one
another on a steel rod; all but the top and bottom one can be
arranged in any oder the owner chooses. (This product made me
wonder how many people have -- as I have -- made similar
of stones as is -- i.e.,
not drilled -- by merely balancing them or by more-or-less baalancing
them and then putting super glue or some similar adhesive at their
contact points to assure their long-term stability. In addition,
the advertizement for these cairns reminded me of three things:
the cairns our family saw here and there in Scotland and
northern Norway some 50 years ago; the one our "kids" and I added
north of the Arctic circle in Norway;
and the fact that the NorCairn Press once published an anthology of my
so-called poetry and haiku.)
have been remiss in not mentioning the fact that several articles -- e.g., so-called garden walking
stones and wall plaques -- have been molded or carved from
mixtures of small stones (typically granules) and substances such as
It has been reported that "in the early days" shepherds kept track of the number of animals they had by collecting and keeping a number of pebbles, one for each animal.
Drivers of "mule-teams" pulling heavy combines over wheat fields in which sporadic boulders were so-to-speak stumbling blocks kept buckets of pebbles by their seats atop the combines for tossing on the backs of so-to-speak lagging mules (Bryce, 1922).
Barbara Mayer (1998) records the use of stream-rounded cobbles and pebbles in stone furniture and as door knobs and faucet handles. As I also have, several times in several places, Mayer emphasizes the fact that one of the appeals so far as such uses is the fact that each stone is unique -- i.e., for all practical purposes no two stones (or pieces thereof) are alike.
Loose concretions, weathered out from a bituminous shale in eastern Kansas once were "found at the doors of many residences in Fort Scott, where they . . . [were] utilized as hitching posts. . . . [The concretions were] prepared simply by drilling a hole in one of their flattened surfaces, and fastening a ring therein" (Haworth, 1896).
Beastlier (1936) has reported that "Many concretions [of the imatra stone type] assume such grotesque and marvelous shapes that it is no wonder they excite popular curiosity, and in some countries are believed to be of supernatural origin or are called fairy stones, and sometimes are . . . used as charms." (See Figure 2 in the Carbonate Concretions Bibliography entry of this web page.)
According to Turnovec (1987) moldavites – i.e., tektites from Bohemia (now Czech Republic) -- were used rather widely, apparently just as they were picked up, as pendants and as the heads of walking canes in central Europe, and (along with pieces worked by lapidaries for use in jewelry and ornamental pieces) were so "exhibited and sold . . . at the Jubilee Exhibition held in Prague [Czechoslovakia] 1891."
Chimpanzees have been observed using stones to hit, and thus crack, panda nuts placed in depressions in a granite outcrop in the Tai forest of the Ivory Coast, Africa (Miller and Nichols, 1995); apparently "nut-cracking stones that date back 4,300 years. -- See also Added-10/2005 information about "A 'Gorilla's complex tool use...' " under this subheading.
As mentioned under the Weights subheading, stone-lined pits are used in Tahiti for storage of fermented bread fruit.
The two additions in this paragraph are included with embarrassment because of my having been an ardent bird-watcher for nearly 70 years, and yet I omitted these well known, widely employed uses from both editions of "Stones: ...": 1. One of the clues used to find a rock wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), or at least its nest, is the presence of a "path" of stones and/or rock chips to its rock- or stone-sheltered nest. [and] 2. A certain rhythmic knocking together of pebbles is a frequently used method used to attract yellow rails (Coturnicops noveboracensis). So far as these omissions are concerned, one of my bird-watching friends, when she directed my attention to the #2 omission, said she thought I should add it to the ritual group of uses -- I consider this ridiculous, but difficult as it may be for most people to believe, some bird-watchers do indeed consider their pursuits to be rituals(!?!).
Robert Butka of Mt. Pleasant, Michigan reminded me that boulders and cobbles, typically white or some color that contrasts with the background of the area where they are placed, have been used for years to make all sorts of "signposts" -- i.e., designs -- on such diverse landscape features as hillsides, beaches, and deserts. These designs, generally several feet in greatest dimension, occur here and there the world over, and depict such things as letters (e.g., town names and apparently peoples' initials), numbers (e.g., the years of graduation classes), and ranch symbols (like those on their branding irons).
Boulders in cribs are used in several parts of the world to hold such things as utility poles (e.g., in areas where Canadian Shield rock crops out in Ontario) and fence posts (e.g., on Manitoulin Island, Ontario) erect.
D.A. Armistead of Madison, Connecticut has written (personal communication, March 3, 1993): "When I was a Boy Scout and was making fire by friction, I used as the 'capstone' of the revolving shaft, a palm-sized, lakeshore stone with a large, natural 'dimple' in it. A little wax in the dimple and I could twirl all day . . . ."
Added-10/2002. Stones have been depicted in cartoons that range from the ridiculous to the sublime, including a few by widely syndicated political cartoonists. Three examples are Gary Larson's ". . . Far Side [calendar]" cartoon showing stones displayed encabinets, by a group of cavemen with one of them noting "Seems like everybody's got a rock collection"; Mort Walker's Beetle Bailey carefully placing stones along a pathway and saying, "I like to put little colored stones ... around my tent"; and Bill Day's contrasting a stone ("I'm a common stone and I'm only symbolic") to lead, rubber-coated and plastic bullets used in the Israeli-Palestinian confrontations.
Added-10/2003. A recent article "Boulders Paradise" by Anto Raukas
(2003) -- and his photograph of some three dozen people posing beside
the glacial erratic Ehalkivi,which is on Letipea beach, Estonia
-- reminded me of the fact that a few large boulders, such as
glacial erratics, have been so-to-speak quarried for diverse uses.
Ehalkivi -- volume of 930 cubic meters (~ 32,550 cubic
feet) and perimeter of 49.6 meters (~ 160 feet), is
apparently the largest known glacial erratic in Europe.
Considering their locations and local needs, it is quite apparent
that such utilization of large boulders is rather widespread.
Added- 6/2004. Although both the use of pebbles and small cobbles was
mentioned under the Sports subheading in the book, it probably would
have been more fitting to include those uses under Other uses and to
have emphasized their use as weapons. In any case, quite obvious
use of stones as weapons are the boulders used in catapults and also
those -- though I have been unable to verify this -- used as
cannonballs. Boulders collected for use in catapults in Masada,
an ancient fortress near the southwestern end of the Dead Sea, in
southeastern Israel are shown on the web site
Added-4/2008. In statements about Chimp cultures and chimps' throwing rocks, Roach (2008, p. 137) notes: "Rocks are hurled, sometimes as weapons ..." Of course, these so-called "rocks," being loose, are stones.
Added-9/2004. See also the 9/2004 addition under the Weights
Added-10/2005. A "Gorilla's complex tool use surprises scientists"
(Sundaram, 2005) describes and illustrates how a 2 1/2 year old female
gorilla in the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International Sanctuary in
Goma, Congo uses two rocks -- one as a hammer, the other as an anvil --
to smash palm nuts in order to extract their oil. Interestingly, the
recorded primatologists' thoughts about how this activity may relate to
evolution makes no mention of sea otters' using similar tools and
methods to obtain the included soft part of mollusks for eating (see,
for example, Dietrich, 1995, p. 112).
Added- 4/2008. "Chimps use rocks to smash open nuts and fruits for food" (Roach, 2008, p.136). It seems most likely they use loose pices of rocks, which, of course, are stones.
Added-10/2005. How I previously missed this one is a
mystery(!!!). In any case, maracas, such as those frequently used
in Latin-American music, are commonly hollow gourd rattles that
contain pebbles (or beans).
Added-1/2009. The following use of loose rock material in the world of
percussion instruments that is in the Oxford English Dictionary
(2nd edition 1989, Copyright © Oxford University Press 2008) seem appropriate additions to the above entry:
"1955 B. E. B. FAGG in 3rd Pan-Afr. Congr. Prehist. (1957) xlvii. 310 Very extensive
exploration of the granite hills revealed the existence of large numbers of these hammered rocks,
which I think can best be described as *rock gongs. They consist of huge natural spalls or
exfoliations of rock which happen to rest or be wedged in a position favourable to the production
of musical notes. 1959 S. Afr. Archaeol. Bull. XIV. 112/2 Rock gongs should be described as
'ringing rocks' or 'sounding stones'. 1961 K. P. WACHSMANN in A. Baines Mus.
Instruments through Ages i. 30 Recent studies have revealed many instances of slabs of rock
being used as if they were drums. These ‘‘rock gongs’’, as their discoverers called them, occur in
Africa north of the equator, in Europe, and in Asia."
Added-11/2006. "Russian TV has been showing off what
looks like a rock, but is actually a sophisticated piece of spy
equipment. .... It's a 21st century version of the kind of dead drops
that spies have used for centuries. [when] Hollowed-out stones had been
a favorite hiding place for secret messages. ... The TV report said the
British recruited at least one Russian agent, who was given a small
handheld computer. Using the palmtop, the Russian could transmit
data into the electronic memory hidden inside the rock. Later,
members of the British Embassy in Moscow could pass by the rock and use
their handheld computers to unload information from the stone. ..."(Knobel,
2006) Be the claim on Russian TV
valid or not, this man-made stone with its electronic contents --
visible on its bottom side -- is shown with the article.
The widespread and diverse use of stones has led to the production of many masses that resemble stones. These were not considered in "Stones: ..." Two I have known for several years are small pebble-size candy with coatings that made them closely resemble natural pebbles and small cobble-size soap coated to resemble natural cobbles. We sometimes used the candy as favors while I was in graduate school (1947-1951). The soap was a guest bathroom added "treat" -- especially for non-geologist visitors.
According to an Associated Press release published July 22 in the Detroit Free Press, two boulders in the Grand Canyon are fake -- that "Tucson's Cemrock Landscapes Inc. [-- a company that builds artificial rocklike environments for zoos etc. --] . . . installed them . . . under a $6,000 contract from the U.S. Geological Survey . . . [to] hide a water-sampling station on Havasu Creek, which flows into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park."
"Rock Molds" -- said to be "durable, flexible and well detailed . . . [and to provide] versatility for the scenery modeler requiring realistic detail" -- are now marketed by, for example, Micro Mark of Berkeley Heights, New Jersey. Among the advertised molds are those for boulders and so-called "wind rocks," both of which, if the illustrations are representative, closely resemble natural stones. See also the following, fourth Added-10/2002 item.
A now-yellowed newspaper clipping, sent to me anonymously and the source of which I have been unable to locate, includes an advertisement with a description and sketch of "StereoStone." The illustrated setup using such "stones" consists of a pair of man-made enclosures that resemble masses of rock or boulders; the units are said to have been "developed for best acoustical sound reproduction, and . . . [to be] unaffected by extreme adverse weather or ultra-violet rays."
A clipping from another catalog, which I have been unable to identify, illustrates and describes "Riverstone oil lamps," apparently so-named because they are shaped like stream-worn cobbles. Their surfaces are marbleized porcelain.
Relatively recently, stone patterns have been photographed and replicated on such things as linoleum, wall paper and wrapping paper and for the facing surfaces of laminates used for counter tops and ceramic tiles (see, Mayer, 1998).
Added-10/2002. A "good luck stone" described in a gift-distributor's catalog as "cool and comforting in the hand and pleasing to the eye" is actually aluminum, cast with the shape of a well worn stone and embossed with a Chinese character meaning good luck. Considering the fact that these "stones" -- which according to the Wentworth Scale, used by geologists (see "Stones: ...", p.10; 1st edition,p.8) are cobble-sized -- it would seem that they would more likely to find use as a paper weights than as "worry stones," eh(!?).
Added-10/2002. Several man-made materials have been molded, worked during setting and/or carved into diverse shapes including those that resemble pebbles, cobbles and boulders and marketed for a multitude of diverse uses. Currently, one of the widely used materials is hydrostone - a U.S. Gypsum product that is harder than Plaster of Paris, and when combined with different fillers assumes all sorts of colors and textures. As an example, Andrew Werby (United Artworks) notes on his website that he uses one "called Fortran MG . . . [which] is mixed from gypsum cement, a polymer emulsion, dry melamine resin, and hardener . . ." Some of the more durable of these mixtures are favored for pieces that are likely to be exposed to the weather -- e.g., for landscape and garden accents. Several specialty catalogs advertise pieces that resemble cobbles and boulders with engraved inscriptions such as the age-old "Smart Rock . . . If this rock is wet, it's raining; ... moving, earthquake; . . . white, it's snowing; . . . not here, it's stolen."
Added-3/2003. Among the more interesting of the molded boulders alluded to in the preceding addition are those that consist of a relatively thin layer of fiberglass, dusted with crushed stone. These "boulders," which are, of course, light in weight -- and thus easily moved -- as well as durable, are used as garden and landscape accents.
Added-10/2002. Man-made stones for skipping (where I come from "dapping") are now being packaged and marketed via the Internet. These "stones" are made of TREEPLAST, which is described as "a woodlike material which dissolves in water . . . [and is] fully biodegradable and therefore not harmful for our environment." As illustrated on the Treeplast site (www.treeplast.com/skipstone/) these "stones" appear to have the shape and size that Jerdone Coleman-McGhee describes as preferred. (This is interesting because the shape he describes is quite different from the "flat, ovoid, smooth skipping stone" that I have always preferred and is recorded as "cherished" by contestants at the annual Mackinac Island, Michigan, competition.) Coleman-McGhee's preferred shape and size are described as "smooth and uniformly thick or thin ... [but] not necessarily round. [and] One of the best shapes is triangular ('like the Stealth Bomber,' . . .) [because] The triangle shape provides stability. [and] The stone should be about as big as your palm." Whatever their shape and size, in my opinion, the description on the Treeplast web site lacks one important bit of information -- i.e., the specific gravity of these "stones." To me, the "TREEPLAST" designation and use of the descriptive term "woodlike material" raises all sorts of questions about how experienced stone dappers may react to using (or the use of) these "stones" for skipping on water. These questions are based on two things in particular: 1. I recall when I, a baseball player, "threw my arm out" playing catch with a tennis ball. [and] 2. I think about the time I skipped some stones on Great Salt Lake.
Added-11/2002. Boulder-shaped and -sized masses made by Indiana "Amish"
tradesmen are used rather widely in lieu of natural boulders,
particularly in the upper mid-western United States. These masses, most
of which closely resemble natural stones, are made by coating rubber
molds of natural boulders with dyes and then filling them with concrete
mix, . . . . The dyes -- said to come from Germany
where they are used to color, for example, patio blocks -- give these
"stones" thin surface coatings that range in color through several
shades of gray, green and red. Some masons prefer to use these man-made
masses, rather than natural boulders, because all of them have
virtually the same surface texture and none of them has any of the
irregular shapes commonly possessed by natural boulders. (Daniel
McGuire, personal communication, 2002) This, by the way, is just
one of many similar products, so should be considered only an example.
Added-6/2003. Some pencil erasers that closely resemble water-worn white quartz pebbles, each bearing a "painted on" design, have recently been advertized in a specialty catalog and noted to be not only useful but also to "look great on your desktop."
"Stones" made of a "mixture of cement, sand,
water and lime" -- misidentified as plaster -- are fashioned to
resemble natural stones by Californian John Keeling, who uses both hand
specimens and photographs of natural stones and rocks as models (Lease,
Added-7/2004. Materials other than those mentioned above have been described and/or illustrated in advertizements as constituting such diverse objects as small sculptures, picture frames, stepping stones and boulders used as lancscape accents or covers for unsightly objects. Those mentioned include ceramics, "oxolyte" (described as a blend of marble and resin), "sculptstone," "stone-like resin," "thermostone-plastic" and "urethane-foam 'rock'." Especially those produced for use as landscape accents (etc.) are produced so both their shapes and surface features -- colors (and patterns thereof) and textures -- closely resemble diverse naturally eroded rocks.
The "stones" used
the board game Pente, which became rather popular in the 1980s, are
colored glass. Apparently the name stones was applied to them
because this game seems for the most part to combine and extend
-- i.e., be an evolution of -- the general
principles of the games known by such names as Go, Niniku-Rinju and
Go-Moku, at least some of which originally used real stones as their
so-to-speak actors. Frequently these colored glass “stones,”
along with so-called storage bags with pull-strings for their safe
keeping when not in use, are sold along with the “board.” See http://www.decipher.com/partyzone/pente/
See addition dated 1/2006 under "Other uses" subheading.
"Faux Fieldstone" shelve
stones, that consisting of resin and closely resemble
rocks have appeared in the marketplace recently. These light
weight replicas make fine additions to several decors.
Yet another material,
described as "Thermostone plastic composite," has been fashioned into Mock Rock(s) - large, Faux Boulder(s) - medium size, and Mock Stone(s) - relatively small, boulder-sized
hollow shells that resemble stones, and marketed as landscape boulders
to conceal unsightly items in one's yard.
Added-11/2002. It appears I really hit upon a popular subject with the coverage of mimetoliths (i.e., stones that resemble some real or imaginary person, animal, bird, fish, plant, landscape feature, etc.). – See "Stones: . . ." (p.130, "specialty collection" #3 and p.132, Figure 5.5) and also the third paragraph under the Objets d'Art?!? subheading in this Addenda. As noted in the latter, a few specimens and scores of photographs of stones -- the resemblance aspects of which range from obvious to "look and let your imagination wander a bit" -- have been sent to me. The following figures are examples.
Left. top, sea
bottom, "lizard stone." (top © photo by Sally Gilmore; bottom
© photo by Edna Hesthal; both courtesy of Edna Hesthal)
Right. top, snow-capped mountain (base sawed); bottom, desert landscape. (© photos by Sally Gilmore, courtesy of Edna Hesthal)
Again, a request: If anyone has
suggestions for things
included with these Addenda -- e.g., additional uses of so-to-speak raw
stones OR anything else about stones that seems especially noteworthy
-- Please contact me
via email at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Anonymous. 1993. Plymouth Rock: The Pilgrims stepped here - sort of. USA Weekend. May 28-30:18.
Barnes, Brooks. 2002. The new hot rocks: Scholar's stones. Wall Street Journal. Friday, December 27: 6.
Beastlier, R.L. 1936. Concretions - freaks in stone. Smithsonian Report for 1935. p.321-326.
The physics of stone skipping. American Association of
Physics Teachers. 71(#2):150-155.
Bourne, J.K., Jr. 2008. Fortress
coast along Hawaii’s Nā Pali Cliffs, an earthly paradise is under
siege. National Geographic.
Brune, J.N., M.D. Purvance and Abdolrasool Anooshehpoor. 2007. Bauging earthquake hazards with precariously balanced rocks. American Scientist. 95:36-43.
Bryce, J. 1922. The scenery of
North America. National Geographic Magazine. XLI:339-389.
Clark, Arthur. 2011. Through the
Black Arch. Saudi Aramco World.
Crumm, D. 1993. No warning sounded before storm: three hurt. Detroit Free Press. June 29:1A.
Detroit Free Press wire services. 1989. Africa blacks to hang -- 10 for throwing stones. Detroit Free Press. 159(#22):1A.
Dietrich, R.V. 1980. Stones: Their collection, identification, and uses. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.
..................... 1989. Rocks depicted in painting and sculpture. Rocks & Minerals. 65:224-236.
..................... 1995. Stones: Their collection, identification, and uses (2nd Edition). Prescott:Geoscience.
concretions, Part 2. Rocks & Minerals. 74:335-340
Feldman, B. 1994. Finding the first farmers. Yale. October: 40-47.
Goldsworthy, A. 1994. Stone. New York:Harry N. Abrams.
Granstrom, C. 1997. If rocks were worth money, a hilltop farmer could get rich quick. Smithsonian. March [27(#12)]:144.
Haworth, E. 1986. Section at
showing calcareous concretions in the shale adjacent to Fort Scoot
Coal. Geological Survey of Kansas. 1:88 (and fig.4).
Hoffmann, Fritz. 2012. How a glacier pushed a boulder to a place near you -- rock and roll (photographs plus captions). National geographic. 21(#3):90-105.
Kessler, M.A. and B.T. Werner.
Self-organization of sorted patterned gound. Science. 299[#5605]:380-383.
Lease, B. 2004. Plaster creates unique elements, such as stones, for your living room. Detroit News (Homestyle) – Scripps Howard News Service release – May 22:24E
Lubow, A. 2005. Andy Goldsworth using nature as his canvas, the artist creates works of transcendent beauty. Smithsonian. November [ 36(#8)]:46-47.
Mayer, B. 1998. Stone staying power. Roanoke (Virginia) Times Dispatch — Associated Press release – February 1?:E1& E5. (Also appeared in Toronto Star. January 31:Section P:4.
Miller, P. and M. Nichols. 1995. Jane Goodal. National Geographic. 188:102-129.
Morse, K. 2004. Ardent for argan. Saudi Aramco World. 55(No. 5):12-15.
National Geographic. 1996. On assignment: Puffins. National Geographic. 189:39.
Ostling, R.N. 1992. Shedding blood in sacred bowls: Does American religious liberty extend to animal sacrifice? That's for the Supreme Court to decide. Time. October 19:60.
Peach, P.A. 1993. Program report. The Conglomerate. April:3.
Rauber, P. 1994. Every stone a story. Sierra. January/February:19-20.
Raukas, A. 2003. Boulders
Roach, Mary. 2008. Almost Human. National Geographic. 213(#4):124-145.
Roberts, D. 2006. Below the rim. Smithsonian. 37(#3):54-65.
Robinson, S. 2002. Casting
Stones: The Koran
says nothing about stoning. Why is this mother facing death? Time.
September 2 [160(#9)]:36-37.
Rymer, Russ. 2012. Vanishing
voices. (photographs, Lynn Johnson). National Geographic. 222(#1):60-93.
Sass, E. and Y. Kolodny. 1972. Stable isotopes, chemistry and petrology of carbonate concretions (Mishash Formation, Israel). Chemical Geology. 10:261-286.
Shine, D. 2003. Support group helps chronic shoplifters get through the season without stealing "This year will be different." Detroit Free Press. December 9:6H-8H.
Specter, M. 1994. Arctic tribe may be ethnological link. New York Times. November 22: Section C:1.
Sundaram, A. 2005. Gorilla's complex tool use surprises scientists. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel – Associated Press release – October 19: Section A:6.
Szerlag, N. 1997. Get ready to rock: Landscaping with stones brings beauty and low maintenance to your castle or cottage. Detroit Free Press. September 6:18D-20D.
Theroux, Paul. 2002. The Hawaiians. National Geographic. December, 2002 202(#6):2-42.
Titamgim, R.D. 1989. Imagine: Another mimetolith. Rocks & Minerals. 64: 49-152.
Turnovec, I. 1987. Use of
jewels production. 2nd International Conference on Natural
Glasses (Prague, Czechoslovakia: September 21-25, 1987). 2:323-329.
Warren, L. 2010. Edge of the world. National Geographic. 215(#1):54-77.
Zachary, G.P. 1995 . Why on
Earth do so many
people collect big rocks? Wall Street Journal. July 11:A1
| Top | Home |
R.V. Dietrich © 2011
Revised: 25 June 2012
web page created by Emmett Mason